BRIAN HEAD MASTER PLAN August 1995 Brian Head, Utah CREDITS Brian Head Town Council H.R. Deutschlander, former Mayor Les Griffin Steve Griffin, Mayor Bill Murphy Dean Reeder, former Council member Jerry Sempek Bob Schlundt, former Council member Rose Weaver Brian Head Town Planning Commission Leilani Bentley Stan Boicourt Rick Flint Corky Foster Clair Jensen Dean Reeder,former Commissioner Brian Head Town Staff Annie Burchett, Deputy Wade Carpenter, Marshal. Terry Daly, Public Works Director Barbara Foster, Treasurer Judy Gubler, Thwn Manager D. Williams Ronnow, Town Attorney Prepared by: Bingham Engineering Salt Lake City, Utah Bruce Maw Paul Taylor Winston Associates, Inc. Boulder, Colorado Jeffrey T. Winston Sandi Gibson Deborah Trevor TABLE OF CONTENTS What is a Master Plan? The Master Planning Process A Brief Background of Brian Head Description of the Town and Concerns Addressed in this Master Plan Goal and Objectives of the Master Plan Existing Development Land Ownership Patterns Future Growth and Development Potential Natural and Physical Constraints and Opportunities Geology Policies with regard to Geology Slope Slope Categories and their Significance Problems with Past Development on Steep Slopes in Brian Head Policies with Regard to Slope Water Supply Water Sources Water Delivery Water Policies Visual Character Visual Character Policies Land Use Considerations Commercial Giant Steps Village Navajo Area Minor Activity Center at Former Chair 1 Site . . Commercial Policies Residential Residential policies Traffic and Transportation Giant Steps Loop Road Connection Vehicular and Pedestrian Linkage Between Activity Areas Parking Parking Policies Open Space Open Space Policies Recreation Trails Trail Policies Conclusion 1 2 3 4 6 7 9 9 11 11 11 11 11 13 13 13 13 14 15 15 15 16 16 17 19 21 21 21 23 23 23 24 25 25 25 25 26 26 26 29 WHAT IS A MASTER PLAN? A master plan is sometimes referred to as a comprehensive plan or a general plan. It is a community's general guide for making land use decisions. It usually describes a community's goals: how much it wants to grow, and what kind of community it wants to be. It also often describes where the community wishes various land uses to take place. A master plan is general in that the land use designations are approximate, that is, they may be indicated as "bubbles" that do not necessarily follow existing property lines precisely. Although the Master Plan is not a regulatory document in and of itself, it has great authority under Utah law. The Utah Code provides that if a master plan has been adopted, the city or town may require that no streets, parks, public building, or utilities public or private) be constructed unless they are in conformance with the master plan. Brian Head Town has adopted such a "consistency" policy, which is intended to be incorporated by ordinance into the Land Management Code. As a result, the Brian Head Master Plan is the first level in a three-stepped process of regulating land uses: Step 1, the Master Plan guides Step 2, the Zoning Plan. The Zoning Plan is then implemented through Step 3, the Building Permit process. For example, a building permit is issued only for uses that are in conformance with the zoning designation. Typically, one cannot normally get a permit to build a gas station on a lot that is zoned Residential. The zoning designation given to a parcel is usually based on the Master Plan. An area that is designated "low density residential" on the Master Plan, for example, would subsequently be zoned for single family lots (rather than apartments or a gas station). Once the Master Plan is adopted, it is important that the Master Plan and the Town Zoning Plan be consistent. This is brought about by rezoning any parcels that are not in conformance with the Master Plan, or by amending the Master Plan. A master plan is intended to be updated regularly, or as often as community needs, objectives and/or conditions change. To be an effective guide for decision making ~ should be kept reasonably current at all times. Previous Master Plans Brian Head Town has had two previous master plans. The most recent master plan (prior to this one) was developed in 1980, revised in 1982 and adopted in 1983. It identified potential constraints to development related primarily to slope and geology, and it proposed a general organizational structure for the Town. Because of the general nature of the plan, it was not closely followed and it eventually ceased to be an effective guide for the Town. Figure 1: Pod Concept from the 1983 Master Plan The Master Planning Process This amended Master Plan was developed with significant public involvement over approximately two years. The process included public workshops, a survey of needs and impressions about Brian Head, and several public hearings before the Planning Commission and Town Council (through which the Plan was adopted). As mentioned in the introduction, the Master Plan is merely a guide for making land use decisions. It does not in and of itself change the Town's zoning or any individual property rights. However the Town has adopted a "consistency" policy that requires all land use decisions to be consistent with the Master Plan. As a result, it is anticipated that the Town will initiate rezoning of individual properties to bring them into compliance with the Master Plan. (As with any rezoning, all affected property owners will be notified of any proposed changes and have an opportunity to be heard by the Town Council before any proposed changes are adopted.) Similarly, desired land use and/or zoning changes that are not consistent with the Master Plan must be preceded by an amendment to the Master Plan, following the steps outlined in the Brian Head Land Management Code. A BRIEF BACKGROUND OF BRIAN HEAD Development of the Brian Head