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第六讲 句法翻译

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第六讲 句法翻译 Powered By Docstoc
					       第三部分 句法翻译
n   一、换序译法
n   二、断句译法
n   三、转句译法
n   四、合句译法
n   五、缩句译法
n   六、转态译法
n   七、正反译法
              一、换序译法
n   1) It’s good you're so considerate. 你想得
    这样周到是很好的。(×这是很好的你想得这样
    周到。)(主语从句换序)
n   2) Formerly a worker himself, he was now
    an engineer. 他过去是工人,现在当了工程师
    了。(×以前的工人,他是现在一个工程师。)
    (同位语换序)
n   3) On and on Byron talked. (Herman
    Wouk: The Winds of War) 拜伦滔滔不绝地
    讲述着。(×滔滔不绝地拜伦讲述着。)(状语
    换序)
n   4) 发生了这样的事不是你的错。It’s not your fault
    that this has happened. (×That this has
    happened is not your fault. 这样翻译过于正规,在
    文体上与原文不符。)(主语从句换序)
n   5) 她每天早上教我们学法语。She teaches us French
    every morning. (×She every morning teaches us
    French.)(状语换序)
n   6) 一直在一旁观看的小学生们开始鼓起掌来。The
    pupils that had been watching started to applaud.
    (×The always watching pupils started to
    applaud.)(定语从句换序)
n   Heat from the sun comes to us by
    radiation.
n   太阳通过辐射给我们热量。
n   Soon there would be no Poland to
    guarantee!
n   波兰很快就不复存在了,还需要什么担保呢?
n   注:原文的意思是“很快就没有波兰需要担保了”
    ,不仅费解而且可能引起误解。译文把原文拆为
    两句,并且把感叹句大胆改为疑问句,原意豁然
    贯通。
n   As relations between China and Australia
    develop, the continuing importance of
    expanding trade will be balanced by the
    development of close contact over a broad
    range of political issues.
n   随着中澳关系的发展,扩大贸易仍将是重要的,
    相应地还要在一系列广泛的政治问题上展开密切
    的联系。
n   注:译者恰当地把英语动词balance译成 “相应地
    ”,同时,把主句译成汉语的并列句。
n   较为复杂的换序译法:
n    He witnessed ①the sixth ②post-war
    ③economic crisis ④of serious
    consequence ⑤that prevailed in various
    fields ⑥in the USA. 他亲眼目睹了⑥美国②战
    后①第六次④后果严重的⑤波及各领域的③经济
    危机。
n   (英语原文定语的词序: ①次第定语、 ②时间
    定语、 ③本质性定语、★中心词、④判断性定语
    、⑤陈述性定语、⑥国别定语;
n       汉语译文定语的词序:⑥国别定语、②时间定
    语、①次第定语、④判断性定语、⑤陈述性定语
    、③本质性定语、★中心词)
n   我们 ①为顾全大局 ②于同年 ③秋末 ④在第三方的调停下⑤开诚布
    公地⑥多次⑦强烈要求贵方赔偿我们的一切损失。
n    ④ With the third party acting as an intermediary, ①to take
    the interest of the whole into account, we ⑦strongly
    demanded ⑤with frankness and sincerity ⑥many times
    ③at the end of the autumn ②of the same year that you
    should compensate all our losses.
