Herd Health

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					Herd Health
Beef Cattle
Herd Health

n   Key factors in establishing a herd
    health program:
    – 1. Sound nutritional regime.
    – 2. Continuous training of personnel.
    – 3. Known source of livestock.
    – 4. Sound sanitation management and
      biosecurity practices.
Key Factors Cont.

 – 5. Excellent record keeping system
   accompanied by a sound monitoring and
   evaluation system.
 – 6. Functional, well-maintained facilities.
 – 7. Excellent relationship with a
   professional herd veterinarian.
 – 8. A sound preventative vaccination
   system.
Diseases

n   Any deviation from the normal state of
    health.
n   Accurate disease diagnoses is an
    essential element in any health
    management program.
Sources of Infection

1.   Direct or immediate contact with a
     diseased individual.
     -Ex. Brucellosis, ringworm, venereal infections transferred
     throught sexual contact.


2.   Contact through fomites.
     -Fomites are inanimate objects that may serve to carry
     infections from one animal to another. (feed troughs,
     trailers).
Sources of Infection
3.   Contact with disease carriers.
4.   Infection from the soil.
     -Ex. Blackleg, tetanus, gas gangrene.
5.   Infections from food and water.
     -Ex. Leptospirosis, Anthrax, Botulism.
6.   Air-Borne infections
     -common cold, influenza, Anthrax, F&M
Sources of Infection

7.   Infections from blood sucking
     arthropods (fleas, mosquitoes, flies)
     -Ex. Malaria, Yellow fever, Texas fever

8. Infections from organisms normally
   carried (Pasturella, streptococci,
   pneumococci, tetanus).
Infection & Contagion

n   A contagious disease is one that may
    be transmitted from one individual to
    another by direct or indirect contact.
    All contagious diseases are also
    infections but not all infectious
    diseases are contagious
    -Ex. Tetanus, blackleg, gas gangrene
Vaccines

n   Antigen-      is any substance that, when introduced
    parenterally into animal tissue stimulates the
    production antibodies.


n   Antibody-      is any substance that makes its
    appearance in the body fluids of an animal in response
    to a stimulus provided by the parenteral introduction of
    an antigen into the tissues, therefore the antibodies
    give the desired protection.
    Most Common diseases vaccinated
    against in Texas in Cattle

n   Clostridial Diseases         n   Brucellosis
    – Bacillary Hemoglobinuria   n   Vibrio
      (Red Water Disease)        n   Leptospirosis
    – Blackleg caused by Cl.
      Chauvoei
                                 n   IBR-IPV
    – Enterotoxemias caused by   n   BVD
      Cl. Perfringens type C&D   n   Parainfluenza 3
    – Infectious necrotic
      hepatitis caused by Cl.
                                 n   BRSV
      Novi                       n   Pneumonic Pateurellosi s
    – Malignant edema caused     n   Haemophilosis
      by Cl. Septicum
    – Big head caused by Cl.
                                 n   Anthrax
      Sordellii
Brucellosis

n   Symptoms                  n   Transmission
    – Abortion late in            – Oral ingestion of
      term                          aborted material
    – Weak or dead                – Licking of infected
      calves                        cows
    – Retained placenta           – Contaminated feed
      and uterine                   or water
      infection                   – Eye, skin, A.I.
    – Inflamed testicles in       – Rarely venereal
      bulls
Brucellosis

n   Treatment
    – Test and slaughter
    – Report reactors to state veterinarian


n   Prevention
    – Calfhood vaccinate at the age of 4 – 12
      months
Leptospirosis

n   Symptoms                n   Transmission
    – Fever and heavy           – Urine of infected
      breathing                   animal
    – Anemia, bloody            – Aborted fetus
      urine
    – Abortion: late term
      of pregnancy
Leptospirosis

n   Treatment
    – Dihydrostreptomycin
    – Penicillin
n   Prevention
    – Vaccinate annually
    – Proper water management
    – Rodent control
Vibriosis - Campylobacter

n   Symptoms                   n   Transmission
    – Infertility, recurring       – Venereal
      heat                         – A.I.
    – Embryonic death
    – Abortion early in
      term
Vibriosis