resort began in 1964 with a T-bar, chairlift and warming hut. The Town was incorporated in 1975, reflecting its evolution from a resort to a community. Since incorporation, Brian Head Town has been governed by a mayor, town council and planning commission. The Town administrative staff consists of a Town Manager, Treasurer, Marshal and Public Works Director, and consulting Town Engineer and Town Attorney. The Brian Head ski resort and its associated property and facilities are owned and managed by a separate, private enterprise: Brian Head Resort, Inc. The old Chair 1 location, near Georg's lodge, was the first base area for Brian Head. The Chair 1 area gradually diminished in importance with the development of the Giant Steps base area. Eventually, Chair 1 was dismantled due to high maintenance costs and safety concerns. The Navajo base area, developed in 1984, has become the primary beginner area for Brian Head. Today, Brian Head Resort operates two separate mountains (Giant Steps and Navajo) each with its own base lodge facility. Figure 2: Regional Map Description of the Town and Concerns Addressed in this Master Plan Brian Head enjoys a marvelous natural setting: broad meadows in a narrow valley framed by steeply wooded mountains capped with distinctive flat rock formations typical of this area. There are small pockets of development interspersed throughout the valley. In the world of mountain resorts, Brian Head offers a low-key alternative to glitzy ski resorts such as Park City, Aspen, Vail and Sun Valley. Visitors and locals have identified Brian Head's qualities as: rural, friendly, and having an immediacy with the natural setting. After a decade of relatively slow growth, Brian Head is beginning to experience renewed development interest. Nevertheless, as Brian Head contemplates its position in the regional resort market, and the competition it faces from other resorts, the Brian Head community also recognizes its design challenges: There is no clear sense (or point) of arrival at the Town. There is no real core activity center, no identifiable Town center. Commercial activity is largely relegated to pockets of strip development along Highway 143. Skiing is provided in two separate areas - Giant Steps and Navajo Mountains which are physically separate and divided by Highway 143. Chair One, which once provided closer connection between the two mountains (though they were still separated by Highway 143) has been dismantled, and the two mountains currently have no interconnection. This results in some duplication of services - each mountain has its own parking and day lodge. Since Giant Steps caters to a slightly higher skier ability than Navajo, families or groups with different skier abilities require either driving or shuttle buses to get back and forth. "The Meadow" is a striking open space/focal point at the foot of Giant Steps. It contains a significant wetland area along the intermittent stream that runs the length of the Meadow. In the summer its wildflowers interspersed in the deep grasses are very picturesque. However, the continuity of the Meadow has been broken in several places with roads, raised on fill, and it has been encroached upon by several condominium buildings as well as the Giant Steps parking lot. The wooded hillsides still dominate the views of Brian Head due to relatively little current development. With several prominent exceptions, much of the development has been tastefully located in, and is screened by, trees. A majority of the existing buildings in the valley were built in the 1970's and have a similar architectural style characteristic of wood frame construction of the period: gable roofs with shallow overhangs and vertical board and batten siding. Many buildings are painted or stained a variety of middle to light browns and tend to stand out visually. Several darker gray and black buildings are not as visible. Within the generally similar architecture, there are several exceptions: several A-frame cottages, the large, black-glass panel Brian Head Hotel, and a recent attempt to introduce a Swiss Tyrolian theme through building accents (shutters, wall graphics, etc.). GOAL AND OBJECTIVES OF THE MASTER PLAN Considering all of the above, the overall goal of this Master Plan is to: REFINE THE OVERALL PATTERN OF LAND USES SUCH THAT THE RESULTING TOWN FORM TAKES ADVANTAGE OF BRLIN HEAD'S UNIQUE SETTING, CREATES AN ATTRACTIVE AND LIVEABLE COMMUNITY PRESERVES AND ENHANCES THE SKI EXPERIE~YCE, AND ALLOWS BRIAN HEAD TO COMPETE SUCCESSFULLY WITHIN THE REGIONAL RESORT MARKETPLACE. Supporting objectives of the Master Plan include: 1 .Arrange land uses to function well internally (traffic access, safety, efficient utilities, etc.) and eliminate conflicts between non-compatible adjacent uses. Create a pattern of land use that will eliminate the high number of non-conforming uses. Establish one or more core "village" area(s) to become focal point(s) for tourist retail activity with a pedestrian environment. Provide for new or expanded land uses that are not available to meet current needs (light industrial, service commercial, etc.). Develop a coherent overall image/character/theme that will give Brian Head a distinctive image in the resort marketplace and will encourage return visits by guests. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Enhance the variety and quality of summer and winter recreation experiences (such as preserving and upgrading the skier experience, expanding the trail connections within Brian Head Town, connecting the Town's open space with the surrounding areas, etc.) to increase the attractiveness and liveability of Brian Head for both residents and guests. 