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```									Handbook of Formulae and Physical Constants

For The Use Of Students And Examination Candidates

Duplication of this material for student in-class use or for examination purposes is permitted without written approval.
Approved by the Interprovincial Power Engineering Curriculum Committee and the Provincial Chief Inspectors' Association's Committee for the standardization of Power Engineer's Examinations n Canada.

www.powerengineering.ca

Printed July 2003

TOPIC PAGE

SI Multiples..........................................................................................1 Basic Units (distance, area, volume, mass, density) ............................2 Mathematical Formulae .......................................................................5 Applied Mechanics .............................................................................10 Thermodynamics.................................................................................21 Fluid Mechanics..................................................................................28 Electricity............................................................................................30 Periodic Table .....................................................................................34

Names in the Metric System
VALUE 1 000 000 000 000 1 000 000 000 1 000 000 1 000 100 10 0.1 0.01 0.001 0.000 001 0.000 000 001 0.000 000 000 001 EXPONENT 1012 109 106 103 102 101 10-1 10-2 10-3 10-6 10-9 10-12 SYMBOL T G M k h da d c m µ n p PREFIX tera giga mega kilo hecto deca deci centi milli micro nano pico

Conversion Chart for Metric Units

To Millix 106

To Centix 105

To Decix 104

To Metre, Gram, Litre x 103

To Decax 102

To Hectox 101

To Kilo-

Kilo-

Hecto-

x 105

x 104

x 103

x 102

x 101

x 10-1

DecaTo Convert

x 104

x 103

x 102

x 101

x 10-1

x 10-2

Metre, Gram, Litre Deci-

x 103

x 102

x 101

x 10-1

x 10-2

x 10-3

x 102

x 101

x 10-1

x 10-2

x 10-3

x 10-4

Centi-

x 101

x 10-1

x 10-2

x 10-3

x 10-4

x 10-5

Milli-

x 10-1

x 10-2

x 10-3

x 10-4

x 10-5

x 10-6

Page 1

BASIC UNITS SI DISTANCE
1 metre (1 m) = 10 decimetres (10 dm) = 100 centimetres (100 cm) = 1000 millimetres (1000 mm) 1 decametre (1 dam) = 10 m 1 hectometre (1 hm) = 100 m 1 kilometre (1 km) = 1000 m Conversions: 1 in. 1 ft 1 mile 1 yd 1m Area 1 sq metre (1 m2) = 10 000 cm2 = 1 000 000 mm2 1 sq hectometre (1 hm2) = 10 000 m2 = 1 hectare (1 ha) 1 sq km (1 km2) = 1 000 000 m2 Conversions: 1 in.2 1 m2 1 acre 1 sq mile = = = = 6.45 cm2 = 645 mm2 10.8 ft2 0.405 ha 2.59 km2 1 ft2 = 144 in.2 1 yd2 = 9 ft2 1 sq mile = 640 acre = 1 section = = = = = 25.4 mm 30.48 cm 1.61 km 0.914 m 3.28 ft 12 in. 3 ft 5280 ft 1760 yd = = = = 1 ft 1 yd 1 mile 1 mile

IMPERIAL

Page 2

SI
Volume 1 m3 = 1 000 000 cm3 = 1 x 109 mm3 1 dm3 1 litre 1 mL 1 m3 = = = = 1 litre 1000 cm3 1 cm3 1000 litres Conversions: 1 in.3 1 m3 1 litre 1 U.S.gal 1 U.S. bbl 1 litre/s Mass and Weight 1 kilogram (1 kg) = 1000 grams 1000 kg = 1 tonne Conversions: = = = = = =

IMPERIAL

1 ft3 = 1728 in.3 1 yd3 = 27 ft3 1(liquid) U.S. gallon = = 1 U.S. barrel (bbl) = 1 imperial gallon = 231 in.3 4 (liquid) quarts 42 U.S. gal. 1.2 U.S. gal.

