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					 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMPUTER ENGINEERING &
 International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print),
                               TECHNOLOGY (IJCET)
 ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. 94-108 © IAEME


ISSN 0976 – 6367(Print)
ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online)
                                                                                IJCET
Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. 94-108
© IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijcet.asp                                              ©IAEME
Journal Impact Factor (2014): 8.5328 (Calculated by GISI)
www.jifactor.com




       APPLICATION OF GEOINFORMATICS ON DELINEATION OF
    GROUNDWATER POTENTIAL ZONES OF CHITRADURGA DISTRICT,
                       KARNATAKA, INDIA

                           Basavarajappa H.T1, Manjunatha M.C2, Jeevan L3
  1,2,3
          Department of Studies in Earth Science, Centre for Advanced Studies in Precambrian Geology,
                      University of Mysore, Manasagangothri, Mysore-570 006, India


 ABSTRACT

         Water is the main source of domestic, engineering, industrial and agricultural uses which
 affects the surface and groundwater quality and quantity. Geoinformatics encompasses Survey of
 India (SoI) toposheet, Satellite Remote Sensing (RS), Geographic Information System (GIS) and
 Global Positioning System (GPS) for mapping & integration of geology, drainage, lineament, soil
 types, slope category, land use/land cover and other related features in assessing the ground water
 resources of a region. The present study aims to map, integrate the Geo-informatics application to
 delineate groundwater potential zones in hard rock terrain of Chitradurga District, Karnataka. Efforts
 have been made to evaluate the groundwater level contour (in meters) using SoI toposheets
 (1:50,000) and False Color Composite (FCC) images of IRS-1C/1D PAN+LISS-III (2005-06). Slope
 map is prepared by using (SoI) topomap (year-2001) of 1:50,000 scale. Thematic maps have been
 prepared by adopting Visual Image Interpretation Techniques (VIIT) and are integrated using Arc
 GIS v10 software. The resultant composite coverage is used to classify the area into excellent, good,
 moderate and poor groundwater potential zones based on certain weightages. This study
 demonstrates the potentiality of Geo-informatics technique in preparation of more consistent and
 accurate baseline information on groundwater prospects. The final results highlight the favorable
 conditions of groundwater potential zones in hard rock terrain in Chitradurga District, Karnataka,
 which is a suitable model for exploration in similar geological conditions.

 Keywords: Geoinformatics, Groundwater prospects, and Chitradurga District.

 1. INTRODUCTION

         Groundwater targeting is a difficult task due to typical hydrological properties of unconfined
 and fractured aquifers in hard rock terrains. In India, especially around the shear zones of Karnataka,
 features formed due to polyphase metamorphism, multi & repetitive deformational episodes, unique
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ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. 94-108 © IAEME

fracture pattern and their chronologies control on the occurrences of groundwater [17]. Factors like
geological structures, soil, slope, relief, lithology, intensity of weathering, types of weathered
material, thickness of regolith, nature of deposited material, assemblage of different landforms and
its control defines the groundwater region [15,16,24,25]. Observing the terrain features like
geological structures and analyzing their hydrologic characteristics through both high resolution
satellite images and field studies, is possible to identify the potential zones [12,21] through
Geoinformatics [20] in groundwater investigation, exploration and exploitation. The groundwater
usually occurs at depth in the fractures and fault zone of the crystalline rocks under semi-confined to
confined conditions. Major water bearing formations are fractured / weathered gneisses and granite,
with thickness of the weathered zone varying from less than a meter near hill slopes and higher
altitudes to about 39 m in valleys and low lying areas [19]. Geoinformatics application is an advent
hi-tech tool for extraction and integration of information and its utilization for sustainable
development on particular regions of the country [2,5], especially in cases where resources lie hidden
below the earth’s surface at certain depths, as in the case of groundwater. The paleo-channels of the
study are also mapped using satellite data which gives additional information regarding water
bearing zones like hidden aquifers, old river course, fractures and valley fills [2,4].

