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					      PBIS Team Training




Module 3: Tertiary Implementation
          Exceptional Children Division
       Behavior Support & Special Programs
Positive Behavior Intervention & Support Initiative
   Modules developed by
 the University of Missouri
Center for School-wide PBIS
      and revised by
North Carolina PBIS Trainers
              Expectations
æBe Responsible
  æReturn promptly from breaks
  æBe an active participant
æBe Respectful
  æTurn off cell phone ringers
  æListen attentively to others
æBe Kind
  æParticipate in activities
  æListen and respond appropriately to others’
   ideas                                     4
          Attention Signal


æTrainer will raise
 his/her hand
æParticipants will
 raise their hand and
 wait quietly


                             5
      Welcome to PBIS Module 3 Training!

æPrepare a poster showing successes and
 challenges from Universal and Secondary
 Implementation.
æUse data from your most recent
 Implementation Inventory, SET, etc.




                                           6
                Training Objectives
Participants will be able to:
æEvaluate implementation of school-wide and
  secondary PBIS
æCreate a system for receiving and processing
  individual student referrals
æUse data to:
  æIdentify individual students needing intervention
  æDevelop and evaluate interventions to address problem
   behavior
  æDetermine effectiveness of tertiary systems
                                                       7
     Module 3 Accomplishments and
               Products
At the end of these two days, teams are
expected to have:
æConceptualized tertiary systems for your
 setting
æDiscussed implementation of teacher-led
 practices
æReviewed data collection & assessment for
 individual students
æDeveloped action steps for tertiary
 implementation                              8
Activity: PBIS Review Crossword




             Workbook
             Page 3




                             9
                  Activity

æReview Universal and Secondary
 Implementation based on Implementation
 Inventory Scores.
æUse the data to identify Action Steps


                                Workbook
                                Pages 4-7

                                            10
         PBIS Tertiary Support is:

æA systems approach to individualized
 intervention and support development.
æA process that all staff in your school
 will use to support individual students.
æA teacher-led process that utilizes a
 functional approach to addressing
 behavior
                                         11
                        School Improvement
                                       Whole School
             Academic
                   Effective                          Classroom BehaviorResources    Page 5
                      School                 Culturally
                 Organization            Responsive
       Intensive, Individual Interventions         Intensive, Individual Interventions
       •Tutoring                        Instruction•Functional Behavior Assessment &
                             Effective
       •Academic Remediation Plans                    Struggling Intervention Planning
                                                        Behavior
         Culturally
       •Specially DesignedInstructional
                             Instruction              Students
                                                    Progress
         Responsive                                                    Individuals
         Practices          Practices
    Targeted Group Interventions                  Monitoring Consider- Interventions
                                                          Targeted Group
    •Small group instruction
                                         Behavioral                               EC
                                                          •Social Skills instruction
                                                             action for
    •Focused academic help                                •Reinforcement of specific skills
   Positive School Universal
     sessions
                                                             Eligibility Related Specially
                                        Group Strategies •Group Behavioral Strategies
                                                     Effective
   Climate             Design/                                           Services Designed
                                                   Instructional
                                                          •Classroom Coaching
                                                                                   Instruction
                       Differentiated      Mental Health FBA/BIP
                                                     Practices              Behavior
Universal Interventions
                       Instruction          Assistance                      Interventions
                                                                     Universal Interventions
     Effective Staff                                               Mental
•Effective instructional    Positive              Focused            •School-wide rules and
     Development
practices
                                                                   Health Services
                            Classroom              Research-based procedures
•Recognition of                                                      •Systematic
                                                      Academic Instruction
academic                    Management                               reinforcement
          Data Based
achievement                                                          •Social Skills Instruction
           Decision                  Ongoing
•Culturally responsive                                  Classroom Coaching responsive
                                                                     •Culturally
practices     Making                 Screening and                   practices
                                                        and Consultation
•Data-based decision-                   Assessment                   •Data-based decision-
making                   Parent and                                  making
•Parent & Community         Community                                •Parent & Community
Partnerships                       Partnerships                      Partnerships             12
             CONTINUUM OF POSITIVE BEHAVIOR SUPPORT

                                                   Tertiary Prevention:
                                                        Specialized
                                                      Individualized
  Secondary Prevention            ~5%            Systems for Students with
    Specialized Group                              High Risk Behavior
 Systems for Students with
     At Risk Behavior
                                  ~15%




                                                               Resources
                                                               Page 6
  Primary Prevention
    School wide and
Classroom wide Systems
    for All Students,
    Staff, & Settings        ~ 80% of Students
                                                                             13
                    GOAL: 100% of students
Core                           achieve
                            at high levels

                  Tier I: Begins with clear goals:

                  •What do we expect all students
                  to know, understand and do as a
                  result of our instruction?

                  •How will we know if these goals
                  are met?

                  •How will we respond when
                  students do not meet the goals
                  with initial instruction?

                  •How will we respond when
                  some students have already met
(Batsche, 2010)
                  the goals?
                                                 14
                              Tier II
                         < 20% of students
Supplemental                   Core
                                 +
                           Supplemental

                      To Achieve Benchmarks

                  •Where are the students
                  performing now?
                  •Where do we want them to be?
                  •How long do we have to get
                  them there?
                  •How much do they have to
                  grow per year/month to get
                  there?
                  •What resources will move them
                  at that rate?
                  •How will we monitor the
                  growth of students receiving
(Batsche, 2010)   supplemental instruction?
                                              15
                                     Tier III
                                 < 5% of Students
ve, Individualized                    Core

                                       +
                                 Supplemental

                                       +
                         Intensive Individual Instruction
                            …to achieve benchmarks

                     •    Where is the student
                          performing now?
                     •    Where do we want him/her
                          to be?
                     •    How long do we have to get
                          him/her there?
                     •    What supports has he/she
                          received?
                     •    What resources will move
                          him/her at that rate?
                     •    How will we monitor and
 (Batsche, 2010)          evaluate the student’s
                          growth?                16
                 Math

          Science



                    Spanish

         Reading


                    Soc skills


   Soc Studies
                           Basketball
Label behavior…not people
        Dec 7, 2007
                  Social Competence &
                 Academic Achievement

                        OUTCOMES




                          S
                                        Supporting
                        EM



                                DA
                                DA
  Supporting
                                         Decision