n   Treatment
n   Prevention
    – Vaccination twice first year
    – Afterwards 30-60 days before breeding.
PI 3 (parainfluenza)

n   Symptoms        n   Transmission
    – Respiratory       – Nasal Droplets
      problems
    – Fever         n   Treatment
                        – Vaccinate regularly
BVD (bovine viral diarrhea)

n   Symptoms                n   Transmission
    – Respiratory               – Ingestion of fecal
    – Digestive tract             contamination
      problems                  – Placenta from dam
    – Fever and laminitis         to fetus
    – Abortion (early &
      mid-term)
BVD

n   Treatment
    – Symptomatic treatment
    – Antibiotics, sulfonamides
n   Prevention
    – Vaccination prior to exposure
    – Avoid contact with infected cattle
IBR (Infection Bovine Rhinotracheitis)

n   Symptoms                 n   Transmission
    – Respiratory and eye        – Nasal droplets
      ailments                   – A.I., venereal
    – Scours in baby
      calves
    – Abortion late in the
      term
    – Vaginitis and
      preputial infections
      in males
IBR

n   Treatment
    – Oxytetracycline
    – Penicillin to minimize bacterial infections
n   Prevention
    – Vaccinate cows 40 days prior to breeding
    – Vaccinate feeder calves prior to exposure
BRSV (bovine respiratory syncytial virus)

n   Symptoms                n   Transmission
    –   Labored breathing       – Nasal droplets
    –   Pneumonia                  n   Sneezing
                                       Nasal fluid
    –   Eye problems               n
                                       contaminating feed
    –   fever                          and water.
BRSV

n   Treatment
    – Antihistamines
    – corticosteroids
n   Prevention
    – Regular vaccination
Tuberculosis

n   A serious bacterial disease
n   Affects respiratory system
n   Three main types:
    – Human, cattle, avian
    – Avian is restricted to birds
    – Bovine can affect many warm blooded
      vertebrates
    – Can be transmitted to hogs and dogs
Tuberculosis

n   Symptoms
    – Usually no signs of ailment
n   Treatment
    – Test and slaughter reactors
    – Report to state veterinarian
n   Prevention
    – Periodic testing
Foot & Mouth

n   Symptoms                 n   Transmission
    – Excessive slobbering       – Movement of
    – Going off feed               infected animals
    – Lameness                   – Fomites
    – Blisters in mouth,         – Airborn from fires
      on udders, nostrils        – Carcass of infected
      and feet                     animals
    – Rapid weight loss
Foot & Mouth

n   Treatment
    – No treatment in infected animals, will
      usually run its course in 2-3 weeks with
      most animals recovering.
    – Can be killed by heat, low humidity and
      some disinfectants.
n   Prevention
    – Keep animals away from infected areas.
Foot & Mouth




  Disease at 3 days   Disease at 7 days
Anthrax

n   Symptoms                 n   Transmission
    – Sudden death               – Mostly soil-born
    – Failure of blood to          ingestion
      clot                       – Contaminated feed
    – Delayed rigor mortis       – Carcass of infected
                                   animal
Anthrax

n   Treatment
    – Antibiotics and antiserums
    – Do not move or transport carcass
n   Prevention
    – Vaccination
      n Recommended   only in areas where disease
        occurs.
Anaplasmosis

n   Symptoms         n   Transmission
    –   Anemia           – Direct blood transfer
    –   Fever              of biting insects
    –   Jaundice         – Infected needles or
    –   Weakness &         surgical instruments
        emaciation
Anaplasmosis

n   Treatment
    – In acute cases- blood transfusion
    – Chlortetracycline
    – oxytetracycline
n   Prevention
    – Control of insects
    – Vaccination
    – Sterilization of veterinary supplies
Trichomoniasis

n   Symptoms            n   Rules
    – Infertility           – No longer accept
    – Abortion at 2-4         out of state bulls
      months                  unless have a PCR
                              negative results
n   Transmission
                            – All bulls >12 mos
    – Venereal                must be PCR neg to
    – A.I.                    exchange ownership
Trichomoniasis