7. Protect and enhance the natural and aesthetic qualities of the trails and open space within Brian Head Town, for both winter and summer users. EXISTING DEVELOPMENT At the end of 1994, development in Brian Head consisted of: Brian Head Town area: 3 sq. miles (18,040 acres) Lots platted (approved) within Town: 605 Lots platted in adjacent County area (i.e. not annexed into the Town): 735 Total lots platted in Brian Head area: 1340 Total actual development in Brian Head area: homes 60 condominium/hotel units 1003 hotel rooms 93 restaurants 9 offices 19 retail establishments 11 The platted lots vary in size, with many being ¼ acre or less. Many lots, both in the Town and in the County, are located on slopes greater than 15%, with some located on extremely steep slopes. Not all of the roads that have been platted have been built. Of the roads that have been built, a significant number remain unimproved (and not plowed in the winter) and are therefore inaccessible for all practical purposes. This inventory of undeveloped lots poses a number of challenges for Brian Head: A number of the lots are smaller than permitted under current ordinances. They can still be developed under grandfather provisions, but they potentially pose ongoing problems in terms of overdevelopment of the land. The inventory of undeveloped smaller lots will continue to depress the real estate market in Brian Head, potentially stifling new, larger lot development which could help upgrade Brian Head's image. Many of these lots are not served by utilities. Although the Town is not legally obligated to extend utilities to these lots at the Town's expense, the cost of installing utilities will depress their attractiveness. Some of the lots are located in areas that have since been designated as protection zones around several springs that provided the Town's water supply. These areas should either be kept free of development, or developed with strict adherence to precautions that will prevent contamination of the springs. Land Ownership Patterns The Town and the ski company (Brian Head Resort, Inc.) are the largest single land owners in the Brian Head area. The Town owns approximately 600 acres north of Brian Head, west of Highway 143, that were purchased in conjunction with a major water rights acquisition. It is not likely that this area would ever be developed by the Town. However, it could be used as a land trade for other areas that the Town may wish, or be forced, to acquire, in which case it does not represent a net increase in development for the Town. The Brian Head ski area is located on both public and private land. The public portion US Forest Service land is used by virtue of a Forest Service Special Use Permit. The private land portion of the ski area is owned by the ski company and is generally zoned Recreational Open Space. Most of the land is either essential for the ski operation or too steep for development. However, within the ski area open space there are some isolated parcels that may be suitable for development, in which case a zoning change would be required. The ski company also owns approximately 1600 acres of land north of Brian Head. Since this land is outside the Town limits, it was not included in the Town Master Plan. However, its development could add a significant population to Brian Head in the future. FUTURE GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT POTENTIAL The 1340 platted lots in the Brian Head area, some of which are approved for condominium development, represent a total of 1,500 to 2,000 dwelling units. Current trends in ski resorts suggest a movement away from higher density development, such as condominiums, toward single family development and townhouses. Therefore, it is likely that some of the lots zoned for multifamily will be developed at lower densities. At the same time, the ski company owns several parcels currently zoned either as Recreational Open Space or low density, which have possible ski-in/ski-out access that could potentially be rezoned to higher density development. Therefore, while there may be future rezoning within Brian Head, we expect them to offset each other and the total number of dwelling units to remain approximately the same as currently platted. At 2 to 2.5 people per unit this could result in a potential resident population of 3,000 to 5,000 people. Development of the 1,600 acres of ski company land north of town could, however, significantly increase this estimate. The ski area itself expects to grow from its current level of 150,000 skier days in 1994/5, to 250,000 skier days by 1999. In order to effectively integrate the "village" concept in Brian Head, it is important to understand what level of commercial development the Town will be able to sustain. An analysis of other ski resorts reveals a wide range in the ratio of commercial square footage to number of dwelling units: Ski Resort Vail Steamboat Mt. Crested Butte Copper Mountain Keystone Northstar (California) Beaver Creek Source: RRC The ratio of commercial square feet to dwelling units is affected by a variety of factors, including proximity to other resorts and to major metropolitan area, destination vs. day-skier orientation, etc. Brian Head skiers come primarily from the following originations: Origination Approximate Existing Population 17,000 35,000 1 million Potential Buildout Population 30,000 90-150,000 2 million Approximate Driving Time 40 minutes 1.5 hours 3.5 hours Existing Commercial Square Feet per Dwelling Unit 71 234 21 188 43 7 106 Cedar City Area St. George Area Las Vegas Southern California 8 hours A significant increase in the number of visitors to Brian Head can be expected, as Brian Head should become more popular as these origination areas grow. Comparing these resources with those of the resorts above, and considering Brian Head's relative market niche (a very subjective comparison of vertical feet of runs, acres of ski terrain, proportion of multifamily