                                   TA
                                   TA
Staff Behavior       ST
                  SY
                                         Making


                         PRACTICES
  Resources
                                          Positive
  Page 6
                                          Behavior
                                          Intervention &
                        Supporting        Support
                     Student Behavior              18
Team Initiated
Problem Solving                          Identify
(TIPS) Model                            Problems




                                                             Develop
                Evaluate and
                                                            Hypothesis
                   Revise
                 Action Plan

                                         Collect
                                         and Use
                                          Data




                                                     Discuss and
                          Develop and                   Select
                           Implement                  Solutions
                          Action Plan                                    Resources
                                                                         Pages 7-9
                                     Problem Solving
(Newton, et. al., 2009)             Meeting Foundations
Tertiary Implementation:

Data, Systems, and Practices
   to Support Individuals
                  Social Competence &
                 Academic Achievement

                        OUTCOMES




                          S
                                        Supporting
                        EM



                                DA
                                DA
  Supporting
                                         Decision




                                   TA
                                   TA
Staff Behavior       ST
                  SY
                                         Making


                                        Positive
                         PRACTICES
                                        Behavior
                                        Intervention
                                        & Support
                        Supporting
                     Student Behavior            21
Data Collection Strategies & Tools

      Problem identification,
  data collection, and evaluation




                                     22
Clear Definition of
Problem Behavior
  The “Stranger Test”
  æ Is the description of the
    behavior crystal clear?
  æ Would a stranger’s
    description match yours?
  æ If a stranger read your
    description, would they be
    able to identify the
    problem behavior?


                             23
                 Measurable Descriptors

Measurable                                       Not Measurable
                        oppositional

          lazy                             bothering


       rude                                       talking out


     swearing                                      inattentive



         out of area                           fighting



                       defiant         completing work
                                                                 24
                Data Considerations:
                Objective Descriptors
Objective                                       Subjective
                      Talking during seatwork

            Disobedient                   Seldom

                                            Repeatedly
        Passing notes

 Hurrying through work                     Once or twice a week

Five times each day                        Leaning back in chair


   Sometimes                              Bothering a neighbor

                                          Continuously
  Every ten minutes         Bizarre
                                       Tapping pencil on desk
                   Twice each period                         25
                       Data Considerations:
                         Data to Collect

How often does the                How
                           Frequency extreme
behavior occur?                    is it?
                            Intensity


                            Duration



                            Context
    How long does it            Under what circumstances
    last?                       does it occur?


                                                           26
       Data Collection Strategies

æWhat is already collected?
 æAnecdotal notes by teacher
 æOffice referrals
 æDisciplinary actions



                                    27
       Data Collection Strategies

æWhat else can be collected?
 æProducts from Consequences
 æBehavior Contracts
 æChecklists
 æDaily Behavior Report (DBR)
 æDirect Observation
 æInterviews                        28
                            “Think sheets”
                             ?
               o from now on                       e solved th
                                                               e
What w
       ill   Id                          uld I hav             .
                                 How sho          be tter ways
                                         ? List 2
   The rule                      problem
              I broke w
                       as
                                  Fixing Broken Rules

Becoming A Problem Solver

  What should hap                                    Resources
                   pen                               Pages 10-11
  because I broke
                  the rule?
                                                                   29
                        DBRs          Resources
                                      Page 12




æDaily Behavior Report = DBR
æAlso referred to as Direct Behavior Rating
æThe DBR involves a brief rating of target
 behavior over a specified period of time on
 a scale 1-10.
æFor more information and examples:
 http://www.directbehaviorratings.org/cms
 /index.php/communication/2-
 uncategorised/13#groupS               Level II
                                                30
                 Characteristics of DBR

The DBR involves a brief rating of
target behavior over a specified period
of time
æbehavior(s) is specified
ærating of the behavior(s) typically occurs at least
 daily
æobtained information is shared across individuals
 (e.g., parents, teachers, students)
æthe card is used to monitor
   æthe effects of an intervention
   æas a component of an intervention
                         (Chafouleas, Riley-Tillman & McDougal, 2002)
                                                                        31
          Potential Uses for the DBR

æIncrease communication
æAs a component of an intervention
 package, particularly in self-
 management
æProvide “quick” assessment of
 behaviors, especially those not easily
 captured by other means
æMonitor student behavior over time
æFlexible                                 32
           A systematic DBR possesses the
             following 4 characteristics:
1. The behavior of interest must be
  operationally defined
2. The observations should be conducted under
  standardized procedures
3. The DBR should be used in a specific time,
  place, and at a predetermined frequency
4. The data must be scored and summarized in
  a consistent manner

                                                33
How are DBR data summarized?




                               34
35
            DBR Considerations

æMeasures perception of behavior
æ“3 to 7” not “he is a 7”
æNo absolutes in Social Behavior
æRater Effects




                                   36
    Individual Student Data Tracking




Resources
Page 13
       Direct Assessment – Frequency Counts

Behavior Counting                                                     Resources
                                                                      Page 14
Name ____Shamel              ____   Week of __Nov 5, 200X______

Behavior to be counted ____Negative Comments to Peers: (Get out of my face. )


             Mon.        Tue.        Wed.        Thurs.        Fri.       Total

 Arrival     IIII        IIIII II    II          IIIII IIIII   I          40
                                                 IIIII I
 Math        I           I                       I                        3

 Science     II          I           III         IIII          I          11

 Art         IIII        IIIII       IIIII III   IIIII IIII    I          24

 Reading                 I           II          III                      6
   Direct Assessment – Duration Recording
Record the elapsed time, usually in minutes, from onset to conclusion of target
                                                                           Resources
behavior. Be sure to indicate the date, and the activity in which the student was
engaged when the target behavior began to escalate.                        Page 14

Student Name: ___Shamel                                __ Week of / Day : __Nov 15, 200X____

Target Behavior: Tantrum (screams, lays on floor, throws items)



                                               Transition


                                                            Large Group


                                                                          Small Group

                                                                                        Work
                                                                                        Individual


                                                                                                     Read Aloud


                                                                                                                  Read Silently


                                                                                                                                  In Crowds


                                                                                                                                              Library


                                                                                                                                                        Specials

                                                                                                                                                                   Subject
                                                                                                                                                                   Specific
         Behavior Incident
 Briefly describe, making sure to note date,
   time, and any circumstances you think
                 noteworthy.