2. STUDY AREA

         The study area is largely divided into two major zones namely, eastern vedavathi plains,
which includes taluks of Challakere, Hiriyur and Southern part of Molakalmuru and Central hilly
forest zone, which includes taluks like Hosadurga, northern part of Molakalmuru and eastern part of
Holalkere [10,19]. The slope of the area is from West to East. A Vanivilas Sagar reservoir has built
across the Vedavathi near Vanivilaspura in Hiriyur taluk and a canal network provides irrigation
facilities. The river Tungabhadra drains the major parts of the study area. A major part of the district
lies in Krishna basin and is drained by Vedavathi river. The other streams are Janagahalli,
Chikhagari, Swarnamukhi, Garain and Nayakanahalli halla along with 300 tanks in the district
providing irrigation facilities [6].




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3. LOCATION

        The study area lies in between 13° 34' to 15° 02' N latitude and 76° 00' to 77° 01' E longitude
with a total areal extent of 8,338 sq km (7,70,702 hectares) (Fig.1). It include six taluks namely
Challakere, Chitradurga, Hiriyur, Holalkere, Hosadurga and Molakalmuru with general ground
elevation of 732 m above MSL. The study area experiences a hot, seasonally dry, tropical savannah
climate which receives low to moderate rainfall.

4. CLIMATE & RAINFALL

       The average annual rainfall in the district is 574 mm (1981-2010) recorded from last three
decades. The maximum annual rainfall recorded is 1094mm (2010), while minimum is 345mm
(2003). The maximum temperature may rise upto 410C, while minimum is 170C; may falls upto 120C
during winter season. SW monsoon (June-Sep) contributes major portion of rainfall about 356.6 mm;
NE monsoon (Oct-Dec) contributes 113.5 mm (2008); winter (Jan-Feb) 103.7 mm and summer
(Mar-May) 67.6 mm in the study area.

                 Table.1: Taluk wise annual rainfall data of the study area (in mm)
    Year   Challakere Chitradurga Hiriyur Holalkere Hosadurga Molkalmuru Average
    1996        757.0        815.0  623.0     560.0      732.0      880.0  727.8
    1997        597.0        715.0  482.0     728.0      612.0      632.0  627.6
    1998        771.4        673.4  502.2     604.6      666.5      506.6  620.7
    1999        432.5        724.5  684.9     740.2     1068.7      887.7  756.4
    2000        654.8        765.2  790.3     846.3      898.2      591.8  757.7
    2001        584.0        501.0  564.0     573.0      520.0      574.0  552.6
    2002        404.0        555.0  655.0     590.0      507.0      392.0  517.1
    2003        330.0        384.0  305.0     447.0      366.0      239.0  345.1
    2004        387.0        618.0  532.0     703.0      918.0      604.0  627.0
    2005        765.0        949.0  877.0     749.0      740.0      628.0  784.6
    2006        359.1        496.4  421.7     547.5      593.9      337.0  459.2
    2007        560.7        686.0  786.5     644.7      672.3      780.0  688.3
    2008        748.7        833.4  658.0     810.0      790.6      540.2  730.1
    2009        739.5        853.6  761.8    1148.7      933.8      966.0  900.5
    2010        762.6       1166.6  810.1    1455.5     1185.1     1185.1 1094.1
    2011        132.0        436.0  363.6     546.1       573       573.0  355.6
Source: Department of Mines & Geology, Chitradurga

5. METHODS & MATERIALS

5.1 Methods
        Satellite RS and GIS is adopted as a tool for analyzing, integrating the information database
to generate thematic maps such as geology, drainage, lineament, soil type, and slope. Geoinformatics
techniques are used as an advent hi-tech tool with GIS software’s to map, analyze water resources
and its management, development for future purpose [14]. Preparation of various thematic maps and
integrating them using Advanced Applied Application (AAA) of various layers providing proper
weightages for targeting the Groundwater Prospect Zones (GPZ) of the study area.