n   Treatment
    – Cull carrier animals
    – Report to state veterinarian
n   Prevention
    – Maintain closed herd
    – Introduce only virgin/tested animals
    – Cull open cows in infected herds
Johne’s (paratuberculosis)

n   Mycobacterium paratuberculosis
n   Worldwide /related to TB and Leprosy
    and in the family of BSE and Scrapie
n   Symptoms
    – Chronic diarrhea, and weight loss
n   Transmission
    – Oral ingestion & Utero transmission to
      fetus-Years may elapse between infection
      and symptoms
Johne’s

n   Treatment
    – Consult herd veterinarian
n   Prevention
    – vaccine = must be approved by state
      veterinarian
    – Prevent infection
    – Testing of animals
Pinkeye (Moraxella bovis)

n   Symptoms              n   Transmission
    –   Water eyes            – Commonly
    –   Swelling                associated with
    –   Corneal opacity         irritants (dust,
                                stress, sunlight,
    –   ulceration              grass, weeds,
                                pollen, etc.)
                              – Face flies
Pinkeye

n   Treatment
    – Oxytetracycline
    – Patch over infected eye
n   Prevention
    –   Control of flies
    –   Isolate infected animals
    –   Select breeding animals with eyelid pigmentation
Pinkeye
Clostridial Diseases

n   Malignant Edema
n   Blackleg
n   Tetanus
Blackleg

n   Symptoms                n   Transmission
    – Muscular depression       – Wounds
    – Gaseous swelling in       – Ingestion of
      muscles                     contaminated feed
    – lameness                  – soil
Blackleg

n   Treatment
    – Penicillin
n   Prevention
    – Vaccination of calves at branding
    – Vaccinate cow before calving
Malignant Edema

n   Symptoms               n   Transmission
    – History of wounds        – Mostly through
    – Fever and swelling         wounds
      around wounds            – Ingestion of
    – Sudden death               contaminated soil or
                                 feed
Malignant Edema

n   Treatment
    – Penicillin
n   Prevention
    – Vaccination
Tetanus

n   Symptoms                  n   Transmission
    – Spasms                      – Through wounds
    – Contractions of             – Especially deep
      voluntary muscles             puncture wounds
    – High mortality rate

q   Treatment= antibiotics, tranquilizers, high doses of
                  tetanus anitoxins
q    Prevention= avoid contamination of open wounds
                  - vaccinate in high risk areas
Tetanus

n   Anti-toxin                n   Toxoid
    – Give to those               – Give to those
      animals where the             animals whereby we
      body cavity is                use an elastrator,
      opened or a cut               callicrate or Calif.
      with a knife, etc. is         Bander
      made                        – Provides long term
    – Short term                    protection
      protection                  – Needs a booster
Nitrate Poisoning

n   Nitrate accumulation results from plant
    stress such as drought
n   Most nitrates accumulates in the lower
    leaf and the plant stem
n   In drought, plants become stressed
    and the plant cannot convert nitrogen
    into new growth due to lack of
    moisture, thus N accumulates
Nitrate Poisoning

 – Occurs when more soil nitrogen than
   needed for maximum growth of the plant
 – > 0.9% Nitrate in the plant is lethal to
   cattle
 – Tips
   n Don’t  turn in hungry cattle into possible
     affected areas of stressed plants
   n Have the hay tested in stressed plant
     situations
Nitrate Poisoning                    cont

n   Toxicity symptoms is a chocolate-brown
    color to the blood.
n   Also, nausea, vomiting, bloating, fast heart
    rate, blue mucous membranes, staggering
    gait, shortness of breath, then death
n   Administration of methylene blue can
    counteract the chemical process if caught
    early
Nitrate Poisoning cont