#1      9:45-10:15, Mon, Nov 15
Group was doing read aloud


#2      9:35-10:15, Tue, Nov 16
Went to an assembly in the
gym

#3      9:28-10:05, Fri, Nov 19
Oral vocabulary test
                       Context Checklist
Social/Emotional
q Response to demand/request
q Transition between tasks/ setting               Resources
q Interruption in routine                         Page 15
q Change in home/family dynamics
q Lack of social attention
q Negative social interaction w/peers
q Negative social interaction w/adults
q Social skills deficits
q Consequences imposed for negative behavior
q Other (specify): ____________________________
Academic/Instructional
q Specific subject: ____________________________
q Grade level : on/above/below
q Activities: too easy/ too difficult
q Work completion: finishes quickly/ average / rarely finishes
             Classroom Assessment                            Resources
                                                             Pages 16-19


                    Classroom Management Checklist
            *adapted from Geoff Colvin's Classroom Strategies
   Name of Teacher ___________________           Date ______________
                                                              In Place = 2
Designing the Physical Space
                                                              Partially = 1
                                                              Not = 0
1. A specific classroom area is identified for independent
work.
2. A specific classroom area is identified for group work.
3. A specific classroom area is identified for free choice
activity.
4. A specific classroom area is identified for time out.
5. A specific classroom area is identified which is easily
                                                               Level I
                                                                     41
accessible for teacher storage and student supplies.
               Data Considerations
What is the target behavior and goal?
æFocus on a specific behavior that has been
 operationally defined
æGoal to increase or decrease behavior
Who is the focus of the rating?
æIndividual, small-group or class-wide
What is the period for rating?
æSpecific school period, daily, or other
What is the setting of observation?
æClassroom or other location
                                              42
              Data Considerations
How often will data be collected?
æMultiple times a day, daily, weekly
Which tools are the best to assess the behavior?
æChecklist, rating scale, DBR, observation,
 interview
Who will conduct the rating? What resources can
 be used to collect data?
æClassroom teacher, aide, or other educational
 professional
Will ratings be tied to consequences?
æConsequences must be consistently delivered by
 person responsible                           43
           Activity: Tertiary Data

æWith your team complete the Tertiary
 Data activity




       Workbook
       Page 8



                                        44
                  Social Competence &
                 Academic Achievement

                        OUTCOMES




                          S
                                        Supporting
                        EM



                                DA
                                DA
  Supporting
                                         Decision




                                   TA
                                   TA
Staff Behavior       ST
                  SY
                                         Making


                                        Positive
                         PRACTICES
                                        Behavior
                                        Intervention
                                        and
                        Supporting
                     Student Behavior   Support 45
Activity
Critical Elements of Tertiary
           Systems
       Tertiary Systems Considerations

Commit to:
æEstablishing a team to assess and
 intervene with students who have serious
 behavior problems
æAllotting adequate time and resources for
 the team
  æTraining & planning
  æDesign & implementation of individual
   supports                                  48
       Why do we need Tertiary Systems?

æTo make a lasting, positive, change in
 behavior
æTo provide a systematic way to support
 staff and students
æTo establish practices for children with
 behavior concerns


                                            49
  Team Structure Consideration

æWho?
æWhat?
æWhen?
æWhere?
æWhy?


                             50
             Most Common Team Structures

Problem-Solving Only Team                RtI & PBIS Teams




 Pre-referral and PBIS absorbed in RtI   Pre-referral absorbed in RtI
   Will you have
representatives for
   each level of
  support or for          Tier III                      Tier III
   grade levels?         Academic                      Behavior




               Tier II                                          Tier II
              Academic                                         Behavior




       Tier I                                                          Tier I
     Academic                                                         Behavior


                                     Problem Solving
                                       Only Team
                       2nd grade            3rd grade
                       Behavior             Behavior

                                                            4th grade
      1st grade               2nd grade                     Behavior
      Behavior                Academic      3rd grade
                                            Academic

                  1st grade
 Kinder-                                                            5th grade
                  Academic
 garten                                                             Behavior
behavior                                            4th grade
                                                    Academic

     Kinder-
     garten                                                     5th grade
    Academic                                                    Academic

                           RtI Team        PBIS Team
                          RtI process     School-wide
                                          PBIS process             How will you
                                                                  structure both
                                                                 problem solving
                                                                      teams?
        Team Responsibilities:
    Tertiary System Considerations

æIdentify resources and structures develop
 the tertiary system of supports
  æAssess students
  æDevelop and implement support plans
æPersonnel
æFamily Involvement
æExternal agency involvement
  æ(Child and Family Teams/System of Care)
                                             54
         Team Responsibilities:
     Implement the Tertiary System

æAccess training and on-going staff
 development to establish and maintain
 knowledge of PBIS team
æProviding staff development and support
 to teachers regarding the process
æSupport teachers with assessment and
 implementation


                                           55
        Team Responsibilities:
      Monitor the Tertiary System
æReview behavioral data and interventions in
 order to evaluate the effectiveness
æReviewing Implementation Inventory
 Tertiary Systems, Data, and Practices to
 address areas of need




                                          56
          Activity: Tertiary Team

æDiscuss connections to existing teams (ex.
 RtI, pre-referral, PBIS, SOC, etc.)
æDiscuss team structure, organization, and
 communication.
æComplete the Tertiary Team Functions
 Section of your workbook.
                                   Workbook
                                   Page 9

                                              57
                     Create the System:
                      Working Smarter
æWhat does working
 smarter look like at the
 individual level? How
 do we invest our
 resources wisely?