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5.2 Materials
                                             Table.2 Materials used
  Type of Data             Details of Data                                   Sources of Data
                           57A/12, 57B/3, 57B/4, 57B/6, 57B/7, 57B/8,
                           57B/9, 57B/10, 57B/11, 57B/12, 57B/13,
  Toposheets                                                            Survey of India (SoI), Bangalore
                           57B/14, 57B/15, 57B/16, 57C/1, 57C/2, 57C/5,
                           57C/6, 57C/9, 57C/10, 57C/13 (Fig.3)
  Present work:                                                              *Geological Survey of India (GSI),
  Thematic maps of                                                           Calcutta.
  Geology, Drainage,       Scale 1:2,50,000 (Reduced to 1:25,000)            *National Bureau of Soil Survey and
  Lineament, Soil Slope                                                      Land Use Planning (NBSS & LUP),
  and Land use/ land cover                                                   Bangalore.
                           LISS-III                 PAN+LISS-III
  Remote Sensing digital
                           Date        Resolution   Date        Resolution   National Remote Sensing Agency
  data sets of IRS-1C &
                                                                             (NRSA), Hyderabad
  1D
                           2000-01     23.5 m       2005-06     5.8m

  Rainfall data            30 years rainfall data (1981-2010)                MGD, Chitradurga
  GIS software's           Arc View 3.2, Erdas Imagine 9.2 and Arc GIS v10


6. CROPPING PATTERN

        The main food crops grown are Rice, Ragi, Jowar, Paddy, Maize; Pulses & seed crops area as
Red gram, Horse gram, Green gram, Bengal gram, Ground nut and Tur. The commercial crops such
as Sugarcane, Cotton and Tobacco are also grown. The total cultivable land is dryland which covers
about 62%. Only about 9% of cropland (63,631 ha) is irrigated. Further, 79% of the irrigated land is
dependent on tube wells, 9% each on tanks, canals and 3% on open wells. There are 291 small and
large tanks were identified in the study area, which provide irrigation facilities to small stretches of
lands. Agriculture in the district is rainfed and mainly dependent on timely and adequate rainfall [6].




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7. GEOLOGY

        The general trend of the schist belt is N 200 W and S 200 E and dipping both in East and West
directions varying from 55 to 850. Several parallel hill ranges are noticed as a schistose rocks of
Chitradurga, a major Schist belt of Dharwar Craton. The major rock types are Banded Hematite
Quartzite (BHQ), talc, sericite schist, shale, basic metavolcanic rocks, phyllite, quartzites and
basement peninsular gneisses, are intruded by dolerite dykes, quartzites, manganese, iron formations
and quartz veins.

8. SOIL

         Soils are essential units in controlling the infiltration of rainwater and surface flow patterns.
Soil is formed from the weathering of rocks & minerals; is an essential unit in controlling the
infiltration of rainwater and surface flow patterns. Soil moisture consists of organic and inorganic
materials, water and air [7]. Mapping different types of soil is carried out using information derived
from satellite image [4]. Soil types in the study area are identified as Clayey in and surrounding parts
of trijunction of Hiriyur, Chitradurga and Hosadurga taluk; Clayey mixed soil in Molakalmuru,
eastern portions of Challakere, and some parts of Holalkere, Hosadurga and Hiriyur taluk; Clayey
Skeletal soil in western parts of Challakere, few parts of Chitradurga, Holalkere taluk; Loamy soil in
major parts of Chitradurga, Holalkere, Hosadurga taluk and small parts of Molkalmuru; and Rocky
land soil is found in central portions of Molkalmuru, Holalkere, few parts of Chitradurga and
Challakere taluk.




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9. DRAINAGE

         Drainage patterns are the reflections of surface and subsurface conditions. Drainage Density
is directly related to surface run-off due to fact that more the drainage density, runoff will be higher.
The drainage map is prepared using SoI topographical maps on 1:50,000 scale and updated with
satellite imagery. The major river ‘Vedavathi’ drains major parts of the study area. It is a tributary of
the Tungabhadra river, which ultimately drains into the Krishna river. Vedavathi is formed by the
confluence of two streams namely Veda and Avati, which originate in the Bababudan hills of
neighboring Chikmagalur district. The river flows with the Tungabhadra running for a few miles
along the North-Western boundary. The Vedavathi river enters the district in South-West part and
flows in the North-East direction into the Vanivilasa Sagara dam built along Marikanive hills near
Hiriyur. Minor parts of the district are irrigated by river and tanks [6]. The study area has varied
drainage patterns viz., trellis, rectangle, anastomatic and dichotomic types.