n   (汉语原文状语的词序:☆主语、①目的状语、②时间状语中的年份
    、③时间状语中的季节、④条件状语、⑤方式状语、⑥频度状语、⑦
    程度状语、★谓语、◎宾语;
n      英语译文状语的词序:④条件状语、①目的状语、☆主语、⑦程
    度状语、★谓语、⑤方式状语、⑥频度状语、③时间状语中的季节、
    ②时间状语中的年份、◎宾语)
                 二、断句译法
n   1) It is certain that man will eventually solve the
    riddle of UFO. 人类最后必将解开不明飞行物之谜。 //
    这一点是可以肯定的。(拆开名词从句)
n   2) Because the young man frequently came to
    the lady’s house, he was regarded as the
    mistress’s lover. 这个小伙子经常来到太太的家。 因此
    ,别人都以为他是这女主人的情人。(拆开状语从句)
n   3) After the war, his friend Kraemer got him a job
    as an instructor in an Army training school that
    paid $ 10,000 a year. 大战结束后,他的朋友克莱摩
    介绍他到一所军事训练学校去任教,年薪一万美元。(拆
    开定语从句)
n
n   4) 这首歌并不曾继续多久,// 就和笛声共同消失在黑暗
    里了。(巴金:《家》)The singing did not last
    very long. // Soon, together with the sound of the
    flute, it faded away in the darkness. (拆开状语从
    句)
n   5) 自己既不肯动,他倒希望虎姑娘快快进屋去,或是命
    令他干点什么,// 简直受不了这样的折磨,一种什么也不
    像而非常难过的折磨。(老舍:《骆驼祥子》)He
    didn’t feel like moving, but wished Tigress would
    hurry back inside, or else give him some orders.
    // He simply couldn’t stand this strain, which was
    unlike anything he had ever known, and quite
    unbearable. (拆开状语从句)
                三、转句译法
n   1) A crashing thunderstorm, with thick rain
    hissing down from skies black as night, stopped
    Victor Henry from leaving the White House.
    (Herman Wouk: The Winds of War) 轰隆几声雷响
    ,从漆黑的天空哗啦啦下起大雨来。 维克多·亨利无法离
    开白宫。(主语转句)
n   2) After an hour, the trail took them by a low,
    spreading tree strung thickly with beads. (Alex
    Haley, Roots) 走了一个时辰光景,他们走到了一棵矮
    矮的枝繁叶茂的树旁,树上密密麻麻地挂满了念珠。 (定
    语转句)
n   3) I tried vainly to put the pieces together.
    (Helen Keller: The Story of My Life) 我想把这些碎
    片拼在一起,可是拼不起来。(状语转句)
n   4) 去年八月那场使七个国家遭受了极大损失的 来势凶猛的龙卷风已
    经引起全球科学家的高度重视。The violent tornado that struck
    in August last year has aroused great attention among the
    scientists throughout the world. Seven countries suffered a
    great loss from the tornado. (定语转句)
n   5) 冬天,快过阴历年的时候,一个风雪满天的星期日,余永泽从外
    面抱回了许多好吃的东西。(杨沫:《青春之歌》)It was winter.
    One snowy Sunday not long before the lunar New Year,
    Yongze came home loaded with parcels. (状语转句)
n   6) 他像大海捞针一样在茫茫黑夜里寻找金色的梦。He searched
    for his golden dream in the pitch dark of the night. It was
    just like fishing for a needle in the ocean. (状语转句)
                 四、合句译法
n   1) Darkness fell. // An explosion shook the earth.
    // It did not shake his will to go to the front. 夜幕
    降落时,一声爆炸震动了大地,可并没动摇他上前线的决
    心。
n   2) That day, the President had an interview with
    her father. // Her father was going to the moon
    by space shuttle. 那天,总统会见了她的父亲,因为她
    的父亲即将乘航天飞机去登月。
n   3) She is very busy at home. // She has to take
    care of the children and do the kitchen work. 她在
    家很忙,又要看好孩子,又要下厨。
n   4) 这贾菌亦系荣国府近派的重孙,// 其母亦少寡,// 独
    守着贾菌。(曹雪芹 :《红楼梦》,第九回)Jia Jun
    was a great-great-grandson of the Duke of
    Rongguo, and the only son of his mother who
    had been widowed early.
n   5) 笛声止了。// 远远地起了拍掌声和欢笑声。(巴金:
    《家》)The flute stopped, and in the distance
    there was applause and laughter.
n   6) 讲动武,祥子不能打个老人,也不能打个姑娘。// 他
    的力量没地方用。(老舍:《骆驼祥子》)It was
    impossible for Xiangzi to hit an old man or a
    woman, so there was nowhere for him to use his
    strength.