n   Nitrates are converted to nitrites which
    produce met-hemoglobin, a type of
    hemoglobin that cannot carry oxygen
n   Nitrites are more toxic even though
    the term nitrate is used
n   Sorghum plants are more susceptible
    to nitrate accumulation when mature
Nitrate Poisoning cont
n   High nitrate feeds can still be fed yet not to
    breeding animals
n   When fed at >1% expect abortions and
    even death
n   Corn fed 10 days before exposing cattle to
    stressed forages has shown lowered
    poisoning
n   Common causes of high nitrate levels in
    water include shallow wells and ponds with
    contaminated surface runoff; (>200 ppm)
    can be toxic esp. when feed is high too
Prussic Acid/HCN
n   Also, a cause from stressed plants which
    produces a cyanide in the rumen
n   Especially johnsongrass or sorghums such
    as sudan
n   Factors associated with Nitrate poisoning
    such as drought, excessive sunlight,
    excessive soil nitrogen, young plants
    increase the HCN potential
n   Proper curing of hay reduces this risk
HCN cont
n   Re-growth in sorghums after a cutting of
    hay, grazing or frost is often dangerous
n   Contrasted to Nitrate poisoning; HCN is
    characterized by bright cherry red color
n   Don’t use over 50 lbs. of nitrogen when
    fertilizing
n   Do not graze until sudan type plants until
    they are 24 to 36 inches
HCN cont.
n   After a good rain on stressed plants, wait
    two weeks before grazing
n   After a frost, wait until the freeze kills the
    entire plant before grazing (thawed and
    wilted for a few days)
n   Allow animals to fill on native grass or hay
    during the day and then graze sorghum in
    late afternoon
Grass Tetany

n   A metabolic non-infectious disease
n   Also called grass staggers, wheat-
    pasture poisoning, hypomagnesemia
n   Normal levels of blood Mg is 2 mg/100
    ml; if it drops < 1 mg/100 ml, tetany
    can occur
n   If an animal is unable to eat enough
    forage to provide adequate nutrients
Grass Tetany cont

n   Importance is dry matter intake of
    nutrients
n   Animals affected more often:
    ruminants, mature animals, lactating
    animals, animals consuming young
    tender high moisture plants such as
    wheat pasture
Grass Tetany cont

n   Symptoms: discomfort and unusual
    alertness, muscular twitching, staggering,
    collapses, and eventually stiffening of
    muscles and jerking convulsions with the
    head pulled back
n   Treatment: magnesium salts injected
    intravenous; 200-300 ml of 50% solution
n   Animals surviving for more than 24 hours
    usually do not show reoccurence
Grass Tetany cont

n   Prevention: high magnesium mineral
    and increase dry matter intake
n   Milk fever is quite similar except
    animals become paralyzed rather than
    show violent muscular responses.
    Serum calcium is low when milk fever
    is encountered.
Fescue toxicity
n   Associated with a fungus called an endophyte that
    lives within the leaves, stems, and seed of tall
    fescue plants
n   The fungus causes the grass to produce a toxic
    compound
n   This has reduced gains for stockers and reduced
    conception rates for cows as well as elevated
    temperature, intolerance to heat, and the failure to
    shed the winter hair coat
n   Plant legumes within fescue to assist
n   One of the worst times to graze is middle of the
    summer
Sweet Clover poisoning

n   Coumarin in clover is converted to
    dicoumarin which prevents the
    synthesis and metabolism of Vit K
n   Don’t feed moldy sweet clover
n   Cause stiffness, lameness and
    swellings (blood clots) beneath the
    skin
Foot Rot
n   Necrotic Pododermatitis, Interdigital
    Necrobacillosis, fusobacterium necrophorum
n   Known to live in the soil for > 10 mos.
n   Causes lameness in cattle
n   Incubation is about 5 days
n   Foot tissue or skin has to be broken for
    introduction of bacteria
n   Stones, plant stubble, wire, nails, glass, etc.
    are all culprits of causing cuts or abrasions
    that lead to infection
Foot Rot

n   Prevention:
    Aureomycin/chlortetracycline (CTC)
n   Dosage 100 mg (not cc) /hd/day
n   EDDI – Ethylene Diamine Dihydriodide
    cannot be added to feed to control
    foot rot but can be used as a
    nutritional source of iodine at 10
    mg/hd/day
Foot Rot