16.4 cm3 35.3 ft3 61 in.3 3.78 litres 159 litres 15.9 U.S. gal/min

2000 lb = 1 ton (short) 1 long ton = 2240 lb

1 kg (on Earth) results in a weight of 2.2 lb Density

mass density =
m ⎛ kg ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ V ⎝ m3 ⎠

mass volume

weight density =
w ⎛ lb ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ V ⎝ ft 3 ⎠

weight volume

ρ=

ρ=
Conversions:

(on Earth) a mass density of 1

kg results in a weight density of 0.0623 lb m3 ft 3

Page 3

SI

Imperial

RELATIVE DENSITY
In SI R.D. is a comparison of mass density to a standard. For solids and liquids the standard is fresh water. water.
Conversions:

In Imperial the corresponding quantity is specific gravity; for solids and liquids a comparison of weight density to that of

In both systems the same numbers hold for R.D. as for S.G. since these are equivalent ratios.
RELATIVE DENSITY (SPECIFIC GRAVITY) OF VARIOUS SUBSTANCES

Water (fresh)...............1.00 Water (sea average) ....1.03 Aluminum...................2.56 Antimony....................6.70 Bismuth.......................9.80 Brass ...........................8.40 Brick ...........................2.1 Calcium.......................1.58 Carbon (diamond).......3.4 Carbon (graphite)........2.3 Carbon (charcoal) .......1.8 Chromium...................6.5 Clay.............................1.9 Coal.............................1.36-1.4 Cobalt .........................8.6 Copper ........................8.77 Cork ............................0.24 Glass (crown)..............2.5 Glass (flint).................3.5 Gold ..........................19.3 Iron (cast)....................7.21 Iron (wrought) ............7.78 Lead ..........................11.4 Magnesium .................1.74 Manganese..................8.0 Mercury ....................13.6

Mica............................2.9 Nickel .........................8.6 Oil (linseed) ................0.94 Oil (olive) ...................0.92 Oil (petroleum) ...........0.76-0.86 Oil (turpentine) ...........0.87 Paraffin .......................0.86 Platinum....................21.5 Sand (dry) ...................1.42 Silicon.........................2.6 Silver.........................10.57 Slate ............................2.1-2.8 Sodium........................0.97 Steel (mild) .................7.87 Sulphur .......................2.07 Tin...............................7.3 Tungsten ...................19.1 Wood (ash) .................0.75 Wood (beech) .............0.7-0.8 Wood (ebony).............1.1-1.2 Wood (elm).................0.66 Wood (lignum-vitae) ..1.3 Wood (oak).................0.7-1.0 Wood (pine)................0.56 Wood (teak) ................0.8 Zinc.............................7.0

Page 4

Greek Alphabet

Alpha Beta Gamma Delta Epsilon Zeta Eta Theta

α β γ ∆ ε ζ η θ

Iota Kappa Lambda Mu Nu Xi Omicron Pi

ι κ λ µ ν ξ Ο π

Rho Sigma Tau Upsilon Phi Kai Psi Omega

ρ Σ, σ τ υ Φ, φ χ ψ Ω, ω

MATHEMATICAL FORMULAE Algebra 1. Expansion Formulae

(x + y)2 = x2 + 2xy + y2 (x - y)2 = x2 - 2xy + y2 x2 - y2 = (x - y) (x + y) (x + y)3 = x3 + 3x2y + 3xy2 + y3 x3 + y3 = (x + y) (x2 - xy + y2) (x - y)3 = x3 - 3x2y + 3xy2 - y3 x3 - y3 = (x - y) (x2 + xy + y2)

If ax2 + bx + c = 0, Then x =
- b ± b 2 − 4ac 2a

Page 5

Trigonometry 1. Basic Ratios

Sin A =

y , h

cos A =

x , h

tan A =

y x

2. Pythagoras' Law

x2 + y2 = h2
3. Trigonometric Function Values

Sin is positive from 0° to 90° and positive from 90° to 180° Cos is positive from 0° to 90° and negative from 90° to 180° Tan is positive from 0° to 90° and negative from 90° to 180°
4. Solution of Triangles a. Sine Law

a b c = = Sin A Sin B Sin C
b. Cosine Law

c2 a2 b2

= a2 + b2 - 2 ab Cos C = b2 + c2 - 2 bc Cos A = a2 + c2 - 2 ac Cos B

Page 6

Geometry 1. Areas of Triangles a. All Triangles

Area =

base x perpendicular height 2 bc Sin A ab Sin C ac Sin B = = 2 2 2
s (s - a) (s - b) (s - c)

Area = and,
Area =

where, s is half the sum of the sides, or s =
b. Equilateral Triangles

a+b+c 2

Area = 0.433 x side2
2. Circumference of a Circle

C = πd
3. Area of a Circle

A = πr2 =

π circumference x r = d 2 = 0.7854d2 4 2

4. Area of a Sector of a Circle

A=

arc x r 2 θ° x π r2 360 θ°r 2 2 (θ = angle in degrees)