10. RIVERS AND TANKS

        Precipitation is distinctly assertive in the generation of a drainage pattern. A detailed
geospatial analysis has been made in this study to decipher the role of drainage in controlling the
occurrence of groundwater. Janagahalla, Suvarnamuki and Garani are the other important streams of
the district that drain into the Vedavati. The length of river within the district is 208 km. About 162
major tanks, 135 minor tanks, 5,643 tube-wells have been identified in the District [6].




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11. LINEAMENT

        Lineaments and fractures play a vital role in controlling the movement and storage of
groundwater in hard rock terrain [2,3,18,23]. Lineaments are important in rock formations where
secondary permeability and porosity dominate and inter-granular characteristics combine in
secondary opening influencing weathering, soil, water and groundwater movement. The lineament
map has been prepared using the satellite image. Lineaments were extracted by image processing
techniques using Erdas Imagine v.9.2 software and IRS-1D LISS III digital data. Most of the wells,
ponds, tanks which falls under the major lineament provides excellent, good, moderate and poor
yield. Occurrence and movement of ground water depends on the secondary porosity such as
lithological contact and geological structures like unconformities, folds, faults, bedding plains,
fracture, joints, shear zones, etc. They provide the pathways for ground water movement and are
hydrogeologically very important [4, 22]. Areas with high lineament density are good for
groundwater prospect zones [2,9,11].




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12. SLOPE

        Slope is an essential aspect for surface water flow, has a bearing over the infiltration
possibilities. Gentle slope encourage more recharge than a steep slope. The slope aspect information
has been derived from SoI top maps on 1:50,000 scale (20 m contour interval) using [1] guidelines
on slope categories. Higher degree of slope results in rapid runoff and increased erosion rate occur
with feeble recharge potential [13]. The values are grouped into 7 classes viz., nearly level (0-1%)
noticed in Molkalmuru, northern parts of Challakere, and small parts of Holalkere, Hosadurga &
Hiriyur; very gently sloping (1-3%) occurs at small parts of Chitradurga, Holalkere; gently sloping
(3-5%) observed at few parts of Chitradurga, Holalkere & Hosadurga; moderately sloping (5-10%)
covers major parts of the district; strongly sloping (10-15%) noticed at small parts of Chitradurga,
Holalkere, Hosadurga & Holalkere; moderately steep to steep sloping (15-35%) noticed major parts
of the study area; and steep (>35%) occurs at small parts of Molakalmuru, Chitradurga, Holalkere,
Hosadurga and Hiriyur.




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                        Table.3. Month-wise Groundwater level contour data in meters (2001)
S
l                                                                                                                                   Averag
     Observation Well   Latitude   Longitude   Jan    Feb    Mar      April      May   June   July   Aug   Sep   Oct   Nov   Dec
                                                                                                                                      e
                                                              Challakere taluk