 Develop a continuum of
 support within the tertiary
 level to address all the
 shades of red
                                          58
       Three Important Themes

æCreate systems (not just
 interventions) to support all
 students
æIntervene earlier rather than
 later
æEvidence, not opinion
                                 59
          Data Decision Rules

To address:
æTeachers initiating the behavioral
 support process
æStudent data initiating the process
æProgress and goal completion rules
æTertiary intervention effectiveness
 guidelines
                                       60
                    Examples

æLess than 15 Star Tickets earned per week for
 2 weeks
æMore than 5 absences in a 30 day period
æ3 or more counseling referrals in a 30 day
 period
æ6 or more office discipline referrals
æProgress to 80% completion of homework
 assignments
æ70% of students receiving this tertiary
 intervention meet their goals within 8 weeks61
                  Activity:
        Tertiary Data Decision Rules

æDiscuss with your team possible data
 decision rules for your school
  æStudent referrals
  æProgress and goal completion
  æIntervention effectiveness

                                  Workbook
                                  Page 10

                                             62
     Systems for Individual Students

æQuick, supportive response to teacher
æUnderstand how behavior is functionally
 related to the teaching environment
 (competing pathways)
æIf you have multiple students displaying
 similar behaviors = system issue not
 individual student issue

                                            63
            Referral Process

æHow will teachers know who to refer?
 æData decision rule
 æProfessional judgment
 æAfter what process in classroom
æHow do they refer?
 æForm
 æTo Whom                           64
            Referral Process

æWhat happens next?
 æData collection
 æCase manager
 æParent/family participation
 æTeam meeting


                                65
           Referral Process

æPlan
 æPlan written?
 æGood fit for context?
 æExecuted by whom? How do you
   know?
 æEvaluated?
æNext Steps
                                 66
Individual Student
 Referral Process    Supplemental
                     Resources
                     Page 20




                             67
            Activity: Tertiary
             Referral Process

æDiscuss the referral process for
 tertiary supports section in your
 workbook


                              Workbook
                              Page 11



                                         68
           An evaluation of Systems for the Tertiary Level:
           Checklist for Individual Student Systems (CISS)


                                                             Resources
                                                             Pages 21-24              2-Fully in
                                                                                      place 1-
                              Part I: Foundations                                     partially in
                                                                                      place 0-not yet
                                                                                      started
•   Score within the past 18 months on the SET (80%/80%), BOQ (70%), or TIC
    (80%) indicates that SWPBS is being implemented with fidelity                      2     1    0

•   A person within the school building is identified to coordinate function-based
    support planning and implementation.                                               2     1    0
•   At least three people within the school are trained to conduct basic functional
    behavior assessment interviews and do simple, confirmatory direct observations     2     1    0
    based on the results of the functional behavior assessment interview.
•   At least one person within the school, or regularly available to the school, is
    trained to conduct direct observation methods of functional behavior assessment    2     1    0
    and lead development of a behavior support plan.                                             69
                  Social Competence &
                 Academic Achievement

                        OUTCOMES




                          S
                                        Supporting
                        EM



                                DA
                                DA
  Supporting
                                         Decision




                                   TA
                                   TA
Staff Behavior       ST
                  SY
                                         Making


                         PRACTICES
                                        Positive
                                        Behavior
                        Supporting      Intervention
                     Student Behavior   & Support
                                                 70
Functional Assessment & Intervention
 Level of
Functional   Tools               Resources   Person(s) involved
                                               INFORMAL
 Support                         Page 25
                                                 EASIER
             Behavior Contract                   SIMPLE
                                             Teacher
             Problem Solving Worksheet        RESPONSIVE
Teacher                                      Student
  Led        Competing Behavior Pathway      Parent
                                             Additional resource
             ERASE
             ERASE                           Team
                                             Teacher
             Brief Intervention Planning          NOT
                                             Student
                                              RESPONSIVE
                                             Parent
 Team                                     COMPLICATED
Directed Full FBA & BIP with Child/Family Team
         Team                                HARDER
                                          Teacher
                                             FORMAL
                                          Student
         Functional Analysis & Behavior   Parent      71
         Intervention Plan
72
                    Both Identify:


æProblem behavior
æSetting events that increase the likelihood of
 the occurrence of the targeted behavior
æAntecedents that reliably predict the target
 behavior
æConsequences that maintain the behavior
æPlans to teach replacement behavior

                                              73
                     Behavior

æWhat is the challenging behavior?
æWhat can you observe?
  æWhat does it look or sound like?
æChoose one
æPrioritize



                                      74
Behavior




           75
                  Setting Events

æWhat environmental, personal, situational
 or daily events impact the behavior?
  æEating/Sleeping routines
  æMedical/Physical problems
  æFamilial and staff interactions
æDo not immediately precede problem
 behavior

                                         76
Setting Events




                 77
                   Antecedent

æWhat happens immediately before the
 behavior?
æPredicts problem behavior
æWhen, Where, With whom, Activity
  æTime of day
  æPhysical Setting
  æPeople present
  æTypes of interactions (demands, directives,
   etc.)
                                                 78
Antecedent




             79
                Consequence

æWhat happens immediately after the
 behavior?
æGives student a reason to repeat the
 problem behavior
æNot related to punishment



                                        80
                   Function …

People behave for a reason - we call
   this “function”
 Function:
  æ Does he/she get something?
    æTangibles, attention, stimulation, people, etc.
  æ Does he/she avoid or escape something?
    æPeople, activities, embarrassment, tasks, etc.


                                                       82
              Only Two Basic Functions




Sugai, 2011
Hypothesis Statements

     Information about the
     problem behavior is used
     to write a hypothesis
     statement that helps us
     predict when the problem
     behavior is likely to occur
     and the function of that
     behavior
                               84
                    Hypothesis Statements


When Estes is ___________ and __________ (happens), he
                    where/setting        context/antecedent



typically responds by _________ to gain/avoid ____________
.
      Hypothesis:           behavior                function

When Estes is in language arts and the teacher is providing direct

instruction    he typically responds by making verbal noises (ex. Burping)

 to access peer and teacher attention.
                                                                     85
                                                                  Bruno




                                                                      Activity
http://www.sonoma.edu/cihs/classroom/mod_3/lesson1.html
    http://www.sonoma.edu/cihs/classroom/mod_3/lesson1.html
                                                                      Write a hypothesis statement about
                                                                                                       86
        http://www.sonoma.edu/cihs/classroom/mod_3/lesson1.html
            http://www.sonoma.edu/cihs/classroom/mod_3/lesson1.html   Bruno’s behavior
      Identifying the function helps:

æChoose an appropriate intervention
  æWill this intervention meet the functional
   need?
æChoose an appropriate replacement
 behavior
  æAlternative behavior taught to the student
  æWhat you want the student to do instead
  æMust meet functional need
                                                87
  Teacher-Led
Behavior Support