A=

A=

Page 7

5. Area of a Segment of a Circle

A = area of sector – area of triangle Also approximate area =
6. Ellipse
4 2 h 3 d - 0.608 h

A=

π Dd 4

Approx. circumference = π
7. Area of Trapezoid ⎛a + b⎞ A= ⎜ ⎟h ⎝ 2 ⎠ 8. Area of Hexagon

(D + d )
2

A = 2.6s2 where s is the length of one side

9. Area of Octagon

A = 4.83s2 where s is the length of one side
10. Sphere

Total surface area A =4πr2 Surface area of segment As = πdh Volume V = 4 3 πr 3

Volume of segment 2 Vs = πh (3r – h) 3 πh (h 2 + 3a 2) where a = radius of segment base Vs = 6

Page 8

11. Volume of a Cylinder

V=

π 2 d L where L is cylinder length 4

12. Pyramid

Volume V= 1 base area x perpendicular height 3

Volume of frustum VF =
13. Cone

h (A + a + Aa ) where h is the perpendicular height, A and a are areas as shown 3

Area of curved surface of cone: A= π DL 2

Area of curved surface of frustum AF = π (D + d)L 2

Volume of cone:
V= base area × perpendicular height 3

Volume of frustum:
VF = perpendicular height × π (R 2 + r 2 + Rr) 3

Page 9

APPLIED MECHANICS Scalar Vector

- a property described by a magnitude only - a property described by a magnitude and a direction
displacement time

Velocity - vector property equal to

The magnitude of velocity may be referred to as speed In SI the basic unit is m , in Imperial ft s s

Other common units are km , mi h h
Conversions:

1

m ft = 3.28 s s km mi = 0.621 h h

1

Speed of sound in dry air is 331 m at 0°C and increases by about 0.61 m for each °C s s rise Speed of light in vacuum equals 3 x 108 m s
Acceleration - vector property equal to
change in velocity time

In SI the basic unit is

m ft , in Imperial 2 2 s s = 3.28 ft s2 m ft or 32.2 2 2 s s

Conversion:

1

m s2

Acceleration due to gravity, symbol "g", is 9.81

Page 10

LINEAR VELOCITY AND ACCELERATION
u v t s a initial velocity final velocity elapsed time displacement acceleration
v = u + at s= v+u t 2 s = ut + 1 at 2 2 v 2 = u 2 + 2 as

Angular Velocity and Acceleration θ angular displacement (radians) ω angular velocity (radians/s); ω1 = initial, ω2 = final α angular acceleration (radians/s2) ω2 = ω1 + α t θ = ω1 + ω2 x t 2 θ = ω1 t + ½ α t2 ω2 2 = ω1 2 + 2 α θ linear displacement, s = r θ linear velocity, v = r ω linear, or tangential acceleration, aT = r α

Page 11

Tangential, Centripetal and Total Acceleration

Tangential acceleration aT is due to angular acceleration α
a T = rα

Centripetal (Centrifugal) acceleration ac is due to change in direction only ac = v2/r = r ω2 Total acceleration, a, of a rotating point experiencing angular acceleration is the vector sum of aT and ac a = aT + ac

FORCE
Vector quantity, a push or pull which changes the shape and/or motion of an object In SI the unit of force is the newton, N, defined as a In Imperial the unit of force is the pound lb
Conversion: 9.81 N = 2.2 lb Weight
kg m s2

The gravitational force of attraction between a mass, m, and the mass of the Earth In SI weight can be calculated from Weight = F = mg , where g = 9.81 m/s2

In Imperial, the mass of an object (rarely used), in slugs, can be calculated from the known weight in pounds
m= Weight g g = 32.2 ft s2

Page 12

Newton's Second Law of Motion

An unbalanced force F will cause an object of mass m to accelerate a, according to: F = ma
Torque Equation

(Imperial F = w a, where w is weight) g

T=Iα
Momentum

where T is the acceleration torque in Nm, I is the moment of inertia in kg m2 and α is the angular acceleration in radians/s2

Vector quantity, symbol p, p = mv in SI unit is
Work

(Imperial p = w v, where w is weight) g
kg m s

Scalar quantity, equal to the (vector) product of a force and the displacement of an object. In simple systems, where W is work, F force and s distance W = Fs In SI the unit of work is the joule, J, or kilojoule, kJ 1 J = 1 Nm In Imperial the unit of work is the ft-lb
Energy

