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					DIVERSITY

ASIAN IS NOT ORIENTAL
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
1) Students will be able to analyze stereotypes that they or those around them have about people of Asian decent. 2) Students will be able to consider how language can be a powerful vehicle for discrimination and insensitivity.

PROCEDURE

1) Have students brainstorm ideas about stereotypes that they have heard or that they think about Asian Americans. 2) After students have listed some ideas, pass out “Asian Is Not Oriental.” 3) When students have finished reading the poem, hold a follow-up discussion to share what has been learned and discuss the stereotypes that were used.

ESTIMATED TIME (50-60 min.)

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Brainstorming: 5 minutes Reading “Asian Is Not Oriental:” 5 minutes Follow-up discussion: o For class of 10 students: 20 minutes o For class of 20 students: 30 minutes

MATERIALS

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Poem, “Asian Is Not Oriental” Pens/pencils Paper

GROUPING

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Individual for brainstorming and reflecting Partners to compare poetry Entire class for discussion

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ASIAN IS NOT ORIENTAL
author unknown

Asian is not Oriental. head bowed, submissive race, minority hard working, studious quiet. Asian is not being Oriental Lotus blossom, exotic passion flower inscrutable Asian is not talking Oriental ann so, ching chong chinaman Oriental is a white man’s word Oriental is a jap, flip, chink, gook it’s “how about a backrub Mama-San” it’s “you people could teach them niggers and Mexicans a thing or two. you’re good people none of that hollerin’ and protesting” Oriental is slanty eyes, glasses, and buck teeth. Charlie Chan, Tokyo Rose, Madam Butterfly it’s “a half hour after eating Chinese you’re hungry again” it’s houseboys, gardeners, and laundrymen Oriental is a wok, yin-yang, kung fu “say one of those funny words for me” Oriental is downcast eyes, china doll “they all look alike” Oriental is sneaky.

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DIVERSITY Oriental is a white man’s word We are not Oriental we have heard the word all our lives we have learned to be Oriental we have learned to live it, speak it play the role, and to survive in a white world becoming the role The time has come to look at who gave us the name

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COMMON QUESTIONS ABOUT HOMOSEXUALITYwill be able to explore common questions that 1) Students LEARNING
OBJECTIVES

undergraduates often have about homosexuality. 2) Students will be able to address questions that they have about homosexuality.

PROCEDURE

1) Prior to class, gather and read through recommended materials listed on handout (i.e., excerpts from Chuck Stewart’s manual Sexually Stigmatized Communities). 2) During class, have students brainstorm what questions they have about homosexuality. 3) As a class, address each question (if speakers are present, have them answer the questions. Otherwise, use Stewart’s manual).
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ESTIMATED TIME (60 min.) MATERIALS

Brainstorming questions: 10 minutes Reading through and discussing questions and answers: 50 minutes

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“Common Questions” handout Pens/pencils

GROUPING

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Entire class

NOTE TO INSTRUCTOR

**A variation of this activity is to have speakers from the LGBTA. If you have questions or would like to schedule a speaker, you may contact Luke Jensen, Director of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Equity, at (301) 405-8721 or William Simpkins, the Coordinator of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Student Involvement and Community Advocacy, at (301) 314-7174.

SAMPLE EXERCISES
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Adapted from “What undergraduates want to know about homosexuality” by David M. McCord and Harold A. Herzog, and published in Teaching of Psychology 18:4 (December 1994): 243-44

1. Family-of-origin relationships and reactions.
Does your family/parents/siblings know? How did they react when they found out you were gay? How do you relate to them now? How did you tell them?
(for further information, please refer to Sexually Stigmatized Communities by Chuck Stewart, pg. 133)

2. Development, etiology, and past experiences and influences (essentialist and constructivist).
When did you become gay? Why do you want to be gay? What made you gay? Is homosexuality a choice, learned, or instinctive? Did past experiences in childhood affect your sexual preference? Were you influenced by a person or event?
(for further information, please refer to Sexually Stigmatized Communities by Chuck Stewart, pg. 97-108; 189-195)

3. Discrimination and experiential issues.
Do you feel you have to hide your sexual preferences under certain circumstances? Have you experienced discrimination because of your sexual orientation? How do your friends react? How do you cope with discrimination? Should you have “special” gay rights? Do you enjoy being gay? Are you ashamed? Is it hard for you to go out in public? What do you fear most?
(for further information, please refer to Sexually Stigmatized Communities by Chuck Stewart, pg. 184-187; 196-206)

4. Religion.
What is your religious background and present religious affiliation? How do you justify your lifestyle from a religious perspective? How do you justify your actions through the Bible? 5.

Raising children in a homosexual household and homosexual marriage.