                   89
         Teacher – Led Support

Any individualized behavior support should
always begin with a hypothesis based on
data about the student




                                         90
Teacher – Led Support




                        91
              Behavior Contract

æIndividualized class or school behavior
 plan
  æAdjust goals
  æPrerequisite skills
  æShorter time periods
  æMore frequent reinforcement
æContract to address performance deficit

                                           92
            Behavioral Contracts

æPositive reinforcement intervention
æClarify behavioral expectations for
 students and staff to carry out the
 intervention plan
æInclude the student in designing the
 contract to increase motivation
æInclude parents in planning and
 reinforcement
                                        93
               Steps for Designing Behavior
                         Contracts
æList student behaviors
 æCan be reduced or increased
 æBehavioral goals should usually be
   stated in positive, goal-oriented terms
 æClearly defined, observable



(Wright, 2011; Jenson, Rhode, Reavis, 1994)   94
                Steps for Designing Behavior
                          Contracts
æContract Reinforcers
 æA statement or section that explains
   the minimum conditions under which
   the student will earn a point, sticker,
   or other token for showing appropriate
   behaviors
 æAmount of behavior
 æAmount of reinforcement
(Wright, 2011; Jenson, Rhode, Reavis, 1994)    95
           Steps for Designing Behavior
              Contracts (continued)
æCollection
 æDescribe when the student will be able
   to redeem points earned for
   reward/recognition




 (Wright, 2011; Jenson, Rhode, Reavis, 1994)   96
            Steps for Designing Behavior
               Contracts (continued)
æBonus clauses (optional)
 æcan provide extra incentives for the
   student to follow the contract
 æoffers the student some type of
   additional 'pay-off' for consistently
   reaching behavioral targets


                                              97
(Wright, 2011; Jenson, Rhode, Reavis, 1994)
            Steps for Designing Behavior
               Contracts (continued)
æNegotiate and Document Terms
 æDiscuss the plan and responsibilities of
   the student and staff
æAreas for signature.
 æboth teacher and student signatures
 æOther staff, parents, administrators

(Wright, 2011; Jenson, Rhode, Reavis, 1994)   98
               Sample Contracts

                                These
                                        a
                               if I do re my con
                                      n’t me      s
                                             et my equences
My Contract:                                      goals
                                                        :
                        ls:
                   g oa
              my
     se ar  e                  Race to 20!
T he
Resources
 Pages 26-29
    These ar
               e my rew
                              ards if I m
                                         eet my go
                                                     als:
                                                            99
                                                    How are Tertiary
                                                    Practices related to
Team                                                the Problem Solving
                                Identify            Process? Let’s
Initiated                      Problems             examine that together.
Problem
Solving
(TIPS)    Evaluate and                           Develop
                                                Hypothesis
Model       Revise
           Action Plan
                               Collect
                               and Use
                                Data


                                           Discuss and
                 Develop and
                                              Select
                  Implement
                                            Solutions
                 Action Plan
                          Problem Solving
                         Meeting Foundations                       100
            Teacher Led Support- How they connect to the
                      problem solving process
Problem Solving         TIPs Problem          Competing              ERASE
Process                 Solving Worksheet     Behavior Pathways

Identify the problem    Primary Problem       Problem Behavior       Explain the problem
                        Statement

Develop hypothesis      Precision Problem     Evaluate Setting       Reason for engaging in
                        Statement             events, antecedents,   the behavior
                                              behavior and
                                              consequences
Discuss and select      Solution Options      Desired alternative    Appropriate behavior-
solutions                                     and strategies to      what he/she should do
                                              address each pathway   instead
                                              component
Develop and             Action Planning       Who/When listed in     Support- plan for
implement action plan                         Strategies             helping student
                                                                     engage in appropriate
                                                                     behavior
Evaluate and revise     Evaluation Planning   Plan review.           Evaluate- to 101
action plan                                                          determine if plan is
                   TIPS Problem Solving
                        Worksheet
æ Use during Activities
æ Date: ___________                                   Resources
       School: ________________                       Page 30
1. Primary Problem Statement
   Problem Statement elements
   æ   Who ___________________________________________________
   æ   What __________________________________________________
   æ   Where _________________________________________________
   æ   When _________________________________________________
   æ   Why ___________________________________________________
2. Precision Problem Statement
                                                                  102
3. Solutions
Prevent
reduce probability of future or continued problem
behavior
Teach
increase probability of positive behavior change
Acknowledge
Provide positive feedback when expected behavior
occurs
Correct
Specific feedback to increase probability of improved
behavior after error
Extinction
reduce reward for problem behavior
Safety
                                                        103
remove occurrence or possibility of injury or harm)
4. Action Planning
  æFor solutions to be implemented, who will do
   what by when?
5. Evaluation Planning
    æGoal Setting (what will it look like when you can
     say there is no longer a problem?)
    æData Collection (gather additional information)
       æTo measure outcomes
       æTo measure fidelity of implementation



                                                         104
Teacher-Led Functional Support:
     Competing Pathways




                              105
              Competing Pathways:
          Chart Behavior & Hypothesize



Setting                    Problem     Maintaining
             Antecedents
Events                     Behavior   Consequences




                                               106
           Competing Pathways:
     Identify Replacement Behavior(s)

Setting                  Problem       Maintaining
          Antecedents
Events                   Behavior     Consequences


                        Acceptable
                        Acceptable
                        Alternative
                        Acceptable
                        Alternative
                        Acceptable
                        Alternative
                        Alternative
                                       Maintaining
                                      Consequences
                         Desired
                        Alternative             107
         Competing Pathways:
                                            Resources
         Identify Interventions             Page 32



Setting      Triggering     Problem       Maintaining
Events       Antecedents    Behavior     Consequences

                           Acceptable
                           Alternative    Maintaining
                            Desired      Consequences
                           Alternative

 Setting
  Event                     Behavior
              Antecedent                  Consequence
Strategies                  Teaching
              Strategies                   Strategies
                            Strategies
                                                    108
Case Study: Eddie




                    109
            Case Study: Eddie

æDo we have a problem?
æWhat data do you
 have?
æWhat might you still
 need to collect?