dwellings, etc.), a target ratio of 25 to 30 sq.ft./unit is felt to be reasonable. For the 1,500 to 2,000 estimated dwelling units (including condominiums) at full buildout, this would suggest a potential range of 40,000 to 60,000 sq. ft. of commercial development in Brian Head. This figure does not include ski resort base area commercial square feet. NATURAL AND PHYSICAL CONSTRAINTS AND OPPORTUNITIES Geology Brian Head's geology evidences significant areas of instability and the presence of a number of geologic faults. When these conditions combine with steep slopes, the potential for landslides, road failures and slippage of building foundations is greatly increased. Improper development in the past has resulted in all of these consequences. The Pendelton geologic analysis conducted for the 1980 Master Plan* has been used to identify potential fault and mass movement areas for this Master Plan (see Figure 5: Development Constraints). However, since this analysis provides only a general overview, it needs to be augmented by site-specific analyses conducted in conjunction with specific development proposals. Policies with regard to Geology All rezonings, and development approvals granted under existing zoning, are subject to feasibility established by specific engineering geology studies for each proposal. * Pendelton, James, "Geological Implications of Development," Brian Head, Utah, 1979. Slope Slope Categories and their Significance Because the slope of the ground plays such a significant role in the development of mountainous areas, a slope analysis of Brian Head was completed (see map on file at Town Hall), with slopes in the following categories: Slope range 0 to 2% Significance Appear virtually flat and present little or no need for overleapt grading for most development uses. Above 2%, slopes become apparent to the eye, but U:' to 8% are still considered relatively developable - roads do not require switchbacks, and cuts and fills are still generally small for most uses. 2 - 8% 8 - 15% These slopes begin to create visual impacts and have potential instabilities, depending on the soil and underlying geology. Roads across slopes of this steepness require road switchbacks with visible cuts and fills. 15% to 25% Slopes of this steepness create significant grading challenges and require that separate consideration be given to slope stability and visual impacts. over 25% Above 25%, the impacts of development are difficult to mitigate within reasonable costs. Development should be avoided wherever possible, and only allowed with utmost care given to slope stability and visual impacts. Slopes of over 40% are generally unsuitable for development of any kind. Key slope categories are shown in Figure 5: Development Constraints. Problems with Past Development on Steep Slopes Many of the steep slopes in Brian Head occur in areas subject to mass movement and landslides. Previous development practices have resulted in roads and houses developed with significant cuts and fills and slopes left too steep to revegetate, which in turn has caused continual soil slumping, rock fall on roads and major slope failures. In addition to the safety and maintenance concerns, the scars on the hillsides, highly visible from long distances, create an overall negative visual impression of Brian Head. Policies with Regard to Slope The Town shall adopt regulations that prohibit development on slopes over 40%. Slopes between 25% and 40% should be kept open or developed at very low densities. The concern for development on steep slopes is such that development of slopes between 25% and 40% shall be subject to special review including consideration of geotechnical (safety) feasibility and aesthetic impact on the Town. The Town shall investigate and adopt incentives for land owners to transfer development rights to clusters that leave the majority of steep slopes open and in a natural condition. Water Supply Water Sources Brian Head is entirely dependent on wells and 5prings for its water supply. The Town currently has nine water sources all with legal water rights established (see Figure 4: Existing Zoning). The actively used water sources include: Mammoth Hill, Salt Pile, Decker, Town Hall Well and Crystal Mountain. Available but unused sources include: Brian Head Seep, Quaking Aspen and Gurr Well. The quantities available from these sources, and the high cost of obtaining additional water, require careful stewardship by the Town to assure adequate quantities to 6 meet future growth needs. The Town estimates that existing development represents approximately 50% of the Town's current (1995) water capacity. Furthermore, the susceptibility of shallow sources to pollution, and the lack of viable alternative sources, require that the Town exercise a high level of control over any development that could potentially impact Town water sources. Under rights granted by State law, the Town has designated watershed protection areas around each of the water supply sources. These areas have been included in the Development Constraints map and are prescribed for no or very low density development on the Master Plan. In several cases, portions of these areas have already been platted but remain undeveloped. Water Delivery The culinary water system for the Town consists of three water tanks fed by either springs or wells. Due to the location of the tanks and the quantities of water available from their sources, there are areas in Town that cannot currently be serviced with culinary and/or fire protection water. The Redwood tank is located at the extreme south end of Town near the closure gates on Highway 143 (see Figure 4: Existing Zoning). At 10,300 feet in elevation, this tank is the highest of the three tanks. It is capable of serving areas from 10,225 to 9,850 foot elevation, on the south end of