Energy is the ability to do work, the units are the same as for work; J, kJ, and ft-lb

Page 13

Kinetic Energy

Energy due to motion
E k = 1 mv 2 2

In Imperial this is usually expressed as E k = w v 2 where w is weight 2g
Kinetic Energy of Rotation

1 E R = mk 2 ω 2 where k is radius of gyration, ω is angular velocity in rad/s 2 or 1 E R = Iω 2 2 where I = mk2 is the moment of inertia

CENTRIPETAL (CENTRIFUGAL) FORCE
FC = or FC = m ω2 r
Potential Energy

mv 2 r

where ω is angular velocity in rad/s

Energy due to position in a force field, such as gravity Ep = m g h In Imperial this is usually expressed Ep = w h where w is weight, and h is height above some specified datum

Page 14

Thermal Energy

In SI the common units of thermal energy are J, and kJ, (and kJ/kg for specific quantities) In Imperial, the units of thermal energy are British Thermal Units (Btu)
Conversions: Electrical Energy

1 Btu = 1055 J 1 Btu = 778 ft-lb

In SI the units of electrical energy are J, kJ and kilowatt hours kWh. In Imperial, the unit of electrical energy is the kWh
Conversions: Power

1 kWh = 3600 kJ 1 kWh = 3412 Btu = 2.66 x 106 ft-lb

A scalar quantity, equal to the rate of doing work In SI the unit is the Watt W (or kW)
1 W = 1J s

In Imperial, the units are: Mechanical Power Thermal Power Electrical Power Conversions:
ft – lb , horsepower h.p. s

Btu s

W, kW, or h.p. 746 W = 1 h.p. 1 h.p. = 550 ft – lb s 1 kW = 0.948 Btu s

Page 15

Pressure

A vector quantity, force per unit area In SI the basic units of pressure are pascals Pa and kPa
1 Pa = 1 N2 m

In Imperial, the basic unit is the pound per square inch, psi
Atmospheric Pressure

At sea level atmospheric pressure equals 101.3 kPa or 14.7 psi
Pressure Conversions

1 psi = 6.895 kPa Pressure may be expressed in standard units, or in units of static fluid head, in both SI and Imperial systems Common equivalencies are: 1 kPa = 0.294 in. mercury = 7.5 mm mercury 1 kPa = 4.02 in. water = 102 mm water 1 psi = 2.03 in. mercury = 51.7 mm mercury 1 psi = 27.7 in. water = 703 mm water 1 m H2O = 9.81 kPa Other pressure unit conversions: 1 bar = 14.5 psi = 100 kPa 1 kg/cm2 = 98.1 kPa = 14.2 psi = 0.981 bar 1 atmosphere (atm) = 101.3 kPa = 14.7 psi

Page 16

Simple Harmonic Motion

Velocity of P = ω R 2 - x 2

m s

Acceleration of P = ω2 x m/s2 The period or time of a complete oscillation = General formula for the period of S.H.M. T = 2π
displacement acceleration

2π seconds ω

Simple Pendulum

T = 2π

L g

T = period or time in seconds for a double swing L = length in metres

The Conical Pendulum

R/H = tan θ= Fc/W = ω2 R/g

Page 17

Lifting Machines

F = force applied

V.R. (velocity ratio) =

effort distance load distance M.A. V.R.

η

= efficiency =

1. Lifting Blocks

V.R. = number of rope strands supporting the load block
2. Wheel & Differential Axle

Velocity ratio =

2 πR 2 π(r - r1 ) 2

=

2R 2R r - r1

3. Inclined Plane

2D (d - d 1 )

V.R. =

length height

4. Screw Jack

V.R. =

circumference of leverage pitch of thread

Page 18

Indicated Power

I.P. = Pm A L N

where I.P. is power in W, Pm is mean or "average" effective pressure in Pa, A is piston area in m2, L is length of stroke in m and N is number of power strokes per second

Brake Power

B.P. = Tω where B.P. is brake power in W, T is torque in Nm and ω is angular velocity in radian/second
STRESS, STRAIN and MODULUS OF ELASTICITY

Direct stress =

load P = area A extension ∆ = original length L

Direct strain =

Modulus of elasticity E= PL direct stress P/A = = direct strain ∆ / L A∆ force area under shear