Would you want to adopt a child? Do you think it is fair to the child to be raised in a homosexual household in terms of peer pressure, teasing, and so forth? Do you think you will have an influence on that child’s sexual preferences? Do you believe children need male and female role models? Should it be legalized? Do you wish to marry? Are you married? How do you feel about the laws regarding homosexual marriage?
**Sexually Stigmatized Communities by Chuck Stewart is available in the LGBTA Resource Room (CSS 2103), Mon.-Fri. 3:00 to 6:00

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GAY/LESBIAN/BISEXUAL PERSONS FACT SHEET
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
3) Students will be able to develop a greater understanding of the harmful and dangerous misconceptions and generalizations contained in stereotypes about gay/lesbian/bisexual people. 4) Students will be able to think about the role of stereotypes in their lives and actions.

PROCEDURE

4) Distribute handout. 5) Read through and question each stereotype with students. 6) As a group, brainstorm ways students may be better allies for gay/lesbian/bisexual people.

ESTIMATED TIME (40 min.) MATERIALS

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Distributing and explaining handout: 5 minutes Reading through and discussing stereotypes: 35 minutes

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“Gay/Lesbian…” handout Pens/pencils

GROUPING

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Entire class

NOTE TO INSTRUCTOR

**This exercise must be carefully run, keeping in mind that many students may be sensitive to the stereotypes.

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Gay/Lesbians/Bisexual Persons Fact Sheet
What causes gay/lesbian/bisexuality? What makes a person gay/lesbian/bisexual? We always assume that heterosexuality is the natural, correct way to be, and that you become homosexual only if something goes wrong. It is more likely that infants are sexually neutral, with their sexuality is shaped by the interaction of dozens of variables. The idea that a gay male is the product of an over-protective mother and a distant father is false. This kind of family relationship is found in both the families of gay and straight people. There is no evidence that gay/lesbian/bisexuals have faulty hormone levels or that their sexual orientation can be changed with hormone injections. Studies have shown that hormone shots may increase the level of sexual desire, but they will not change where the desire is directed…to a samesex partner. Can homosexuality be cured? Homosexuality is not an illness. The American Psychiatric Association removed homosexuality from its list of mental illnesses in December 1973. The psychiatric profession is in the process of slowly reducing its staff into persons that accept homosexuality as a viable lifestyle. However, many psychiatrists, psychologists, and counselors are still attempting a “cure.” “Cure” treatments have included such methods as lobotomies, electric shock treatment, and inducement of vomiting. Surgical procedures and aversion therapy as well as conventional counseling may change the client’s behavior, but here has been no evidence shown to support attitude change. Persons who claim to be “cured” gays/lesbians/bisexuals report that they still have same-sex desires and fantasies. A realistic approach to counseling gay people is to help them accept their homosexual lifestyle, to build their self-esteem, and to prepare them for the social stigmas imposed on them by the straight society. Does exposure to gays/lesbians/bisexuals cause a person (child or adult) to be gay? Knowing someone who is gay or even having a gay sexual experience will not cause a person to be gay. Gay men and lesbians have grown-up in a heterosexual society. Throughout their entire lives, gays have been constantly exposed to and barraged with heterosexuality and heterosexual role models, i.e. parents, friends, media. These constant pressures to conform to heterosexuality have not been successful in altering a gay SAMPLE EXERCISES
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DIVERSITY person’s sexual orientation. How, then, can one or even several exposures to the gay/lesbian/bisexual lifestyle cause a person to assume a gay orientation? When Al Reiss of the University of Michigan studied juvenile delinquents, he found that many of them made money by being prostitutes to homosexual men. Yet, none of these boys became homosexuals. So, having homosexual experiences does not necessarily lead to a homosexual preference. Are gay men effeminate and lesbians masculine? The majority of gay men and lesbians live their entire lives without other people suspecting that they are homosexual. They can do so precisely because of their conventional appearance. Very few gay people adopt mannerisms of the opposite sex. The ones who do are highly visible, so people falsely tend to think of all gay people in terms of these stereotypes. A small percentage of gay men and lesbians have adopted opposite-sex appearance/mannerisms in an attempt to conform to society’s role models. The only role model’s gays have had have been heterosexual. Therefore, some gays falsely assumed that they had to fit into either the sex role behavior of a man or a woman. With the advent of Gay Liberation and Women’s Liberation, gay/lesbian/bisexual people are more open about their preference and are, therefore, more visible to one another: they are able to see the great diversity of appearances and attitudes in the gay community…as much as there is in the heterosexual community. Do gays/lesbians/bisexuals recruit from the straight community? Gay men and lesbians are not interested in converting straight people to homosexuality. They do wish to meet other gay people and form friendships and lasting relationships, just as straight people do. Since lesbians and gay men are not recognizable from the rest of the population, they may have to take a risk and approach someone they are attracted to and make their interest known. If that person is straight, she/he need only indicate that she/he is straight and/or is not interested. This would be no different than a heterosexual woman declining a date from a man she is not interested in. Are gays/lesbians/bisexuals maladjusted people? Various outdated studies have indicated that lesbians and gay men are sick, bad, crazy or stupid. Until the last ten years, gay people have not “come out” and made themselves visible. Subjects used in these older studies were gay men and lesbians in therapy. Any person in therapy, whether gay or straight, is there because she/he has problems. These clinical samples were not representative of the gay community. Current studies of non-clinical gay professionals and laypersons indicate that gays are psychologically as healthy as straights. SAMPLE EXERCISES
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Child custody for gay and lesbian parents Throughout the U.S. gay parents are losing custody of their children to straight spouses, to grandparents, and even to aunts and uncles, simply because they are gay. When the court examines what is in the child’s best interest, frequently the issue becomes the parents’ sexuality rather than focusing on whether the relationship between the parent and child is a secure and a loving one. The courts fear that the child will become gay/lesbian/bisexual or will be exposed to social stigma. However, child psychologists claim that the most important factor in a child’s healthy development is a warm, loving relationship of mutual respect between the child and the parent and that it is this relationship that should be the determining factor in deciding custody rights. Most courts are very biased against the gay parent. Often the gay parent must undergo a battery of psychological tests to determine his/her fitness while the straight parent is a not subjected to such testing. Usually the gay parent is denied custody, or in cases where the decision does grant the gay parent custody, it is often with the stipulation that she/he not live with her/his lover, in an attempt to force the parent into the heterosexual norm. It is never supposed that there might be some positive or liberating effects for the child to be exposed to a gay/lesbian/bisexual relationship.