n   5% CuSO4 or 5% formalin are used as
    walk-in foot baths at dairies
n   Also, antibiotics such as Naxcel,
    Nuflor, LA 200, Sulmet, tetracycline
    powders are used
n   If possible, clean and trim the foot of
    dead tissue and then apply an
    antiseptic
Grasshopper control

n   Biological, Chemical, Cultural
    – Biological= other insects such as blister beetle, ground
      beetles, birds, chickens, guineas
    – Cultural = tree painting or wraps, Control weeds, soil
      disturbance (plowing, disc, etc.). All of these difficult
      during hot dry conditions
    – Chemical= used in non crop land and improved pasture
      areas. Use chemicals such as carbaryl, zeta-cypermethrin,
      lambda cyhalothrin or Dimilin (used only when
      grasshoppers are very young or in the nymph stage).
      Some ranchers use “Sevin” spray
Parasites

n   Internal- present inside the animal, but their
    eggs are microscopic in size. The economic
    loss is great, but a slow continuous process

n   External- live off of the flesh and/or blood
    of the cattle. They can mechanically
    transmit the organisms that cause pinkeye,
    mastitis, and other infectious diseases to
    cattle.
Parasites of Beef Cattle
n Strategic parasite control programs
n
 should be viewed as an investment.
The R.O.I. of the program should be
 healthier animals. Healthier animals
n Utilize feed better for growth &
n
  development,
n Reach breeding weight and proper body
n
  score at optimal time, wean heavier, etc
Parasites of Beef Cattle

n
n   $2 Billion lost just to Brown Stomach Worm
    $2 Billion lost just to Brown Stomach Worm
    annually ~ or $20 per animal (U.S.D.A. est.).
    annually ~ or $20 per animal (U.S.D.A. est.).
  Losses to externals in addition to this.
  Losses to externals in addition to this.
n Subclinical parasitism losses are the greatest
n Subclinical parasitism losses are the greatest
Parasites depress appetite resulting in:
Parasites depress appetite resulting in:
n
n Reduced weight gains & feed conversion
  Reduced weight gains & feed conversion
n Depressed immunity, higher morbidity/mortality
n Depressed immunity, higher morbidity/mortality
n Decreased milk production, carcass quality & reproductive
n Decreased milk production, carcass quality & reproductive
  performance
  performance
Parasites of Beef Cattle
 Internal Parasites - Worms:
 n
 n Gastrointestinal roundworms - Brown
   Gastrointestinal roundworms - Brown
   Stomach Worm
   Stomach Worm
 n Other roundworms - Lungworm
 n Other roundworms - Lungworm
 n Flat worms - Liver Fluke
 n Flat worms - Liver Fluke
 n
 n   Segmented worms - Tapeworm
     Segmented worms - Tapeworm
Parasites of Beef Cattle
Most damaging internal parasites are:

nBrown         Stomach Worm
 (Ostertagia ostertagi) 80-90% of the U.S.
 (Ostertagia ostertagi)        of the U.S.
 worm problem
 worm problem

nLiver      Fluke
 (Fasciola hepatica)
 (Fasciola hepatica)
Parasites of Beef Cattle

Adult and L4s
in Cattle




Eggs in                                                             Reinfection
Feces


          Infective 3rd                                          Contaminated
          Stage Larvae                                           Pasture
            GI parasites are present in the animal (adult and larvae)
                       and on pasture (eggs, L1, L2, L3)
Strategic Parasite Control
GI Parasite Eggs per Gram - South
GI Parasite Eggs per Gram - South

                    60
                    55
  GEOMETRIC MEANS




                    50
                    45
                    40
                    35
                    30
                    25
                    20
                    15
                    10
                     5
                      I   I   I   I   I   I   I   I   I   I   I   I
                     JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC

                         Low parasite egg counts from cows can mean high
                                pasture contamination for calves
Strategic Parasite Control
Conceptual Patterns of Brown Stomach Worm
Conceptual Patterns of Brown Stomach Worm
Inhibition
Inhibition