the Town. The tank holds 300,000 gallons, but has a relatively small inflow from Mammoth Hill spring (down to 20 gallons per minute in the winter) that limits the number of connections to 35. A booster pump will be required to increase service. The 1 million gallon tank is the largest, and lowest, and is served by several water sources. It is capable of serving most areas in Town below the 9,950 foot contour level. Areas on the east side of the valley above 9,950 feet will require a booster pump to provide service. The 0.5 million gallon tank is located at approximately 10,215 feet and was constructed to provide service to the upper elevations of the west side of the valley below 10,150 feet. Water Policies As a part of the rezoning process all watershed protection areas should be evaluated in greater detail to determine what level of development can or should be allowed to take place, under what conditions, and precisely which areas should be subject to special controls. There are several areas of Town where water service is not currently available. They are not shown in the Brian Head Master Plan as development constraints because they can be served by the installation of additional pumps. However, it is the Town 5' policy that developers are responsible for the cost and installation of all extensions of water main lines, including pumping systems. Therefore, it is possible that the owners' high cost of providing water service could make development of some areas not feasible. Visual Character The wooded hillsides and the central open meadow are distinctive visual features of Brian Head that should be preserved. The meadow provides a central open space to the community, both visually and functionally. Its broad expanse of grass, interspersed with alpine wildflowers, is a refreshing and memorable scene. The wetlands on both sides of tiny Parowan Creek, which meanders through the meadow, are important habitats protected by Federal law. Unfortunately, the meadow was encroached upon in several areas many years ago - roads built on fill banks cut across it in three different locations, parking lots were built on large fill areas at the base of the mountain, and several buildings were constructed in or on the edge of the meadow. All of this detracts from the character of the meadow. The hillsides on either side of the meadow are still relatively undeveloped, and the development that has occurred is relatively unobtrusive (except for a few of the buildings, due to color selection). The physical aspects of hillside development relative to the Master Plan are addressed in the Slope section above. Visual Character Policies The number of road crossings in the meadow shall be reduced by consolidation and removal, and the meadow shall be extended north by reducing the land area available for development. The visual aspects of the community are further addressed in Design Guidelines that have been created for the Town. LAND USE CONSIDERATIONS Commercial The current "strip" commercial development along Highway 143 is relatively convenient to automobiles, but has significant limitations in capturing the apres-ski market. Once the skiers are in their cars, they are less likely to stop in Brian Head than another community closer to their destination Parowan, Cedar City, St. George). Auto-oriented strip development also reduces the possibility for impulse buying that often occurs when patrons walk past shops to get to a destination. The decentralized nature of Brian Head's commercial areas also requires guests to use a car or the shuttle bus to get around, further reducing mobility and thus any effective resort "night life." A major desire that emerged from the public input is to create a focal point for the Town, a pedestrian-oriented core commercial area with a variety of activities and memorable images that can become the "downtown" of Brian Head. To accomplish this within the relatively small commercial space that Brian Head can support (see Future Growth and Development Potential above), further highway-oriented commercial development should be discouraged in favor of channeling future visitor-oriented commercial development into concentrated core commercial areas. Because of the physically separate mountains, Brian Head has two day lodges, Giant Steps and Navajo, either or both of which could form the basis for a core commercial area. After evaluation and public discussion, it has been determined that Giant Steps should be designated as the primary core area for Brian Head, and developed as a pedestrian village. Navajo will continue to function as a ski base area, with additional commercial development. The Chair 1 area will also continue to be used as a third, sma 1er ski base area, with ski-oriented commercial uses. The following are the key characteristics and prescriptions of each area: Giant Steps Village Of the two base areas, Giant Steps accesses the largest amounts of both total skiing terrain and intermediate terrain (which normally serves the greatest proportion of skiers at any resort) and all of the expert terrain. Therefore, even though the Navajo base area has more parking capacity, the greater mountain terrain at the Giant Steps base area will cause it to be more heavily used than Navajo. The Giant Steps base area currently consists of a day lodge with equipment rental and limited ski accessory/necessities retail. The Giant Steps Lodge Grille restaurant serves breakfast and lunch only. Within a short walking distance to the north is The Mall building, which contains a ski shop: real estate office, cafe, pizza restaurant and small convenience store, and the Town post office. The core area concept for Giant Steps Village emphasizes linking the Giant Steps Day Lodge with The Mall, with additional infill development to create a pedestrian village that