1   Challakere          14.314     76.6492     7.45   9.15    9.3    9     9.35        9.3    9.5    9.9   6.9   5.1   5.6    6.2   8.07
2   Parasurampura       14.257     76.8837      12    13.3   13.3 13.5 12.8            10.    14.    15.   15.   11.   10.   10.3   12.7
3   Talaku              14.447      76.683     10.1   10.3   10.7 11.5 11.9            12.    13.    13.   13.   9.9   9.8   10.5   11.5
4   Kammathmari         14.233     76.6621     8.35   9.15   9.85 9.75 10.5            9.5    10.    10.   10.   5.2   7.3   7.95   9.13
5   Thimmannanai        14.137      76.824      5.8    6.4   6.65 6.5 7.05             6.1    9.4    10.   8.7   6.8   6.4    6.7   7.23
6   Budnahatti          14.366      76.656      9.4    9.6   9.75 11.5 11.3            11.    12.    12.   10.   5.7   6.0   7.05   9.76
7   Dodderi             14.255     76.6792      9.6    9.7   9.75 10.2 11.3            11.    12.    12.   10.   9.6   9.8    9.6   10.5
8   Purlehalli          14.285     76.7986      4.4   5.15    5.6 5.95 8.2             8.9    9.7    10.   8.2   2.7   2.8   2.05    6.2
9   Nagagondahall       14.375     76.8215     6.45    6.7    6.4   7.3     6.9        7.1    7.3    7.7   6.4   4.8   5.1   6.05   6.54
1   Mylanahalli         14.444     76.8244     12.1   12.3   12.4 12.2 13.0            13.    15.    15.   12.   11.   10.   11.4   12.7
1   Obalapura           14.470      76.927     15.0   15.7    17   17.7 17.5           21.    24     25.   22.   6.3    5     5.8   16.0
1   Kaparahalli         14.164      76.692      5.7    6.1    6.3   6.2 8.55           8.5    10.    11.   10.   3.9    5     5.1   7.33
                                                           Chitradurga taluk
1   Bharamasagara       14.370     76.1927     25.9   26.0 26.8 28.8 30.2              30.    29.    29.   31.   30.   31.   32.6   29.5
1   Turuvanur           14.402      76.441     19.7   20.5 20.8 21.3 21.8              24.    25.    27.   22.   21.   22.   23.2   22.6
1   Medakaripura        14.23       76.439     2.22   3.65 4.6      3.7     5.1        4.1    5.5    5.3   5.5   2.5   4.9   7.45   4.56
1   Kallahalli          14.249     76.5179     10.6    11     14   11.7 10.7           12.    14     14.   14.   12.   10.   11.3   12.2
1   Bhahadurgatta       14.433     76.1779     20.0   23.6 25.8 28.5 28.6              28.    29.    27.   29.   28.   28.   29.8   27.4
1   Vijapura            14.291     76.2825     16.1   15.8 16.7     17     17.2        17.    16.    16.   17.   16.   16.   16.8   16.7
1   Belagatta           14.312     76.4556     19.9   20.9 23.2 23.8 28.6              28.    33.    33.   32.   22.   26.   29.8   27.0
2   Bommakkanah         14.371     76.5117      5.1    5.2    5.8   5.3 5.75           6.6     7      8    6.0   4.7   5.2    4.9    5.8
2   Chikkagondana       14.333     76.3331     15.9   15.6 16.7 16.9 17.5              18.    19.    18.   17.   16.   17.   17.7   17.2
2   Guddarangavv        14.289      76.396     25.7   25.9 26.1 26.5 26.9              27.    27.    26.   26.   23.   24.   24.7   26.0
                                                             Hiriyur taluk
2   Gollahalli          14.122     76.6544     3.29   3.69 3.94 4.09 4.19              5.0    5.3    6.2   5.2   2.1   2.3   3.19   4.07
2   Bharamagiri         13.927     76.4972      9.3    9.4 10.1 10.4 11.1              13.    15.    10.   7.7   9.1   9.4   9.75   10.4
2   Bagganadu           13.866     76.6924     8.75   8.55 8.8 9.15 14.1               13.    16.    15.   15.   3.8   3.8   6.95   10.4