How are children affected if raised by a gay/lesbian/bisexual parent? Approximately 37% of lesbian women and 10% of gay men have children of their own from previous heterosexual relationships. A common myth is that exposure to a gay lifestyle will cause the child to be gay. Gay people have grown up with heterosexual role models their entire lives and have not become heterosexual as a result. How then can a gay/lesbian/bisexual person as a role model significantly influence the sexual orientation of her/his child, given the fact that peer pressure, the media, and the majority of society presents only the heterosexual role model? Another myth is that the child will endure untold embarrassment and harsh treatment from her/his peers because homosexuality is not an acceptable lifestyle to the majority of our population. A child of a gay/lesbian/bisexual parent will suffer no worse treatment than a child who comes from a racially mixed family, a handicapped family, a mentally retarded family, or an extremely poor or extremely rich family.

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DIVERSITY If the gay/lesbian/bisexual parent is open about his/her sexuality, the child may be better able to cope with the variety of sexual experiences that puberty, adolescence, and adult life present. The most important criterion for raising a child is love. A gay parent is just as capable of loving and caring for her/his child as a straight parent. Are gay/lesbian/bisexuals a threat to the nuclear family? Gay/lesbian/bisexuals share the same values as the families, which reared them. They too have mothers, fathers, sisters, brothers, aunts and uncles, and grandparents whom they love and care for. Lesbian and gay men have children of their own from previous heterosexual relationships. For these reasons, most homosexuals like most heterosexuals respect the family unit. That respect leads both homosexuals and heterosexuals to establish stable and long-term relationships. Just as many heterosexual relationships are childless, so too are homosexual relationships. But a childless relationship poses no threat to the basic nuclear family.

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Exercise provided by Maura O’Dea and Jennifer Fraser Fall 1999

GLASS HOUSES
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
1) Students will be able to analyze how they interact and cope with various obstacles. 2) Students will be able to learn more about each other and themselves through teamwork.

PROCEDURE ESTIMATED TIME (45-60 min.)

**See worksheet for step-by-step instructions

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Explanation: 10 minutes Group work: o For class of 10 students: 20 minutes o For class of 20 students: 30 minutes Follow-up questions: o For class of 10 students: 15 minutes o For class of 20 students: 20 minutes

MATERIALS

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Newsprint paper Markers Pens/Pencils Blind folds Cotton balls

GROUPING

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Small group for activity Entire class for follow-up discussion

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GLASS HOUSES
Materials: 4 pieces of newsprint paper, markers, blindfolds, cotton balls
 Pick 4 students to observe groups. They will need pencil and paper. Brief them about the activity before you begin. Their job is to: 1. Keep a close eye on the groups in order to make sure that each student honors their disability. 2. Make a note of everything they observe: Any troubles the group has communicating, how they communicate, which individuals try to get the group to work together and who does not participate at all, etc. Also, write down the things that happen when the group changes (when new members are added). How does the new person adapt? How does the group treat the new member? Do they try to communicate with each other? What is the communication process? To the remaining students:  Divide class into 4 groups and assign each group a disability. o Group 1: Speaks backwards. (Ex: If I want to say, “I’m a senior at the University of Maryland,” I will say, “Maryland of University the at senior a I’m.”) o Group 2: This group is blind. Give blindfolds to put over eyes. o Group 3: This group is deaf. Give cotton balls to put in ears. o Group 4: This group is mute. So, they cannot talk at all.