extends northward from the Day Lodge to, but not including, Bear Flat Road. The pedestrian core area that results will consist of a series of open plazas linked by a narrow, curved street. An additional ski-in trail from Chair 2 to one of the plazas will be important to facilitate noon and apres-ski access. Vehicle and service/delivery access would be via the existing Mall Road and a new drive south from Bear Flat Road. Additional parking would be provided at the north end of the core area, creating an opportunity to draw skiers through the commercial area while walking to and from the lifts. A growing number of resort residents are 'either well-funded retirees or workers no longer tied to the corporate workplace (telecommuters or frequent fliers). As a result, they have the luxury of living virtually anywhere. They usually seek locations of outstanding natural beauty, complemented with essential services. Following the pattern of other western mountain resorts, it is anticipated that Brian Head will increasingly attract a larger number of these primary-home residents. As a result, in addition to resort-oriented commercial services, Brian Head will eventually also need to provide commercial services for day-to-day needs. The Local Commercial area on Bear Flat Road is designated for commercial uses that are not particularly suited to, and would not compete with, a pedestrian village but that are nonetheless important to local residents' needs. Such uses might include: professional offices, banking services, medical clinics, convenience goods, hair salons, etc. Because the Bear Flat Road commercial area fronts directly on the Meadow, and is highly visible from Highway 143, it is the Town's desire that it be developed within design constraints that will lower its visual impact and create a positive impression from the highway. Such design constraints should include: buildings should be low-profile (less than two stories); the building facades that face the meadow should be as well designed as the building facades that front on Bear Flat or North Loop Roads; the land uses should not be parking intensive (require a high level of parking/floor area); parking lots, parked cars and delivery areas should not be visible from Highway 143; Navajo Area The Navajo base area serves primarily beginner terrain, but because Brian Head attracts a large proportion of families and novice skiers, Navajo is used almost as heavily as Giant Steps. The parking capacity at Navajo is significantly larger than Giant Steps. It is the ski company's intent that the Navajo and Giant Steps areas will continue to provide skier parking on a 60/40 ratio respectively. The concept for the Navajo area is to create a linear pedestrian linkage between the Navajo Day Lodge and the Brian Head Hotel. At the present time this is a lengthy and uninteresting walk, and very challenging in bad weather. However, the potential exists to create additional commercial infill along the existing road system, or to even create an alternative route through the woods that connects the Hotel and Day Lodge. In addition to providing a more scenic route protected from the winds, this concept could take advantage of the pond just west of the Hotel, incorporating it as a park and even winter ice skating center. Obviously, care must be taken to preserve the wetlands around the pond, perhaps by construction of a raised boardwalk for a portion of the pedestrian way. Though the Navajo core area has the potential for the largest building and parking areas, all of the land is in a single private ownership. Therefore, its success will be determined by the resort's ability to carry out the development, or to create opportunities that will attract other ventures to participate. Minor Activity Area at the Former Chair 1 Site Although the former Chair 1 (dismantled) area is not considered a core commercial area, the presence of a viable commercial entity (Georg's) and the potential for this area to again become an interconnection between the two mountains strongly supports retaining its commercial status and slight expansion capability in order to serve as a minor activity/commercial center. To facilitate this, a realignment of Highway 143 is proposed in order to relocate the parking lot to the west side of the highway, on the same side as the commercial property. Commercial Policies The Giant Steps base area is designated as the primary pedestrian village core area. Navajo also has the potential of becoming a second commercial activity area, although it is anticipated to be more car-oriented and smaller in size than the Giant Steps village. Bear Flat Road area is intended to become a commercial area oriented to the needs of residents and not to compete with the tourist/visitor orientation of the Giant Steps pedestrian village. If Chair 1 is replaced, and/or there appears to be a demand for additional commercial development, the Chair 1 area may be designated as a third, but minor, ski-oriented commercial activity center. Other existing commercial establishments shall be encouraged to continue, catering to local commercial needs. Residential The majority of the land designated for residential development on the Land Use Plan is generally consistent with existing zoning designations. Changes introduced as a part of this revision include: 1. Designation of several potential islands of 'inter-trail' residential development, single private ownership. Therefore, its success will be determined by the resort's ability to carry out the devel opment, or to create opportunities that will attract other ventures to participate. 2. Designation of low density residential pods on a rectangular Forest Service tract at the south end of town (on which Chair Lift 7 and the snowmaking pond are located), Change portions of the 'Steam Engine Flats' area from Open Space to Low Density Residential. 