                                110
            Designing Functional Interventions




  Setting       Triggering     Problem        Maintaining
  Events        Antecedents    Behavior      Consequences



    Verbal       Asked to        Verbal      Avoids hand-
disagreements
  with peers      turn in     Disagreement   ing in home-
 before class   homework      With teacher       work

                                                      111
                       Hypothesis

æWhat is your hypothesis
 about the problem behavior?



When Eddie is ___________ and __________ (happens), he
              where/setting      context/antecedent



typically responds by _________ to gain/avoid ____________ .
                      behavior              function
                                                        112
           Replacement Behavior

æWhat do you want the student to do
 instead of the problem behavior?
æWill the behavior require shaping with a
 series of successive approximations of the
 desired behavior?




                                          113
 Setting    Triggering     Problem          Maintaining
 Events     Antecedents    Behavior        Consequences


             Asked to        Verbal          Avoids
 Verbal
              turn in     Disagreement      handing in
Disagree
            homework      with teacher      homework
ment with
 peers
 before                    Acceptable
                           Alternative
  class                   Request help/
                          Write down
                          assignments      Maintaining
                                           Consequences
                            Desired        Adjusted work
                            Behavior      Completion goals
                           Eddie will
                            complete
                            assigned                   114
                           homework
       Utilizing the Competing Behavior
           Pathways Strategies Sheet


æHow can you impact each area involved
 with the challenging behavior?
æConsider:
  æInstruction
  æInterventions
  æEnvironmental modification


                                          115
                 Intervention & Support Strategies:
                            Eddie’s Plan
Event              Antecedent        Behavior       Consequences
Strategies         Strategies        Teaching       Strategies
                                     Strategies
                                                      Complete
                                     Teach Eddie      missing
  Teacher            Re-teach and                     assignments
                     reinforce the   how to
  and                                                 in study hall.
                     homework        request help
  students                                            Earn free
                     submission      and write
  will utilize                                        homework
                     routine.        down
  Peer                                                passes for
                                     assignments.
  Mediation                                           every 8
  Strategies.                                         assignments
                                                      turned in on
                                                      time.



                                                               116
         Implement the Strategies

æWho is responsible?
æResources?
æWhen to review?
æGoal?
æCollect data during implementation



                                      117
                              Eddie’s Plan Example

  Event               Antecedent            Behavior           Consequences
  Strategies          Strategies            Teaching           Strategies
                                            Strategies
                                                               Complete
                                                               missing
                         Re-teach and        Teach Eddie       assignments in
    Teacher
                         reinforce the       how to            study hall. Earn
    and
                         homework            request help      free homework
    students
                         submission          and write         passes for
    will utilize
                         routine.            down              every 8
    Peer
                                             assignments.      assignments
    Mediation
    Strategies.                                                turned in on
                                                               time.
Plan review date: 11/19/2011
We agree to the conditions of this plan.
Eddie Smith                                _________________
Student                                    Parent
_____________                              _____________                   118
Teacher                                    Team member
                  Evaluate

æWas the plan implemented consistently
 and with fidelity?
æDid it work?
æWhat changes need to be made?




                                         119
                       Eddie’s Plan Review

Event          Antecedent         Behavior           Consequences
Strategies     Strategies         Teaching           Strategies
                                  Strategies          Complete missing
Teacher and     Re-teach and
students                          Teach Eddie how     assignments in
                reinforce the
will utilize                      to request help     study hall. Earn
                homework
Peer                              and write down      free homework
                submission
Mediation                         assignments.        passes for every 8
                routine.
Strategies.                       Update 11/19/11-    assignments
                Update
Update                            Taught 9/30/11.     turned in on time.
                11/19/11- re-
11/19/11- 3                       Increased from 1    Update 11/19/11-
                taught on
peers                             completed           Increased number
                9/30/11;
attended PM                       assignment/wk to    of assignments
                reinforced with
trng. 1 peer                      8 completed         completed by 60%.
                Free
was observed                      assignments/ wk.    Eddie is earning
                homework
using                                                 free homework
                passes, 6
strategies                                            passes.
                earned to date.
with Eddie.                                                     120
      Case Study Practice: Shane
             Watch this video clip of
              Shane’s behavior
             in math class and
             identify problems.




                                  Workbook
æPractice with your team.         Page 12

                                             121
 Teacher led Functional
Assessment of Behavior:
        ERASE




                  Resources
                  Page 33-37

                               122
                                                ERASE
Supplemental                                    problem
Resources
Page 34
                          Explain               behavior
                     What is the problem?



    Evaluate                                    Reason
How will you know                    What is he/she getting out
   if it works?                      of it or getting away from?




           Support                        Appropriate
    How can you help this             What would you like
    happen more often?                him/her to do instead?

                          (Scott, n.d.)
                          ERASE: Explain

æWhat is the problem?
   æCreate an operational definition of behavior
   æDescribe why the behavior is a problem
   æDetermine if student can engage in
    appropriate behavior.
   æList what has already been tried.



 PBIS Newsletter, Volume 2, Issue 3
                                                   124
                          ERASE: Reason

æWhat is student getting or avoiding?
æDetermine what times, locations,
 contexts, conditions, etc. tend to
 predict or precede:
   æproblem behavior
   æappropriate behavior


 PBIS Newsletter, Volume 2, Issue 3
                                          125
                ERASE: Reason

æDetermine what types of events tend to
 follow behavior?
  æpeers, instruction, consequences, etc.
  æafter problem behavior
  æafter appropriate behavior




                                            126
                 ERASE: Reason

æMake a guess at the function – why do
 you think he/she is doing this?
  æaccess to . . . (persons, objects, attention,
   etc.)
  æescape or avoid . . . (persons, activities,
   attention, etc.)