 Give newsprint and markers to each group and tell them that they need to draw a house where they could all live. They cannot write anything down to communicate with their group. They need to find a way to communicate with each other within the bounds of their disability.  Give groups 8-10 minutes to work and then selectively move a few people to other groups. This is usually a shock to movers and remaining members of the group.  After another 6-8 minutes, switch another group of students out of their groups and put them in different ones.  After another 6-8 minutes, call the activity to a close and ask small groups to explain their houses.

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DIVERSITY  What is most important is how they worked together, not what they drew.

Suggested questions for discussion:  Did anyone have any problems working with their group while drawing the house?  Ask observers to talk about what they saw and heard. Probe for examples of how groups worked with or left out newcomers, how those newcomers felt in their new group, etc.  Ask the students who were movers what it felt like to leave their “home” group and move to another.  How is this similar to your experiences on campus? What is it like to be in a group that does not accept your special gifts? How can you be more accepting of others by what you learned in this exercise?

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Exercise provided by Mark Kenyon and Karen Andrews Fall 1999

DIVERSITY CARDS
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
1) Students will be able to think critically about stereotypes that they believe, subconsciously and consciously. 2) Students will be able to place themselves in positions to which they are not accustomed.

PROCEDURE

1) Explain activity. 2) Assign each student a card (make sure he/she does not see what is written on it!) 3) Allow students to interact with one another for at least fifteen minutes (see below). 4) Afterwards, have students remove the cards from their backs. 5) Hold a follow-up discussion to address how students responded to “walking in the shoes” of someone else.

ESTIMATED TIME (40-55 min.)

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Explanation: 5 minutes Activity: o For class of 10 students: 15 minutes o For class of 20 students: 20 minutes Follow-up discussion: o For class of 10 students: 20 minutes o For class of 20 students: 30 minutes

MATERIALS

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Index cards

GROUPING

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Entire class

NOTE TO INSTRUCTOR

**This activity may trigger some sensitive issues/experiences for students. For this reason, it may be necessary to begin the class by reviewing, restating, or stating for the first time the importance of “ground rules” for respectful and safe communication.

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DIVERSITY CARDS
Rules: Each student receives a card on their back. The card labels who they are (whether it be relating to race, religion, gender, class, etc.). The care is placed on their back and do not know what it says. Then they go around and converse with others in the room. Objective: An interactive event followed by a discussion to get them recognizing when they hold a stereotype, why and how they can understand and possibly change their outlook and become more open-minded. Also, it lets them see how it feels to be labeled. The discussion allows them to voice opinions, feelings, thoughts and ideas. Labels 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. for cards: Blank card Person infected with AIDS (HIV+) Gay man Lesbian woman Man on welfare Richest woman in the world African American woman Asian American man White male College jock Straight A student Disabled person in a wheelchair Blind woman Catholic priest Young Jewish boy Old woman with cancer Indian Woman

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MAKING VISIBLE THE INVISIBLE MINORITY
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
1) Students will be able to think critically about what it feels like to be the “outcast.” 2) Students will be able to put themselves in a situation where they must address what it feels like to be an “outcast.”

PROCEDURE

1) Have students read “Making Visible the Invisible Minority.” 2) Once they have read it, discuss with the class what they think of it. Does it appear to be accurate? Can anyone relate to it, personally or through the experiences of others? 3) Have students list the real life ways one may be an invisible minority. 4) Brainstorm ideas about how to be allies of “invisible minorities.”

ESTIMATED TIME (50-55 min.)

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Reading “Making Visible the Invisible Minority”: 10 minutes Discussing the article: 10 minutes Making list: 10 minutes Brainstorming: o For class of 10 students: 20 minutes o For class of 20 students: 25 minutes

MATERIALS

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Article, “Making Visible the Invisible Minority” Pens/pencils Paper

GROUPING NOTE TO INSTRUCTOR

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Individual for reading article and writing list Entire class for discussions and brainstorming **You may wish to change some of the discussions into journals.