Shear stress τ = x L

Shear strain =

Modulus of rigidity G= shear stress shear strain

Page 19

General Torsion Equation (Shafts of circular cross-section)
T = τ = Gθ J r L

1. For Solid Shaft

J=

π 4 πd 4 r = 2 32

2. For Hollow Shaft π J = (r14 - r24 ) 2 π 4 = (d 1 − d 4 ) 2 32

T = torque or twisting moment in newton metres J = polar second moment of area of cross-section about shaft axis. τ = shear stress at outer fibres in pascals r = radius of shaft in metres G = modulus of rigidity in pascals θ = angle of twist in radians L = length of shaft in metres d = diameter of shaft in metres

Relationship Between Bending Stress and External Bending Moment
M=σ=E y R I

1. For Rectangle

M I σ y E R I= BD 3 12

= = = = = =

external bending moment in newton metres second moment of area in m4 bending stress at outer fibres in pascals distance from centroid to outer fibres in metres modulus of elasticity in pascals radius of currative in metres

2. For Solid Shaft
4 I = πD 64

Page 20

THERMODYNAMICS Temperature Scales

5 ° C = (° F − 32) 9 °R = °F + 460 (R Rankine)
Sensible Heat Equation

°F =

9 °C + 32 5

K = °C + 273 (K Kelvin)

Q

= mc∆T m is mass c is specific heat ∆T is temperature change

Latent Heat

Latent heat of fusion of ice = 335 kJ/kg Latent heat of steam from and at 100°C = 2257 kJ/kg 1 tonne of refrigeration = 335 000 kJ/day = 233 kJ/min
Gas Laws 1. Boyle’s Law

When gas temperature is constant PV P1V1 = constant or

= P2V2

where P is absolute pressure and V is volume
2. Charles’ Law

When gas pressure is constant, or

V = constant T

V1 V2 , where V is volume and T is absolute temperature = T1 T2

Page 21

3. Gay-Lussac's Law

When gas volume is constant,

P = constant T

Or

P1 P2 = , where P is absolute pressure and T is absolute temperature T1 T2

4. General Gas Law
P1V1 P2V2 = = constant T1 T2

PV=mRT

where P V T m R

= = = = =

absolute pressure (kPa) volume (m3) absolute temp (K) mass (kg) characteristic constant (kJ/kgK)

Also PV = nRoT where P V T N Ro = = = = = absolute pressure (kPa) volume (m3) absolute temperature K the number of kmoles of gas the universal gas constant 8.314 kJ/kmol/K

SPECIFIC HEATS OF GASES
Specific Heat at Constant Pressure kJ/kgK or kJ/kg oC 1.005 2.060 0.825 1.051 5.234 14.235 1.105 2.177 1.043 0.913 0.632 Specific Heat at Constant Volume kJ/kgK or kJ/kg oC 0.718 1.561 0.630 0.751 3.153 10.096 0.85 1.675 0.745 0.652 0.451 Ratio of Specific Heats γ = cp / c v

GAS

Air Ammonia Carbon Dioxide Carbon Monoxide Helium Hydrogen Hydrogen Sulphide Methane Nitrogen Oxygen Sulphur Dioxide

1.40 1.32 1.31 1.40 1.66 1.41 1.30 1.30 1.40 1.40 1.40

Page 22

Efficiency of Heat Engines

Carnot Cycle η = sink

T1 – T2 T1

where T1 and T2 are absolute temperatures of heat source and

Air Standard Efficiencies 1. Spark Ignition Gas and Oil Engines (Constant Volume Cycle or Otto Cycle)

η =1-

1 r
(γ - 1) v

where rv = compression ratio =

cylinder volume clearance volume

γ
2. Diesel Cycle

=

specific heat (constant pressure) specific heat (constant volume)

(R γ − 1) η = 1 - γ -1 rv γ(R - 1)

where r = ratio of compression R = ratio of cut-off volume to clearance volume

3. High Speed Diesel (Dual-Combustion) Cycle

η =1-

kβ γ - 1 rvγ - 1 [(k - 1) + γk(β - 1)] cylinder volume clearance volume absolute pressue at end of constant V heating (combustion) absolute pressue at beginning of constant V combustion volume at end of constant P heating (combustion) clearance volume

where rv =

k=

β=

4. Gas Turbines (Constant Pressure or Brayton Cycle)
η =11 r
⎛ γ −1 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ γ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ p