2   Hiriyur             13.941     76.6169      4.9   5.85     7   6.25 7.15            7      8     8.5   7.7   4.6   5.4    7.3   6.64
2   Balenahally         14.021     76.6437       -      -      -     -       -          -      -      -     -     -     -      -      -
2   Maradihalli         14.131     76.5276      9.7   10.1    10   10.4 10.6           10.    11     11.   11.   10.   10.   10.6   10.6
2   Hariyabbe           14.056     76.8159      20    20.9 23.7 23.8 25.1              28.    29.    32.   30.   19.   19.    20    24.4
3   Yelladakere         13.785      76.568     2.85    3.1    3.5 3.35       3         3.2    3.4    4.5   2.5   2.3   2.9   3.25   3.16
3   Yalakuranahall      14.061     76.4541     6.45    7.1    7.2 7.45 7.7             8.2    8.4    9.5   8.4   8.0   7.8    8.1   7.87
3   Guilahalu           14.048     76.5628      3.5    4.6 4.75 5.4         6.7        7.1    7.6    8.7   8.7   4.2   4.6    5.2   5.93
                                                            Holalkere taluk
3   Horakedevapur       14.031     76.3286      5.9    6.5    6.4   6.7     6.7        6.8    6.8    7.3   5.8   6.1   6.2    6.4   6.47
3   Kummanaghatt        14.031     76.2967       -      -      -     -       -          -      -      -     -     -    2.9    4.2   3.55
3   Arehallihatti       14.034     76.1373     4.85   5.35 5.9      5.9 5.95           6.1    6.3     7    6.4   5.5    6    6.35   5.97
3   Amruthapura         14.137     76.2446     16.8   18.2 18.2 17.9 18.1              18.    18.    18.   18.   18.   17.   18.2   18.1
3   Sasauhala           14.196      76.116     16.1   17.0 18.7 18.0 17.2              17.    16.    16.   15.   14.   15.   15.6   16.5
3   Hirekandavadi       14.187      76.198     20.2   20.6 22.1 20.9 24.0              23     20.    19.   18.   17.   18.   19.2   20.3
3   Chitrahalli         14.109     76.2668     37.7   37.7 38.7 37.9 39.1              40.    30.    38.   40.   37.   39.   40.8   38.2
4   Arehallihatti       14.034     76.1373     3.95    4.8    4.8 5.15 5.15            5.4    5.7    6.5   5.6   4.8   5.4     6    5.28
                                                            Hosadurga taluk
4   Kalkere             13.701     76.3182     4.45    6.6 6.95 7.62 8.1               8.3    9.7    11    10.   7.8   8.1    7.8   8.09
4   Heggere             13.604     76.4393       -      -      -     -       -          -      -     10.   5.7   5.5    6     6.4   6.84
4   G.Nerlakere         13.783     76.4686     2.11   2.21 2.41 2.21 2.41              3.1    3.5    4.1   2.5   1.1   2.5   3.31   2.64
4   Madadakere          13.886     76.3863      1.2    1.7 1.95 4.5         2.5        2.9    3.0    4.5   1.7   1.0   1.6    1.9   2.39
4   Seeranakatte        13.886     76.4268      2.4   2.55 2.85      5      4.6        4.7    3.2    7.8   4.2   4.1   2.2     3     3.9
4   Narasipura          13.880     76.3002     1.15    1.3    1.4   1.7 1.85            2     2.8     3    2.5   0.6   0.9    1.4   1.72
4   Belagur             13.623     76.2902      4.1    4.4 4.45 4.45 4.6               7.1    6.1    7.2   7.2   6.3   6.4    7.6   5.84
4   Ajjakammasag        13.762     76.3878      3.5   4.95     5   6.95 7.25           5.2    6.5    7.4   4.7   3.5   4.1   4.85   5.34
                                                           Molakalmuru taluk
4   B.G.Kere            14.592     76.6744     19.4   23.9 24.1 23.5 22.7              23.    23.    23.   21.   14.   11.   11.9   20.2
5   Rampura             14.881     76.7827     27.2   27.4 27.5 27.8        28         38.    29.    31.   30.   30.   30.   30.4   29.9
    Source: NRDMS, Zilla Panchayat, Chitradurga