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Making Visible the Invisible Minority
Fantasy Close your eyes…think of the person you have most been in love with…imagine that you have gone out for several months…for some reason you cannot talk about his person or be open about your relationship. It is Friday afternoon in the residence hall. People are talking about dates for the weekend and getting ready while you are in your room, listening to the stereo, reading a magazine. Your roommate comes in with several friends. Your roommate says, “I’m going out with ______ again tonight. We are going out to dinner”. The others discuss their weekend plans and talk about who they are seeing. One asks you, “What are you doing tonight? You’re not going to study again, are you?” You reply you do not have any big plans – you are just going to mess around. They try to fix you up with someone, you reply, “maybe some other time.” They continue talking about their dates and plans. Whenever you can, you smile, nod your head, and joke with them about love and sex so they will not be suspicious. You think about your friend, who you have been seeing for several months. You wish you could tell your roommate and friends about all of the good times you have had, how it feels to be in love, etc. But you know you cannot say anything. Finally, they all leave for their dates. You take a shower, dress, and meet in front of the residence hall. Although you are really glad to see each other, you cannot hug or kiss each other, you just smile and say hello.

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DIVERSITY You go to a restaurant for dinner. You sit across from each other rather than on the same side. You cannot look too long in each others’ eyes. You cannot touch each other. After dinner, you decide to see a movie. You both wanted to go the dance at school, but since you cannot dance together in public, you opt for a movie. At least in the movie theater, you get to sit beside each other. But cannot touch. When you come out of the theater, you would like to put your arm around _____ or hold hands, but you cannot. Instead, you clasp your hand behind your back. You wish there was some place you could go with ______. You wish you could go to your room, but people might wonder why you always go there, plus your roommate could walk in. You cannot even go where other couples go to hook up. You wish you could tell the world about your love, but you are afraid that you will get disowned, you will get kicked out of school, or your friends will stop talking to you, or you will not get the job you want - and all you are doing in loving this person.

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Exercise provided by the Office of Human Relation Programs

CIRCLES OF MY MULTICULTURAL SELF
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
1) Students will be able to name and prioritize components of their identities. 2) Students will be able to share experiences that occurred due to their identities.

PROCEDURE

1) 2) 3) 4)

Explain the activity. Distribute worksheets. Have each student fill out a worksheet. As a class, discuss what was written and why.

ESTIMATED TIME (50-60 min.)

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Explanation of activity: 5 minutes Filling out worksheet: 15 minutes Class discussion: o For class of 10 students: 30 minutes o For class of 20 students: 40 minutes

MATERIALS

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“Circles…” worksheet Pens/pencils

GROUPING

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Individual for worksheets Entire class for discussion

NOTE TO INSTRUCTOR

**Due to the sensitive nature of this exercise, you may want to restate the importance of respecting other students.

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CIRCLES OF MY MULTICULTURAL SELF
This activity highlights the multiple dimensions of our identity. It addresses the importance of self-defining what is important about ourselves as well as the importance of challenging stereotypes. Place your name in the center of the circle of the circle structure below. In each of the satellite circles, write an aspect of your identity—an identifier or descriptor—that you feel is important in defining you. This can include anything: Asian American, female, mother, athlete, educator, Taoist, scientist, or any descriptor with which you identify.

1. Share a story about a time you were especially proud to identify yourself with one of the descriptors you used above. 2. Share a story about a time it was especially painful to identify with one of your identifiers or descriptors. 3. Name a stereotype associated with one of the groups with which you identify that is not consistent with whom you are. Fill in the following sentence: I am (a/an) ___________________ but I am NOT (a/an) ___________________. So if one of my identifiers was “Christian,” and I thought that a stereotype was that all Christians are radical right Republicans, my sentence would be: I am a Christian, but I am NOT a radical Republican.

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UNLEARNING CHICANO, LATINO, AND PUERTO RICAN STEREOTYPES
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
1) Students will be able to develop a greater understanding of the harmful and dangerous misconceptions and generalizations contained in stereotypes about Chicano, Latino, and Puerto Rican people. 2) Students will be able to think about the role of stereotypes in their lives and actions.

PROCEDURE

1) Distribute and explain handout. 2) Read through and question each stereotype with students. 3) As a group, brainstorm ways students may be better allies for Chicano, Latino, and Puerto Rican people.

ESTIMATED TIME (40 min.) MATERIALS GROUPING

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Distributing and explaining handout: 5 minutes Reading through and discussing stereotypes: 35 minutes

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“Unlearning Chicano…” handout Pens/pencils Entire class

NOTE TO INSTRUCTOR

**This exercise must be carefully run, keeping in mind that students may be sensitive to the stereotypes.

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UNLEARNING CHICANO, LATINO, AND PUERTO RICAN STEREOTYPES
Some common stereotypes:

The following section will discuss some common stereotypes of Latinos that have been perpetuated in the media. While it is important to remember that there are many differences among various Latin American peoples, many of these stereotypes have been used to characterize all Latinos. It is also important to keep in mind that the following characteristics are stereotypes not because they are never true for any individual but because they are often the only characterization of Latinos in the media. The repetition of the same characterization, without the depiction of the full range of human characteristics among Latinos, results in the stereotype.