  NORTHERN Autumn Winter
  NORTHERN -- Autumn // Winter
  Variable Transition
  Variable Transition
  SOUTHERN Spring Summer
  SOUTHERN -- Spring // Summer
Proper timing to De-worm

n   ???????
n   Dr. Buddy Faries Jr. DVM MS
    – Texas AgriLife Extension Service
    – Handout
Bovine Liver
Flukes
Fasciola
hepatica
  Effects of
  Liver Fluke and GI Nematodes
  on Weight Gain & Reproduction
Bovine Liver Flukes
 n
 n   “Mud” snail (lymnaeid) is intermediate host
     “Mud” snail (lymnaeid) is intermediate host
 n
 n   Snails exist in :
     Snails exist in :
      – River basins, coastal prairies
      – River basins, coastal prairies
      – Mountain meadows, irrigated pastures
      – Mountain meadows, irrigated pastures
      – Wet pastures, ditches, area around water
      – Wet pastures, ditches, area around water
        tanks, etc
         tanks, etc of fluke transmission
      Primary season
     Primary season of fluke transmission
     –
     – The wet season
       The wet season
     – Feb - July in Southeast and Southern Plains
     – Feb - July in Southeast and Southern Plains
     – June - Nov in Northwest
     – June - Nov in Northwest
Bovine Liver Flukes
Physiological Effects
n “Bile duct” stage fluke (adult flukes - 8 to 10
n “Bile duct” stage fluke (adult flukes - 8 to 10
  weeks & older) causes most damage
  weeks & older) causes most damage
n Anemia is primary result of fluke infection
n Anemia is primary result of fluke infection

n Secondary clostridial infection and death may
n Secondary clostridial infection and death may
  occur
  occur
Bovine Liver Flukes -
Clinical Signs
n Clinical   signs often not seen
n Similar    to GI parasites
  –   Loss of appetite
  –   Weakness
  –   Weight loss
  –   Low blood protein
Bovine Liver Flukes
Life Cycle                               (eggs shed 8-12 wk
                                         after infection)
Metacercariae
(on grass)


                                                     Eggs




                                                    (10-12 d)
   Cercari
   a

                                              Miracidium
                (4.5-7 wk)
                             Mud snail
Life Cycle of Liver Flukes in
Cattle
n One fluke can produce up to 19,000 eggs per
n One fluke can produce up to 19,000 eggs per
  day
  day
n Each egg potentially produces more than 600
n Each egg potentially produces more than 600
  metacercariae
  metacercariae
n One fluke can potentially produce 11,400,000
n One fluke can potentially produce 11,400,000
  flukes from one day of egg production
  flukes from one day of egg production
n When conditions are right, fluke numbers can
n When conditions are right, fluke numbers can
  increase very rapidly
  increase very rapidly
Spread of Liver Flukes from
Farm to Farm can Occur in
Several Ways
 n Infected cattle are brought in and
 n
   fluke eggs are passed into the
   environment
 n Metacercariae can remain viable for up
 n
   to 1 year
 n Environment to support snails must be
 n
   present before liver flukes can be
   established
Bovine Liver Flukes
Effects on Productivity
   n
   n Reduced average daily gain (ADG)
     Reduced average daily gain (ADG)
   n Reduced feed efficiency (F/G)
   n Reduced feed efficiency (F/G)
   n Condemned livers
   n Condemned livers
   n Reduced milk production
   n Reduced milk production
   n Delays in reaching puberty
   n Delays in reaching puberty
   n Reduced conception rates
   n Reduced conception rates
   n Increased cost of production
   n Increased cost of production
Effects of Liver Fluke
Distribution of Liver
Flukes in the U.S.
                                                      Cattle from these
                                                      states could be
                                                      infected with liver
                                                      flukes.
                                                                   Fluke Endemic




J.B. Malone: Veterinary Clinics North America, 1986
How is Reproduction
Affected by

Liver
Flukes?
Louisiana
Effect of Flukes on Gain &
Reproduction in Beef Heifers
n Objective
 n
     – Evaluate the effect of avermectin
     – Evaluate the effect of avermectin
        treatment alone, fluke control alone, and
        treatment alone, fluke control alone, and
        both avermectin treatment and fluke
        both avermectin treatment and fluke
        control on weight gain and pregnancy
        control on weight gain and pregnancy
        rates in beef heifers infected with
        rates in beef heifers infected with
        Fasciola hepatica