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13. WATER TABLE

        The water table refers to the elevation of water surface in wells which cover only the shallow
depth region of the aquifer zone [8]. Groundwater recharge is mainly by direct infiltration of water,
however, in some places adjacent to the river and canal irrigated areas, groundwater is recharged
through infiltration of irrigation water. There are about 47 numbers of dug wells and 12 piezometers
observed in the study area for groundwater contour level monitoring. Lift irrigation covers an area of
2,55,896 ha and surface flow irrigation covers an area of 2,45,766 ha [6]. In a period of 12 years
(1996-2008), the obtained data have been analyzed for seasonal and annual fluctuations [6]. The
resultant composite coverage is classified into four groundwater prospects such as excellent, good,
moderate, and poor prospect zones.




14. INTEGRATION

To overcome with the situation, the existing dugwells may be deepened and deep dugwells may be
converted into dug-cum-borewells to increase the yield. Selections of site for bore well should be
done only on scientific methods as the yield of bore wells are site specific [6]. Groundwater potential
zones are controlled by various factors and the given weightages of each factor differs from place to
place. Preparation of various thematic maps and integrating them using the data of various layers
with proper weightages will certainly provide the opportunity for target identification. Integration of
various thematic maps such as geology, drainage, lineaments, river & tanks, soil types, slope aspects
are prepared from geoinformatics tools along with limited field survey data. Each of the thematic

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ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. 94-108 © IAEME

maps is assigned a weightage grades and ranking from 1 to 4, (1 represents Excellent, 2-Good, 3-
Moderate and 4-poor groundwater prospects). The excellent groundwater prospect zones are noticed
in and along the major parts of Vedavathi river basin, good prospect zones are noticed adjacent to the
major rivers Vedavathi, Janagahalla, Swarnmukhi halla and Nayakanahalli halla sub-basins,
moderate prospect zones occupies the weathered & fractured zones of granites, gneisses and schists
whereas poor prospect zones occupies rocky slopes and hilly mountains.




15. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

        Factors such as low crop productivity, water shortage and scarcity (drinking & irrigation)
leads to degradation of water resources in the Chitradurga District. Loss of vegetation cover, over
grazing and inappropriate cultivation practices in water catchment areas have led to silting of water
bodies such as tanks and dams, resulting in a loss of water storage capacity and reduction of
groundwater recharge. Soil erosion and loss of soil fertility, silting of water bodies and low water
percolation rates, excessive groundwater extraction, overgrazing, and over harvesting of forests are
all factors that result in low crop and water scarcity. The only way to increase and sustain crop and
water supply (for drinking and irrigation) is through conserving natural resources and enhancing
their capacity to provide higher levels of environmental services especially during summer.
Environmental services include recharging groundwater, increasing rain water percolation,

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ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. 94-108 © IAEME

conserving water, increasing the supply of fresh water for drinking, increasing the area irrigated,
reducing soil erosion, increasing soil fertility, conserving biodiversity and reclaiming degraded crop.
Geology, drainage, lineament, soil, slope aspects have been studied to evaluate the excellent, good,
moderate and poor groundwater prospects. Groundwater occurs under phreatic condition in the
weathered rock formations of the ‘Peninsular Gneissic Group’ of rocks comprising of weathered &
fractured granites, gneisses and schists. The thickness of weathered zone varies from less than a
meter near hill slopes and higher altitudes to approximately about 39m in valleys and topographic
low areas. At depth, the groundwater occurs in the fractures and fault zone of these crystalline rocks
under semi-confined to confined conditions. The main source of ground water occurring in the
district is through precipitation and return flow from applied irrigation [6].




16. CONCLUSIONS

       Ground water is one of the main sources for the district. Vedavathi, a tributary of
Tungabhadra flows through the district. Apart from the river, reservoir, tanks are extensively used
for water storage. Metamorphic schistose rocks, weathered & fractured granitic gneisses are the
major water bearing formations in the study area. Methods like crop rotations in the fields and
construction of Artificial Recharge Structures (ARS) in suitable sites may also help in the
groundwater recharge. At depth, the groundwater occurs in the fractures and fault zone of crystalline
rocks under semi-confined to confined conditions. The main source of groundwater occurring in the
study area in through precipitation and return flow from applied irrigation.



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International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print),
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        The resultant composite coverage is classified into four groundwater prospects such as
excellent, good, moderate, and poor zones are delineated based on the given weightage grades and
ranking from 1 (Excellent), 2 (Good), 3 (Moderate) and 4 (Poor). The data derived from the Satellite
and topographic studies have brought out the factor that land use/land cover should be managed
properly for natural resources. Satellite Remote Sensing provides a wide range of information in a
synoptic and temporal manner for mapping and monitoring of groundwater prospect zones in the
most time and cost effective manner. Geographic information systems have thus become the most
effective modern day tools for extraction and integration of information and its utilization, especially
in sub-surface resources. It is found that the geo-informatics application using criterion based
weightages, as adopted, will certainly help in deciphering the groundwater potentials in general,
especially in typical hard rock terrain in South India.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

        The Authors are indepthly acknowledged Prof. S. Govindaiah, Chairman; DoS in Earth
Science, University of Mysore, Mysore-06; Prof. R. Nagendra, Anna University, Chennai; NRDMS,
Zilla Panchayat, Chitradurga; NRSC-Bhuvan, Hyderabad; CGWB, Bangalore and UGC-MRP, New
Delhi for financial support.


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