Latinos are lazy, hate to work, and will put off until “manana” anything that can wait.
The most common image of Latinos, particularly of Mexicans, is the peasant lying under a cactus plant of a tree. Yet, the hardworking Latino members of society, often found in back-breaking and oppressive jobs are rarely portrayed. How often are Latino women shown working in the garment industry, of both men and women depicted doing farm work, or both shown in service industries, particularly in hotels and restaurants? The image of the lazy Latino is a convenient one for those who seek scapegoats to the problems of poverty and lack of sufficient jobs.

Latinos are violent knife-wielders.
In many books and other media, Latinos solve their problems through violence. Depicted as “quick draw” they are portrayed as irrational people with an inflated sense of honor. The “bandido” image is most common here, yet the origins of the “bandido” as freedom fighters is rarely mentioned. Chicano and Puerto Rican gangs are repeatedly depicted with little indication that the great majority of Latinos are not gang members, that gangs develop out of conditions of urban social oppression rather than particular cultural milieus and that gangs often serve important and useful social functions.

Latinos are loud, fun-loving people who love to dance and have great rhythm.
While music and dance are a reality in Latino communities, and indeed a source of pride, they cannot by themselves define a people. The day-to-day lives of Latinos are rarely explored in any meaningful way, particularly their exploitation in education, political life, housing and employment. Depicting Latinos only as fun-loving people ignores their oppression and belittles other accomplishments. It is a comfortable image for those in Anglo society.

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Latinos are simple and exotic.
Authentic depiction of the rich diversity of values, belief systems, and other components of Latino cultures is rarely available. Rather, the cultures are trivialized or distorted by the repetitive portrayal of a few aspects of a culture that are treated as exotica, such as the ubiquitous piñata parties in children’s books about Chicanos and Mexicans. Materials often fail to present the Indian and African contributions to Latino cultures, preferring to dwell on those of Spanish origin. Distinctions between Puerto Rican culture in Puerto Rico and within the U.S. are rarely presented.

Latinos, like children, are simple and honest folks who must be helped and protected by others.
The depiction of Latinos as individually and collectively helpless is a destructive stereotype, for it perpetuates while negating the self-determination of a people. Very common in children’s books, this stereotype is fostered by showing Latinos unable to fend for themselves. Characters repeatedly are depicted relying on Anglo teachers, Anglo social workers, and Anglo police officers to solve their problems. This depiction extends to the political sphere as well, where Latinos are depicted as needing help in running their own countries. The role of the United States, whether in maintaining the colony of Puerto Rico or sending troops to other Latin American countries is thus validated as benevolent assistance to those unable to run their own lives.

Latinos are foreigners.
Most Latinos living in the United States are U.S. citizens. Many have been here for generations. There was, for example, a Puerto Rican community in New York City back in the 1860s. In many sections of what is now the Southwest, the real foreigners are Anglos, for this land was settled by Indians and Mexicans before the U.S. was even established. The image of Latinos as foreigners helps to perpetuate an “America for Americans” native philosophy, as if the U.S. were ever exclusively a country for Europeans. This stereotype also fuels the flames of those who want to restrict the entry of undocumented workers from Mexico. With the exception of Indian people, we are all foreigners in this land.

Latino men are womanizers, oppressive to women and in a word, “macho.”
The very fact that the word “macho” is used by so many to mean “sexist” implies that Latino men are more sexist than Anglo men. Sexism exists in every culture, although it takes different forms. Certainly it is important to confront the reality of sexism in Latino cultures but few other realities of Latino men are ever shown. For example, the change in roles that is happening in so many Latino homes is rarely portrayed. Most books and films persist in showing only the most extreme and timeworn stereotype of Latino men as “Don Juan,” interested only in conquering and oppressing women.

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DIVERSITY Latino women as submissive housewives who are at the beck and call of their menfolk.
Latinas have a long history of activity in the work force, in the arts, and in politics. Most media, however, depict them as long-suffering wives, daughters, mothers, and sisters who have no lives of their own. Because they are often portrayed only as housewives and mothers, children can gain the impression that Latinas do not have a life outside of the home. This is belied by the statistics of Latina women working outside the home, and the by reality of women who are active in every aspect of life.

Latinos all look alike.
A frequent image given by the media is that Latinos are short and swarthy, with long black hair and, in the case of men, moustaches. In reality, Latinos range from dark-skinned to light-skinned, curly to straight and dark to blond hair, short to tall and everything in between. Because of the racial mixture of most Latinos (India, African, and European), it is not unusual to see Latinos with black skin, or freckles, or curly red hair, or green eyes.

Latinos all speak with thick accents.
The fact that some Latinos do indeed speak English with an accent must not be depicted in a negative way. But the truth is that many Latinos speak English with no trace of an accent, many are fully bilingual, and some do not speak Spanish. In fact, some speak an Indian language as their native language. This linguistic diversity is rarely shown in the media.

