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					Genetic Engineering and
          Biotechnology
         Created by: Evelin Fuentes
                          Rai Boone
Genetic Engineering 4.4.7
Genetic engineering: the deliberate
 manipulation of genetic material.
Genetic code: The sequence of
 nucleotides in DNA or RNA that determines
 the specific amino acid sequence in the
 synthesis of proteins.
Genetic Engineering
 It is possible to move material between
  species because the genetic code is universal.
 The transfer of genetic code can cause
  genetic mutations in animals
Gene Transfer 4.4.8
 Gene transfer: Involves the use of plasmids,
  host cell (bacterium, yeast, or other cell), restriction
  enzymes (endonucleases), DNA ligase.
 Gene therapy: The treatment of certain diseases
  by introducing specific engineered genes in a
  patients cells.
 Vector: Is what is needed to carry the gene into
  the host cell; plasmids are often used as vectors.
 Restriction enzyme: Used to cut a desired
  section of the DNA.
Plasmids: Used to clone a desired gene.
Host cell: The cell used to receive the genetic
  material.
The use of gene transfer for
diabetics
 A human gene that codes for insulin can be
  inserted into a plasmid and then inserted into
  a host cell (bacterium). The bacterium then
  synthesis insulin which can then be collected
  and used by diabetics.
 ◦ Note- Gene transfer involves the following
   elements: a vector, a host cell, restriction enzyme,
   DNA ligase.
 Step 1: Introduce the desired gene into a
  plasmid and transfer it into a bacterial cell,
  then culture the bacteria.
 ◦ Note: many of the bacteria will have a plasmid with
   the desired gene
 Step 2: Use restriction enzymes to cut the
  desired gene out of the plasmids and purify
  the gene using gel electrophoresis.
 Step 3:
Current genetically modifies
animals or crops 4.4.9
Works Cited
 "Genetic Code: Definition from Answers.com." Answers.com: Wiki
  Q&A Combined with Free Online Dictionary, Thesaurus, and
  Encyclopedias. Web. 13 Feb. 2012.
  <http://www.answers.com/topic/genetic-code>.
 "IB Biology Notes - Genetic Engineering And Biotechnology." IB
  Guides - Free International Baccalaureate Study Guides, Notes,
  Videos and Powerpoints. Web. 13 Feb. 2012.
  <http://www.ibguides.com/biology/notes/genetic-engineering-
  and-biotechnology>.
 "Gene Therapy: Definition from Answers.com." Answers.com:
  Wiki Q&A Combined with Free Online Dictionary, Thesaurus, and
  Encyclopedias. Web. 13 Feb. 2012.
  <http://www.answers.com/topic/gene-therapy>.
 "BrainPOP | Science." BrainPOP - Animated Educational Site for
  Kids - Science, Social Studies, English, Math, Arts. Web. 13 Feb.
  2012. <http://www.brainpop.com/science/>.

				
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