Page 23

where rp = pressure ratio =

compressor discharge pressure compressor intake pressure

Page 24

Heat Transfer by Conduction
Q = λAt∆T d where Q = heat transferred in joules λ = thermal conductivity or coeficient of heat transfer in 2J × m or W m × °C m × s × °C 2 A = area in m t = time in seconds ∆T = temperature difference between surfaces in °C d = thickness of layer in m

COEFFICIENTS OF THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY Material Coefficient of Thermal Conductivity W/m °C

Air Aluminum Brass Brick Concrete Copper Cork Felt Glass Glass, fibre Iron, cast Plastic, cellular Steel Wood Wallboard, paper

0.025 206 104 0.6 0.85 380 0.043 0.038 1.0 0.04 70 0.04 60 0.15 0.076

Page 25

Thermal Expansion of Solids

Increase in length where L α (T2 – T1 ) Increase in volume Where V β (T2 – T1 )

= = = = = = = =

L α (T2 – T1 ) original length coefficient of linear expansion rise in temperature V β (T2 – T1 ) original volume coefficient of volumetric expansion rise in temperature

coefficient of volumetric expansion = coefficient of linear expansion x 3 β = 3α

Page 26

Chemical Heating Value of a Fuel

Chemical Heating Value MJ per kg of fuel = 33.7 C + 144 H 2 C H2 O2 S is the mass of carbon per kg of fuel is the mass of hydrogen per kg of fuel is the mass of oxygen per kg of fuel is the mass of sulphur per kg of fuel

(

O2 8

) + 9.3 S

Theoretical Air Required to Burn Fuel

Air (kg per kg of fuel) =

[8 C + 8 (H 3

2

-

O2 8

) + S] 100 23

Air Supplied from Analysis of Flue Gases

Air in kg per kg of fuel = C N2 CO2 CO

N2 ×C 33 (CO 2 + CO)

is the percentage of carbon in fuel by mass is the percentage of nitrogen in flue gas by volume is the percentage of carbon dioxide in flue gas by volume is the percentage of carbon monoxide in flue gas by volume

Boiler Formulae

Equivalent evaporation =

m s (h 1 - h 2 ) 2257 kJ/kg

Factor of evaporation =

(h 1 - h 2 ) 2257 kJ/kg

Boiler efficiency = where m s h1 h2 mf = = = =

m s (h 1 - h 2 ) m f x calorific value of fuel

mass flow rate of steam enthalpy of steam produced in boiler enthalpy of feedwater to boiler mass flow rate of fuel

Page 27

FLUID MECHANICS Discharge from an Orifice

Let A and Ac then Ac

= = =

or Cc

=

cross-sectional area of the orifice = (π/4)d2 2 cross-sectional area of the jet at the vena conrtacta = ((π/4) d c CcA 2 Ac ⎛ dc ⎞ =⎜ ⎟ A ⎝ d ⎠

where Cc is the coefficient of contraction

At the vena contracta, the volumetric flow rate Q of the fluid is given by
Q = area of the jet at the vena contracta × actual velocity = A cv or Q = C cAC v 2gh

The coefficients of contraction and velocity are combined to give the coefficient of discharge, Cd
i.e. C d = C cC v and Q = C dA 2gh

Typically, values for Cd vary between 0.6 and 0.65 Circular orifice: Q = 0.62 A 2gh Where Q = flow (m3/s) A = area (m2) h = head (m)

Rectangular notch: Q = 0.62 (B x H) 2 2gh 3 Where B = breadth (m) H = head (m above sill)

Triangular Right Angled Notch: Q = 2.635 H5/2 Where H = head (m above sill)
Page 28

Bernoulli’s Theory

H = h+

P v2 + w 2g H = total head (metres) h = height above datum level (metres) P = pressure (N/m2 or Pa)

w = force of gravity on 1 m3 of fluid (N) v = velocity of water (metres per second)

Loss of Head in Pipes Due to Friction
2 Loss of head in metres = f L v d 2g

L = length in metres d = diameter in metres pipes

v = velocity of flow in metres per second f = constant value of 0.01 in large pipes to 0.02 in small

Note: This equation is expressed in some textbooks as 2 Loss = 4f L v where the f values range from 0.0025 to 0.005 d 2g Actual Pipe Dimensions