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WHO STAYS?
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
1) Students will be able to explore their personal opinions about what qualifies someone to stay in college. 2) Students will be able to justify to each other and to the class why they feel a certain student should/should not be able to stay at the university.

PROCEDURE

1) Ask students to think about themselves and why they are in college. Ask them to consider their friends and relatives who did attend or who are attending college. Tell them to think about the reasons why those people were or are in college. 2) Explain that they will be looking at various student profiles and ranking in order from 1 to 10 who deserves to stay in college. 3) Divide the students into groups (about 3 students per group). 4) Each group will have a set amount of time to discuss and rank the students listed (see below). 5) Once each group has come to a consensus on the ranking, they will present to the class and justify their choices.

ESTIMATED TIME (50-55 min.)

  



Introduction: 5 minutes Explanation: 5 minutes Group discussion: o For class of 10 students: 20 minutes o For class of 20 students: 20 minutes Presenting to class: o For class of 10 students: 20 minutes o For class of 20 students: 25 minutes

MATERIALS

  

Worksheets Pens/pencils Paper

GROUPING

  

Individual for instructions Small group for discussion and ranking Entire class for presentations

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WHO STAYS?
You are a member of the Review Board for Academic Standards at Academia College. The board must decide which of the following students will be retained on academic probation in the college and which will be academically dismissed. Although none of these students have GPAs low enough to qualify for automatic dismissal, all are first-year students who were placed on academic probation at the end of the fall semester and still have GPAs below 2.00 at the end of the spring semester. They are eligible for dismissal based upon the judgment of the Board. College policy dictated that 50% may be retained on probation and 50% must be academically dismissed. As a member of the Board, it is your responsibility to rank the students from 1 to 10, according to your judgment of who most deserves to remain at Academia College, with number one being the most deserving. After each member has ranked the students individually, the Board must decide the final ranking as a group. CRITERIA The following criteria should be kept in mind: The person’s potential, abilities, and capabilities. The person’s motivations to perform. The degree of difficulty in conquering the problems the person has experienced. Whether or not services are available on campus to help the student overcome his/her problems. The outcome of his/her education; how important it is to achieve a college education. The probability of successful completion of a college education. THE STUDENTS ______ANGELA: Extremely intelligent and has won awards in high school for her exhibits at the State Science Fair; plans to major in chemistry and works for a chemical company at home during the summer; has much difficulty in relating to others on a social basis; also having great difficulty adjusting to residence hall living; often homesick. ______ALBERT: An All-State quarterback in high school; recruited by the college on full athletic scholarship; scored extremely poorly on the college admittance tests although his high school grades were average; has no major although would like to become a coach, poor class attendance. ______JILL: Ranked low in her graduating class at an exclusive college prep high school; did fair in high school math; did poorly in high school science; parents pushed her towards her declared major in business; doing poorly in these college subjects; has fair study habits; high SAMPLE EXERCISES
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DIVERSITY capabilities in English; family problems are developing with the possibility of parents separating or getting a divorce. ______CAROLYN: A divorced mother with two children; 24 years old; has returned to college to continue her education after dropping out six years ago; works as well as raising her family; commutes; major is 2-year degree in Legal Secretary program; receives financial aid. ______JUAN: A student from Puerto Rico; native language is Spanish; fair student in high school at home, but having some difficult with transition to exclusive use of English; involved in several campus organizations; not working toward any particular major; here because his father wants him to experience an American life-style; three older brothers and sisters have already completed a college education in the U.S. and now have successful working careers working for American companies. ______THOMAS: Out-going and well like among his peers; studied little in high school and has not changed his study habits much; undecided on major; enjoys the college party life most of all; his parents pay for his education and expect him to work in the family business after college, eventually assuming management of the business. ______HOWARD: Came from an influential family in a small town; not particularly strong academically in high school but was “Mr. Popular”; was denied admission to the college he preferred; is having terrible time adjusting to college life; grades are dropping as time passes; uninvolved in campus activities; has much potential that could be utilized. ______KARL: Black student from ghetto background; works 20 hours a week to pay for his education; is aiming for a degree in computer science; would like to get more involved in activities on campus but does not have the time; high potential in math; hard-worker. ______EVELYN: She is 63 years old; worked in a day care center for the past 15 years; prior to that, she was a housewife and mother; is working towards a degree in child psychology, receiving financial aid. ______GINA: An anthropology major; dropped all but nine hours of classes; very poor class attendance; tends to perform well only if she really likes the instructor; extremely active in her sorority; parents pay for everything; her parents donate a scholarship to the college.

SAMPLE EXERCISES
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CHRISTMAS IS NOT MY HOLIDAY
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
1) Students will be able to analyze their impressions of the “Winter Season.” 2) Students will be able to develop a greater understanding of winter traditions and holidays in several cultures.