                                                   127
                     ERASE: Appropriate


 æWhat would you like student to do
  instead?
     æDetermine what times, locations, contexts,
      conditions, etc. tend to predict or precede:
          æfair pair – incompatible with problem (can’t do at
           same time)
          æfunctional – meets the same function as problem
           behavior

PBIS Newsletter, Volume 2, Issue 3                        128
                        ERASE: Support

æHow can you help this happen more
 often?
   æDetermine how the replacement behavior
    and intervention plan will be taught
       æRules (what it is and -- when, where, how, and
        why to use behavior)
       æExamples (modeling and use of naturally
        occurring examples)
       æPractice (opportunities to practice with teacher
        feedback)
                                                       129
PBIS Newsletter, Volume 2, Issue 3
               ERASE: Support

æConsider realistic routines and physical
 arrangements that could be
 implemented to facilitate student
 success (avoid predictable failure and
 create success opportunities)
  æprompts and reminders
  æsupervise
  æavoid triggers
                                            130
                 ERASE: Support

æDetermine appropriate consequences for
 replacement and problem behaviors –
 and consider what is realistic for you to
 do
  æreinforcement (matches function)
  æcorrection (how might this happen?)
  ænegative consequences (matches function)
  ænatural (try to keep it as realistic as possible)
                                                   131
                       ERASE: Evaluate

æHow will you know if it works?
   æConsider realistic strategies for measuring
    behavior
       ækeep it simple
       æconsider times and conditions where
        measurement would be particularly meaningful
        and realistic



PBIS Newsletter, Volume 2, Issue 3
                                                       132
               ERASE: Evaluate

æConsider what your measure will look
 like when the behavior is no longer a
 problem
  æmeasurable behavior
  æby what time should this happen?




                                         133
         Activity: ERASE Process

æReview the data for Elvin
æWrite the corresponding letter from the
 ERASE process that best describes where
 the information would be entered on the
 ERASE form

                                Workbook
                                Pages 13-14


                                              134
           Activity: Paper Kids

æDo you have students like this?

æHow do you help?




                                   135
     General Recommendations For
          Tertiary Practices
æKeep doing what is already working
æAlways look for the smallest change
 that will produce the largest effect
  æAvoid defining a large number of goals
  æDo a small number of things well



                                        136
    General Recommendations For
         Tertiary Practices

æDo not add something new without
 also defining what you will stop doing
 to make the addition possible
æWhen it comes to problem behavior
 nothing is 100%


                                     137
        Activity: Tertiary Practices

æEvaluate and plan for Tertiary Practices




                                   Workbook
                                   Page 15

                                              138
Additional training available for the team
  in your school that will be providing
   support and practicing the FBA/BIP
                 processes




                                        139
Team                                                                               Let’s Practice!
Initiated                                     Identify
Problem                                      Problems

Solving
(TIPS)
Model           Evaluate and                                              Develop
                   Revise                                                Hypothesis
                 Action Plan
                       .

                                               Collect
                                               and Use
                                                Data




                                                                 Discuss and
                           Develop and                              Select
                            Implement                             Solutions
                           Action Plan

                                       Problem Solving
                                      Meeting Foundations
   Newton, J.S., Todd, A.W., Algozzine, K, Horner, R.H. & Algozzine, B. (2009). The Team Initiated
        Using the Referrals by Student report
         as a Universal Screening Tool- Who?
                                                               Let’s review
                                                                       BH
                Use the data to                                  data for
              identify individual                               Brandon.
             students in need of
              tertiary supports.




  Newton, J.S., Todd, A.W., Algozzine, K, Horner, R.H. & Algozzine, B. (2009). The Team Initiated
Problem Solving (TIPS) Training Manual. Educational and Community Supports, University of Oregon
                                   unpublished training manual.
When?
When?
What?
Where?
Why?




       146
Do we have a problem?
Team
Initiated
                                             Identify
Problem                                     Problems
Solving
(TIPS)
Model
                 Evaluate and                                    Develop
                    Revise                                      Hypothesis
                  Action Plan
                          .

                                             Collect
                                             and Use
                                              Data




                                                         Discuss and
                              Develop and                   Select
                               Implement                  Solutions
                              Action Plan

                                         Problem Solving
                                        Meeting Foundations
  (Newton, et al, 2009)
                         Problem Statements
æWrite a “problem statement” that
 specifies the precise nature of the
 problem
æThe more Ws (what, when, where, who,
 why) you incorporate into the problem
 statement, the more precise the problem
 statement will be
æThe more precise the problem statement,
 the easier it will be to generate a solution
 that “fits” the problem
                                              149
 (Newton, et al, 2009)
                                  Problem-Solving Action Plan
         Write your
      Precise Problem                                                Implementation and Evaluation
      Statement here.
    Precise Problem Statement,      Solution Actions (e.g.,                        Goal with Timeline,
      based on review of data      Prevent, Teach, Prompt,     Who?       By       Fidelity & Outcome
    (What, When, Where, Who,         Reward, Correction,                 When?     Measures, & Updates
               Why)                  Extinction, Safety)


BH has received 7 ODRs
during the first grading period   Re-teach
                                                              SS         11/1/10 JM will earn 80% of
for disrespectful behaviors       Responsibility lessons
                                  Implement CICO                                 his daily points on his
including inappropriate                                                          daily progress report
language and harassment in        Reinforce on-task           JA         11/3/10
                                  behaviors with DPR                             per day for 4/5 days per
the classroom during reading
                                                              All        11/3/10 week by 12/18/10
possibly motivated by peer                                    teachers
attention.




       (Newton, et al, 2009)
Team Initiated                                                               Quick
Problem Solving                               Identify
                                                                             Review
(TIPS) Model                                 Problems




                  Evaluate and                                   Develop
                     Revise                                     Hypothesis
                   Action Plan
                           .

                                              Collect
                                              and Use
                                               Data




                                                         Discuss and
                               Develop and                  Select
                                Implement                 Solutions
                               Action Plan

                                          Problem Solving
                                         Meeting Foundations
   (Newton, et al, 2009)
              Solutions – Generic Strategies

æ Prevent – Remove or alter “trigger” for problem behavior
æ Define & Teach – Define behavioral expectations; provide
  demonstration/instruction in expected behavior (alternative to
  problem behavior
æ Reward/reinforce – The expected/alternative behavior when it
  occurs; prompt for it, as necessary
æ Withhold reward/reinforcement – For the problem behavior, if
  possible (“Extinction”)
æ Use non-rewarding/non-reinforcing corrective consequences – When
  problem behavior occurs
æ Although not a “solution strategy,” Safety may need to be
  considered (i.e., procedures that may be required to decrease
  likelihood of injuries or property damage)
                                                                152
  (Newton, et al, 2009)
Problem statement: BH has received 7 ODRs during the first grading period
for disrespectful behaviors including inappropriate language and
harassment in the classroom during reading possibly motivated by peer
attention.
Prevent “Trigger”
Define & Teach             Reteach Respect lessons emphasizing
                           alternatives to cursing . Teach 5 alternative
                           phrases to express frustration.
Reward/Reinforce Establish behavior contract and reward earning
                 80% of points per day.
Withhold Reward            Teach peers to withhold attention.
Corrective                 Ask for alternative way of expressing his
consequence                thoughts/feelings. Suggest alternatives when
                           necessary.
Other
Safety
   (Newton, et al, 2009)
                                  Problem-Solving Action Plan
                                     Write Solutions
                                          here.                       Implementation and Evaluation