3. Intertrail development islands houses placed in the wooded area between the ski trails - are proposed in the Navajo/Chair 4 area and near the Giant Steps base area. They would be accessed via a skier bridge over a road or an auto bridge over a ski trail, like those found in the Resort's recently approved Navajo Trails subdivision and a number of European resorts. The concept has the potential of introducing an innovative, high quality type of living unit that would add diversity to Brian Head. The designation on the Land Use Plan is an indication of conceptual support by the Town. At the same time, the Town expresses concern that such a development not reduce the quality or quantity of Brian Head's ski terrain, its most precious resource. Two residential pods are designated in the long rectangular Forest Service tract on which Chair Lift 7 and the snowmaking pond are located. Making land use designations on Forest Service (federal) land is deemed appropriate in case a future land exchange should make this area available for private development. The areas designated for residential use are intended to avoid highly visible steep slopes and prominent drainages that should be preserved. It is also intended that clustering of units will be utilized to preserve meadows and significant physical features in this area. The pattern superimposed on several of the pods described above (intertrail islands and USFS pod) denotes that the Town does not intend to rezone these areas (to comply with the "consistency" policy) until further, site-specific studies are completed that demonstrate development of this type will not only comply with the conditions of the Land Management Code, but also will accomplish the goals, objectives and policies of this Master Plan. However; the change in land use designation for these pods indicates that the proposed residential use is generally supported by the Town, and, once such studies are completed to the Council's satisfaction, the proposed land uses will not require amending the Master Plan in order to proceed with zoning. The eastern portion of the Town, the Steam Engine Flats' area, is proposed for a net low density residential use, accomplished through a combination of higher density clusters of units and the meadows and ridges preserved as open space. There are other non-residential uses that would also preserve significant areas of open space and would be considered appropriate in this zone. These potential uses might include a lodge, Nordic skiing, and outfitting/guide services so long as they do not negatively affect adjacent properties. To assure adequate assessment of potential impacts, these uses should be evaluated through the conditional use process. Residential Policies The rezoning and development of designated portions of mountain open space will be allowed only upon demonstration that such development will meet the goals, objectives and policies of this Master Plan. In all new development the Thwn will encourage clustering of housing units in order to preserve important visual and environmental features (such as meadows, ridges, wetlands, well-head protection areas, etc.). TRAFFIC AND TRANSPORTATION Giant Steps Road Connection To create a more efficient road system for both automobiles and shuttle buses, a loop road through the Giant Steps base area is proposed from Highway 143 south of the Town Hall through or around the Brian Wood Condominiums to the ski area parking lot (see Figure 6: Giant Steps Village Concept Plan). At the ski area parking lot the loop would pass by the foot of the ski hill (i.e. not pass through the interior to the parking lot) to provide direct skier drop-off and pick-up. The loop road would then be connected north to Mall Road and continue north to Bear Flat Road, which completes the loop back to Highway 143. This loop road will provide greater accessibility throughout the Giant Steps core area, and will potentially provide additional exit points to disperse end-of-day traffic to Highway 143. Connecting Mall Road to ~e ski area parking will create an opportunity to make Mall Road a primary entry to Giant Steps drawing skiers by the pedestrian village as they arrive and exit. This will potentially reduce the need for the existing Giant Steps entry road to the point that it could be narrowed to a one-lane road (AM one-way in, PM oneway out), which will reduce the road's impact on the Meadow or possibly even allow the road to be removed and the Meadow to be reconsolidated. Before implementation, the function of the loop road, and its precise alignment, will require additional site-specific investigation and resolution of a number of issues, such as parking/shuttle/pedestrian crossing points (safetyrelated), and functional/legal issues such as grading and the granting of needed rights-of-way over private property. Vehicular and Pedestrian Linkage Between Activity Areas The creation of two primary core areas and the location of existing establishments along Highway 143 reinforces the need for a viable interconnect system to link all of Brian Head Town together and reduce the need for, and inconvenience of; automobiles. In the short run this will necessitate the continued use and improvement of a shuttle bus system. In the long-term, a lift connection would do much to overcome the physical barriers and make the interconnect even more convenient. For the short4erm, to allow pedestrian and vehicular connections within the Giant Steps Village area with a minimum usage of Highway 143, an internal loop road system is proposed to connect the major establishments on both sides of the highway. Figure 8: Internal Loop System Parking The ski area's long-term projection of 250,000 skier visits annually equates to an anticipated maximum of 4,300 skiers per