PROCEDURE

1) Hold an in-class discussion about the “Winter Season.” Encourage students to share their impressions of what the “Winter Season” is about generally and what it means to them personally. 2) Before the next class, have students research one holiday that they do not celebrate, preferably one that they do not know anything about. 3) In the following class, distribute the editorial. 4) Hold a follow-up discussion to see what students learned about various holidays and what their impression of the editorial is.

ESTIMATED TIME (50-70 min.)



 

First discussion:  For class of 10 students: 20 minutes  For class of 20 students: 30 minutes Research activity: 0 minutes Follow-up discussion:  For class of 10 students: 30 minutes  For class of 20 students: 40 minutes

MATERIALS

 

Editorial, “Christmas Is Not My Holiday” Pens/pencils optional

GROUPING

 

Entire class for discussions Individual for out-of-class research

NOTE TO INSTRUCTOR

**This exercise may work better closer to the end of the semester (if class is in the fall) to help student get into the mindset of the “Winter Season.”

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Christmas Is Not My Holiday
by Dayna Nepiarsky My uncle once told me that the most difficult thing for him was to be a guest in a Christian home during the Christmas celebration. I had never really thought about it or understood what he meant until recently. As a Jew, I am flattered and honored to share Christmas with a Christian family, yet it is probably the loneliest and saddest time for me. As I enter the dwelling, I can sense the love, the joy, and the intimate family ties within. The celebrations are lovely. A large tree, lights, food, and stockings - everyone has gathered from far away places to see one another and share in the holiday spirit. The atmosphere is festive and the company accepting and willing to have me partake in their holiday season. These family friends go back to my Mom’s college days. I even call them aunt and uncle. Without a doubt, we are as much a part of their family as they are of ours. So, why then do I feel bitter, lonely, and depressed at such a happy time of the year with such close friends? While it is true that we, as Jews, have already celebrated our holiday two weeks prior, I still feel left out. I am glad that Hanukkah does not fall at the same time as Christmas only because it distinguishes the holidays from one another. Hanukkah is also a family-oriented holiday, like Christmas, but we as Jews are not permitted the time off to spend with family and close friends. So many of us on this campus will once again spend an isolated Hanukkah, either with a few close friends or lighting candles by ourselves only because Hanukkah does not fall during the everso-anticipated Christmas break. A family-oriented holiday and celebration has had to become a makeshift occasion to fulfill the needs of each Jew individually on campus. I find this to be the saddest part of what is generally a holiday filled with fun and celebration. Just as I do not feel comfortable in a private home during this time, I do not feel comfortable in America, which is supposed to be my home. This is not due to the Christmas tree on the White House lawn and it is not due to when vacation falls. It is not even the country being decorated in red and green holly berries and bows that irritates me the most. It is not the smaller things either, like going into a drug store and not being able to purchase Hanukkah cards or gift-wrap because they

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DIVERSITY only carry Christmas stock. Or Salvation Army donations-- did you ever notice the volunteers always say, “Merry Christmas!” Why don’t they say Happy Holidays? No, individually none of these things would get me upset enough to write an editorial, but combined, all of theses things (and more) form an ambiance that I as a Jew can never fully participate in. As an American, I am still overlooked. It saddens me and hurts me to know that my country could just casually let a holiday slip past without recognition. After all, I am American. I vote. I am politically interested and devoted to the betterment of this country, my country. I am just as good as the next guy. I just do not celebrate Christmas, and the way Christmas is looked upon today makes me feel almost un-American for not celebrating it. Feeling un-American in my home, makes me feel as though I do not belong here. And believe me, it is the worst feeling in the world to feel as though you do not belong in your own home. So, once again, I ask myself, how does it feel to be a Jew at Christmas time? It feels lonely. Lonely because even though I am the same as the next American, I am different in that Christmas is not my holiday. I felt left out. Not because I do not celebrate at this time of the year. I feel sad. Sad because while I am a Jew, I am expected to attend and give Christmas parties, send greeting cards, and give Christmas gifts, after all, it is good for business. And I feel depressed. Depressed because while it is the season for giving, the gifts I receive (apart from those given by my family and Jewish friends) are usually those with the Christmas spirit in mind. It is not that people are uncaring-- it is that so many of them just do not think about the red and green wrappings or the Christmas tree print on the greeting card. Most people do not even notice the holly berries on so many of the Hanukkah packages they wrap. It is not that they do not care-- most people are just simply unaware of the fact that it is Hanukkah, too. What was that? Oh, what do I want for Hanukkah? Unfortunately, the nicest gift for me would be to be able to walk down the street and be reminded that there are other religious holidays celebrated at this time as well as Christmas. But until then, during this season of celebrations, wish everyone you see a Happy Holiday rather than a Merry Christmas. It will make my day.

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