Page 29

ELECTRICITY Ohm's Law

I = or where

E R

E = IR I = current (amperes) E = electromotive force (volts) R = resistance (ohms)

Conductor Resistivity

R = ρ where

L a ρ = specific resistance (or resistivity) (ohm metres, Ω·m) L = length (metres) a = area of cross-section (square metres)

Temperature correction Rt = Ro (1 + αt) where Ro = resistance at 0ºC (Ω) Rt = resistance at tºC (Ω) α = temperature coefficient which has an average value for copper of 0.004 28 (Ω/ΩºC) R2 = R1
(1 + αt 2 ) (1 + αt 1 )

where R1 = resistance at t1 (Ω) R2 = resistance at t2 (Ω) α Values copper platinum nickel tungsten aluminum Ω/ΩºC 0.00428 0.00385 0.00672 0.0045 0.0040

Page 30

Dynamo Formulae

Average e.m.f. generated in each conductor =

2Φ NpZ 60c

where Z = total number of armature conductors c = number of parallel paths through winding between positive and negative brushes where c = 2 (wave winding), c = 2p (lap winding) Φ = useful flux per pole (webers), entering or leaving the armature p = number of pairs of poles N = speed (revolutions per minute) Generator Terminal volts = EG – IaRa Motor Terminal volts = EB + IaRa where EG EB Ia Ra = = = = generated e.m.f. generated back e.m.f. armature current armature resistance

Alternating Current

R.M.S. value of sine curve = 0.707 maximum value Mean value of sine curve = 0.637 maximum value R.M.S. value 0.707 Form factor of sinusoidal = = = 1.11 Mean value 0.637 Frequency of alternator = pN cycles per second 60

Where p = number of pairs of poles N = rotational speed in r/min

Page 31

Slip of Induction Motor

Slip speed of field - speed of rotor x 100 Speed of field
Inductive Reactance

Reactance of AC circuit (X) = 2πfL ohms where L = inductance of circuit (henries) 1.256T 2 µA henries Inductance of an iron cored solenoid = L x 10 8 where T µ A L = = = = turns on coil magnetic permeablility of core area of core (square centimetres) length (centimetres)

Capacitance Reactance

Capacitance reactance of AC circuit = where

1 ohms 2πfC

1 ⎞ ⎛ Total reactance = ⎜ 2πfL ⎟ohms 2π fC ⎠ ⎝ Impedence (Z) =
=
Current in AC Circuit

(resistance) 2 + (reactance) 2
R 2 + (2π fL 1 2 ) ohms 2 π fC

Current =

impressed volts impedance

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Power Factor

p.f. =

true watts volts x amperes

also p.f. = cos Φ, where Φ is the angle of lag or lead
Three Phase Alternators

Star connected Line voltage = 3 x phase voltage Line current = phase current Delta connected Line voltage = phase voltage Line current = 3 x phase current Three phase power P = 3 EL IL cos Φ EL = line voltage IL = line current cos Φ = power factor

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Page 34

ION NAMES AND FORMULAE

MONATOMIC
Ag+ Al3+ Au+ and Au2+ Be2+ Ca2+ Co2+ and Co3+ Cr2+ and Cr3+ Cu+ and Cu2+ Fe2+ and Fe3+ K+ Li+ Mg2+ Na+ Zn2+ silver ion aluminum ion gold ion beryllium ion calcium ion cobalt ion chromium ion copper ion iron ion potassium ion lithium ion magnesium ion sodium ion zinc ion BO33C2H3O2ClOClO2ClO3ClO4CNCO32C2O42CrO42Cr2O72HCO3H3O+ HPO42H2PO4HSO3HSO4MnO4N3NH4+ NO2NO3O22OCNOHPO33PO43SCNSO32SO42S2O32-

POLYATOMIC
borate ion acetate ion hypochlorite ion chlorite ion chlorate ion perchlorate ion cyanide ion carbonate ion oxalate ion chromate ion dichromate ion hydrogen carbonate or bicarbonate ion hydronium ion hydrogen phosphate ion dihydrogen phosphate ion hydrogen sulphite or bisulphite ion hydrogen sulphate or bisulphate ion permanganate ion azide ion ammonium ion nitrite ion nitrate ion peroxide ion cyanate ion hydroxide ion phosphite ion phosphate ion thiocyanate ion sulphite ion sulphate ion thiosulphate ion

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