A.F. Loyacano et al: LSU Annual Research Summary, 1997
Louisiana
Effect of Flukes on Gain &
Reproduction in Beef Heifers
          Results - Wt. Gain to Pregnancy Palpation
           Results - Wt. Gain to Pregnancy Palpation
                        Total Gain (lb) Diff. $ / head**
                        Total Gain (lb) Diff. $ / head**
      No Control
      No Control             287a
                             287a        0
                                         0          00
      Avermectin (A) Only 353b
      Avermectin (A) Only 353b          +66
                                        +66       $46.20
                                                  $46.20
      Flukicide (F) Only
      Flukicide (F) Only     303a
                             303a       +16
                                        +16      $11.20
                                                 $11.20

abc
      A + F Control                   375cc
      A + F Control statistical significance (P<0.05) +88
                                      375             +88   $61.60
                                                            $61.60
      Differing superscripts indicate
** Calculated at $0.70 per pound
   ND = Not done
A.F. Loyacano: LSU Annual Research Summary, 1999
 Louisiana
 Effect of Flukes on Gain &
 Reproduction in Beef Heifers
          Results - Pregnancy Rate (%) at Palpation
          Results - Pregnancy Rate (%) at Palpation
                       Pregnancy % Diff. (%)
                       Pregnancy % Diff. (%)         $/100
                                                     $/100
    head**
    head**
 No Control
 No Control                54a
                            54a           --
                                          --           ---
                                                       ---
 Avermectin (A) Only
 Avermectin (A) Only       63a,b
                            63a,b       +9
                                         +9           ND
                                                      ND
 Flukicide (F) Only
 Flukicide (F) Only        67a,b
                            67a,b       + 13
                                        + 13          ND
                                                      ND
 A + F Control
 A + F Control             77b
                            77b         + 23
                                        + 23        $8,050.
                                                    $8,050.
 a,b
    Differing superscripts indicate statistical significance (P<0.05)
 ** Calculated at 500 lb. per calf and $0.70 per lb
 ND = Not done

A.F. Loyacano: LSU Annual Research Summary, 1999
 Louisiana
 Effect of Flukes on Calf
 Production
         Results - Weaning Weight of First-born Calf
          Results - Weaning Weight of First-born Calf
                      Weaning Wt. (lb) Diff. $ / head**
                      Weaning Wt. (lb) Diff. $ / head**
      No Control
      No Control           496cc
                            496          ---
                                          ---
      Avermectin (A) Only 530d
      Avermectin (A) Only 530d          + 34
                                        + 34          ND
                                                      ND
      Flukicide (F) Only
      Flukicide (F) Only   512cd
                           512cd        + 16
                                        + 16          ND
                                                      ND
      A & F Control
      A & F Control        529d
                           529d         + 33
                                        + 33     $23.10
                                                  $23.10

c,d
      Values with different superscripts are different at (0.05<P<0.10)
** Calculated at $0.70 per pound
   ND = Not done


A.F. Loyacano : LSU Annual Research Summary, 1999
Louisiana
 Effect of Flukes Gain &
 Reproduction in Beef Heifers
n Summary
n
  – Previous studies and this work indicate...
  – Previous studies and this work indicate...
       n Internal and external parasites can reduce
       n Internal and external parasites can reduce
         weight gains
         weight gains
       n Liver flukes can reduce weight gains
       n Liver flukes can reduce weight gains
  – This study indicates liver fluke infections
  – This study indicates liver fluke infections
     may...
     may...
       n Reduce conception rates
       n Reduce conception rates
       n Reduce weaning of first born calves
       n Reduce weaning of first born calves
A.F. Loyacano: LSU Annual Research Summary, 1997
Louisiana
Effect of Flukes Gain &
Reproduction in Beef Heifers
  n Summary
  n
    –
    –   This study supports that optimal
        This study supports that optimal
        benefits can be derived from
        benefits can be derived from
        controlling both nematodes and
        controlling      nematodes and
        external parasites as well as liver
        external parasites as well as liver
        flukes simultaneously
        flukes simultaneously
Parasites of Beef Cattle
External Parasites:
n Mites - Scab, Tailhead and Mange Mite
n
n Ticks - Lone Star Tick
n
n Lice - Biting & Sucking Lice
n
n Grubs - Larvae of Heel Fly
n
n Flies - Horn Fly
n
Parasite of Beef Cattle
Economic Loss from External Parasites:
n
n Anemia from blood feeding
  Anemia from blood feeding
n Hide damage
n Hide damage
n Gadding causing decrease feed time
n Gadding causing decrease feed time
n Decreased resistance to other diseases
n Decreased resistance to other diseases
n Damage premises due to rubbing/scratching
n Damage premises due to rubbing/scratching
n Transmission of other diseases by parasite
n Transmission of other diseases by parasite
Parasites of Beef Cattle
Most damaging external parasites are:
Most damaging external parasites are:

nHorn       Fly (Haematobia irritans)
                (Haematobia irritans)
  $730 million in losses annually
  $730 million in losses annually

nGrub       (Hypoderma bovis, H. lineatum)
            (Hypoderma bovis, H. lineatum)
  $607 million in losses annually
  $607 million in losses annually

nLice      (Damalinia bovis, Haematopinus eurysternus,
           (Damalinia bovis, Haematopinus eurysternus,
  Linognathus vituli, Solenopotes capillatus)
  Linognathus vituli, Solenopotes capillatus)
  $126 million in losses annually
  $126 million in losses annually
Parasites of Beef Cattle
Life Cycle of Hornfly

 Manure


                  Adult
           Pupa            Eggs
                  Larvae
Parasites of Beef Cattle
Life Cycle of Cattle Grubs

                   Larvae migrate
            through tissue to back

                                                               Larvae under skin of
                                                               back with breathing
                                                                      hole

 Eggs hatch and larvae
    penetrate skin



                                 Larvae fall to ground and
  Adult flies lay eggs on          pupate in soil. Adult fly
            hair                      emerges from pupa
Parasites of Beef Cattle
Life Cycle of Lice

                            Adults lay eggs
                           cemented to hairs




                                          Eggs hatch to
             Nymphs feed and molt 3         nymphs
             times to become adults
Strategic Parasite Control
Best Treatment Timing in the South
                            IVOMEC        IVOMEC         IVOMEC
                              Spring        Summer          Fall


                  200
  #Worms x 1000




                  150


                  100


                   50


                        JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
  Parasites of Beef Cattle

              IVOMEC-    IVOMEC   IVOMEC     DECTOMAX DECTOMAX CYDECTIN SAFE-
              EPRINEX    Plus     Pour On    Injectable Pour On         GUARD

Externals

               Yes        No
                                    Yes        No       No       Yes      No
 Horn Fly
              (7 days)             (up to                      (7 days)
                                  28 days)
 Sucking
   Lice
               Yes       Yes       Yes         Yes      Yes      Yes      No
Biting Lice    Yes        No       Yes          No      Yes      Yes      No
 Grubs         Yes       Yes       Yes         Yes      Yes      Yes      No
Flies

n   Face fly and Horn fly
    – Suck blood and irritate cattle
    – In some areas flies have developed
      resistance to certain products.
    – Producers should alternate between:
         – Sprays, dust bags, backrubbers, pour-ons and feed
           additives, as well as ear tags or tape.
Fly Infestation




          Horn Flies
Lice

n   Most abundant during winter and
    spring.
n   Only treat in in the late fall and early
    winter
n   Treat with pour-ons, injections as well
    as backrubbers or periodic spraying of
    insecticides
       n Besure to watch withdrawal periods on all
        products used to control parasites.
Lice
Ticks
Grubs/Heelfly

n   Reduce milk production
n   Reduce weight gain
n   And diminish hide value
n   A big loss is due to carcass trim andf
    lower meat quality
n   They are the larval stage of the heel
    fly
Grub

n   Prevention is best when the life cycle
    of the grub worm is learned
n   Effective treatments are:
        Co-Ral, Ivomec, Spotton, Tiguron
        Warbex, Dectomax
Grub Infestation

				
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