day. The ski area projects, at 3 people per car, a need for approximately 1,450 peak-day parking spaces, which would be provided as follows: Giant Steps Base Area Giant Steps-Brianwood condominium area (exist.) Brian Head Hotel Navajo Mountain area residential (exist.) Navajo Base Area Total 400 150 200 50 700 1500 In conjunction with the above, the Master Plan proposes consolidated commercial parking south of Bear Flats Road at the north end of the Giant Steps Village, and future overflow remote parking located on Burt's Road to Nowhere. The Town should consider the formation of a parking district to help implement a coordinated parking system, particularly with respect to the village areas. Parking Policies The Town will explore, and implement when feasible, the formation of a parking district to help implement a coordinated parking system, particularly with respect to the village core areas. OPEN SPACE Because of the importance of the quality of the visitor experience to the Brian Head economy, it is essential to preserve both quality and quantity of open space within the community. This includes preserving the quality of the skier experience as well as for summer users of trails. The concern is not just for the intertrail islands discussed above, but includes the developable land fronting on open space throughout the whole town. In other words, it would not be adequate to require a high quality of development in the intertrail islands, only to have the visitor experience marred by an insensitive development on an equally visible parcel on the side of the open space. Special consideration should be given to the design and planning of all development that occurs next to open spaces and trails in order to preserve open space values. Open Space Policies The quantity and quality of open space shall be preserved within the Town of Brian Head. Special attention shall be given to all development adjacent to open space. The Town will develop design guidelines applicable to all development bordering on open space lands and trails. RECREATION Trails The goal of trail development in Brian Head is to provide the residents and visitors with a unique recreation opportunity to see the valley, summer and winter, via a variety of modes (foot, horseback, bike, snowmobile, Nordic skis, etc.). To accomplish this the Town desires to create a trail network to link open spaces within the town, and to allow access from within the Town to the surrounding natural areas. Figures 9 and 10 suggest general alignments for both summer and winter trails. The proposed summer trail corridor has a total length of four miles. For a majority of that length the summer trails include separate trails for walking, mountain biking and horseback riding. Occasionally the trails converge due to physical constraints and mixed use is required. The trails also utilize existing roadways in some of the developed sections of the Town. At key locations the trails separate for totally independent experiences and connections to other trails. Brian Head Town ordinances allow the use of all Town roads for OHV (Off Highway Vehicle) use. The winter trail system has a length of approximately three miles. Generally, cross country skiing is separated from snowmobiling, except in areas where separation is precluded by physical constraints. In the past, snowmobiling has been a favorite attraction to the Brian Head/Duck Creek area. The proposed snowmobile trails system will continue to provide connections to the Dixie National Forest and channel snowmobile traffic. Cross country ski trails connect to several lifts providing access to higher mountain trails and Dixie National Forest. In all of the trail system, signage and well-marked road crossings must be carefully designed. Portions of the proposed trail corridors will require property easements. Trail Policies The Town encourages the ongoing development of both summer and winter trails to link open ~ within the Town and to connect them with surrounding natural areas. CONCLUSION Skiing, tourism and natural recreation are the activities that sustain the economy of Brian Head Town and the wellbeing of its residents. As a result, great attention must be given to preserving and enhancing the pleasant experiences of Brian Head's visitors. To the degree that visitations to Brian Head Town are sustained, or increased, all of the Town will benefit. Preserving and enhancing the guest's experience involves many things: convenience and accessibility, appearance and memorable image, quality and variety of activities, maintenance and cleanliness, and safety. The considerations that this master plan addresses include: Creating an orderly arrangement of land uses that takes advantage of Brian Head's existing buildings and facilities, reinforces the various uses by their relative locations, and minimizes negative impacts of one land use on another; Increasing convenience and accessibility through the linkage of roads and parking and the creation of paths for pedestrians, bikes and horses; Protecting the beautiful, but fragile, environmental setting that is a major asset of the Town; Restricting development from areas that are unsafe or hazardous to life and property; Assuring that adequate public utilities and services are available for present and future guests and residents. The success of the Town will in great measure depend upon the ability of the community to rally around a shared vision of Brian Head, to identify the steps necessary to accomplish the vision, and to work in concert with each other, making compromises when necessary, until the vision becomes reality. The success of many other resort communities is evidence that it can be done. This master plan is intended to be the guiding tool, and an ongoing measure of what the community is and what it wants to become.