    Precise Problem Statement,       Solution Actions (e.g.,                        Goal with Timeline,
      based on review of data       Prevent, Teach, Prompt,     Who?       By       Fidelity & Outcome
    (What, When, Where, Who,          Reward, Correction,                 When?     Measures, & Updates
               Why)                   Extinction, Safety)


JM has received 2 ODRs
during the first grading period    Re-teach Respect
                                                               SS         11/1/10 JM will earn 80% of
for disruptive behaviors in the    lessons.
                                   Teach 5 alternative                            his daily points on his
classroom during reading                                                          daily progress report
possibly motivated by              expressions.                JA         11/3/10
                                   Behavior Contract and                          per day for 4/5 days per
attention.
                                   Reinforce 80% use of        All        11/3/10 week by 12/18/10
                                   appropriate language.       teachers




       (Newton, et al, 2009)
Team Initiated                                                               Quick
Problem Solving                               Identify
                                                                             Review
(TIPS) Model                                 Problems




                  Evaluate and                                   Develop
                     Revise                                     Hypothesis
                   Action Plan
                           .

                                              Collect
                                              and Use
                                               Data




                                                         Discuss and
                               Develop and                  Select
                                Implement                 Solutions
                               Action Plan

                                          Problem Solving
                                         Meeting Foundations
   (Newton, et al, 2009)
                                                                 Document
               Problem-Solving Action Plan                                                Document
                                                               Implementation
                                                                                          Goal here.
                                                                    here.
                                                                     Implementation and Evaluation

    Precise Problem Statement,      Solution Actions (e.g.,                        Goal with Timeline,
      based on review of data      Prevent, Teach, Prompt,     Who?       By       Fidelity & Outcome
    (What, When, Where, Who,         Reward, Correction,                 When?     Measures, & Updates
               Why)                  Extinction, Safety)


JM has received 2 ODRs
during the first grading period   Re-teach
                                                              SS         11/1/10 BH will earn 80% of
for disruptive behaviors in the   Responsibility lessons
                                  Implement CICO                                 his daily points on his
classroom during reading                                                         behavior contract per
possibly motivated by             Reinforce on-task           JA         11/3/10
                                  behaviors with DPR                             day for 4/5 days per
attention.
                                                              All        11/3/10 week by 12/18/10
                                                              teachers




       (Newton, et al, 2009)
Team Initiated                                                               Quick
Problem Solving                               Identify
                                                                             Review
(TIPS) Model                                 Problems




                  Evaluate and                                   Develop
                     Revise                                     Hypothesis
                   Action Plan
                           .

                                              Collect
                                              and Use
                                               Data




                                                         Discuss and
                               Develop and                  Select
                                Implement                 Solutions
                               Action Plan

                                          Problem Solving
                                         Meeting Foundations
   (Newton, et al, 2009)
                                                                                            Evaluate
                         Problem-Solving Action Plan                                         here.
                                                                     Implementation and Evaluation

    Precise Problem Statement,      Solution Actions (e.g.,                         Goal with Timeline,
      based on review of data      Prevent, Teach, Prompt,     Who?       By        Fidelity & Outcome
    (What, When, Where, Who,         Reward, Correction,                 When?      Measures, & Updates
               Why)                  Extinction, Safety)

                                                                                       11/1 BM has shown
JM has received 2 ODRs                                                               some initial progress
during the first grading period   Re-teach
                                                              SS         11/1/10        with his 80% of
                                                                                   JM will earnbehavior
for disruptive behaviors in the   Responsibility lessons
                                                                                         contract and he
                                                                                   his daily points on his
classroom during reading          Implement CICO                                        earned 80% of his
                                  Reinforce on-task           JA         11/3/10
                                                                                   daily progress report
possibly motivated by                                                                 points for the past 8
                                  behaviors with DPR                                            4/5 days
                                                                                   per day for Update: per
                                                                                          days.
attention.                                                                         week by 12/18/10the
                                                              All        11/3/10        continue with
                                                              teachers                plan. Consider next-
                                                                                           Add a self-
                                                                                           monitoring
                                                                                         component and
                                                                                         check back in 2
                                                                                             weeks.

                                       Newton,, et. al., 2009
          Problem Solving Practice
æUse your disciplinary data and the results
 of the team activities to practice the
 problem solving process
æIf you do not have your own data, practice
 data is provided in the Resources pages 38
 -40
æUse the TIPS problem solving
                                     Resources
 worksheet to assist you with       Workbook
                                            the
                                     Page 38-40
                                    Page 16
 process
                                             160
Planning for Implementation




                              161
     Tertiary Action Planning

                                        Workbook
æReview your individual student         Page 17
 discipline data
æApply the problem solving steps
æDevelop your Module 3 Action Plan
  æWhat is the plan for individual students
   with intensive needs?
  æWhat is the plan for data
   & support systems to
   address students with
   intensive needs?                           162
         Action Planning          Workbook
                                  Page 18


æUse your Implementation Inventory Data
æConsider Universal, Secondary and
 Tertiary Implementation
æReview the action steps
 your team has developed
 during training, prioritize
 items, and finalize your
 action plan (Action Plan document)
                                          163
       Additional Tools and Support

æwww.ncpublicschools.org/positivebehavior/
æwww.pbisassessment.org
æwww.pbis.org
æAll references are cited in the reference
 section of your workbook
æTechnical Assistance—Your
 Regional or LEA Coordinator Resources
                             Pages 42-45

                                           164
          Conclusion of Module 3

æQuestions?

æPlease complete and return your training
 evaluation form

æThank you!


                                            165

				
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