              五、缩句译法
n   1) It was April 1945. The Second World
    War was coming to an end. 一九四五年四月
    ,第二次世界大战已接近尾声。(缩为状语)
n   2) She went back home to take care of
    her husband. He was seriously ill. 她回家去
    照料病重的丈夫。(缩为定语)
n   3) Her father became the mayor of the
    city. He was a murderer in the Second
    World War. 她的父亲,二次大战中的一个杀人
    凶手,竟当上了这个城市的市长。(缩为同位语
    )
n   4) 黛玉又忙命倒茶,一面又使眼色与宝玉。宝玉会意,便走了出来
    。(曹雪芹:《红楼梦》,第五十二回)Daiyu ordered tea,
    glancing at Baoyu as she did so. Taking the hint, he went
    out of the room.(缩为状语)
n   5) 孔乙己着了慌,伸开五指将碟子罩住,弯腰下去说道,“不多了,
    我已经不多了。”(鲁迅:《孔乙己》)Growing flustered, he
    would cover the dish with his hand and bending forward
    from the waist would say, “There aren’t many left, not
    many at all.”(缩为状语)
n   6) 七月里的一个清晨,太阳刚出来。地里,苞米和高粱叶子上,抹
    上了金子的颜色。(周立波:《暴风骤雨》)Early one summer
    day, the golden rays of sunrise daubed the maize and
    sorghum fields in a bright yellow.(缩为定语)
                六、转态译法
n   1) She hadn‘t been told Bette’s other name, or
    she’d forgotten it.(Jack Lindsay: Betrayed Spring
    ) 人家没告诉过她蓓蒂姓什么,要不然也许是她忘了。
n   2) Many voices have been raised demanding the
    setting up of an Arab common market. 许多人要求
    建立一个阿拉伯共同市场。
n   3) He said he was assured by the State
    Department that the U.S. is willing to normalize
    relations with his country. 他说,国务院向他担保美
    国愿意同他的国家恢复正常关系。
n   4) 马路两旁是整齐的梧桐树。(周而复:《上海的早晨
    》)The avenue was lined with neatly-spaced
    plane trees.
n   5) 人生的道路虽然漫长,但紧要处常常只有几步,特别
    是当人年轻的时候。(柳青:《创业史》)Although
    the road of life is long, its most important
    sections are often covered in only a few steps,
    especially when a person is young.
n   6) 全国同胞们,中华人民共和国现已宣告成立。(《毛
    泽东选集》第五卷)Fellow-countrymen, the
    founding of the People’s Republic of China is
    proclaimed.
            七、正反译法
n   原文:What they found will surprise
    no one who has a teen or is a teen
    or just remembers being a teen.
n   原译:对于任何一个青少年,或者曾经是
    青少年,再或已成为青少年父母的人来说
    ,这次实验结果都不会令人吃惊。
n   改译:这一结果引起了那些青少年父母、
    青少年本人以及对青少年时期仍记忆犹新
    的人们的共鸣。
n   英译汉正转反:
n   1) I do think that it is beyond his power to fulfill
    the task. 我的确认为要完成这项任务是他力所不及的。
n   2) He was absent from his own country last year.
    他去年不在自己的国家里。
n   3) Do you know why she is always trying to avoid
    you? 你知道她为什么老是不想见到你?
n   4) Her husband hates to see her stony face. 她丈
    夫不愿见到她那张毫无表情的脸。
n   5) Stop talking nonsense! 别胡说八道!
n   英译汉反转正:
n   6) No smoking! 严禁吸烟!
n   7) We must never stop taking an optimistic view
    of life. 我们要永远对生活抱乐观态度。
n   8) Don't make your conclusion before the end of
    the year. 到年底再下结论吧。
n   9) He returned home with no hope on his face. 他
    满脸灰心绝望地回到了家。
n   10) The train coming from Moscow will arrive in
    no time. 来自莫斯科的列车将很快到达。
n   汉译英正转反:
n   11) 他一直希望自己能成为老板的助手。The idea that
    he should become an assistant to his boss has
    never deserted him.
n   12) 她光着脚走进了房间。She came into the room
    with no shoes on.
n   13) 那个房间的窗门总是关着的。The windows of that
    room were never open.
n   14) 这个小孩现在完全能自己走路了。The child can
    walk without any help now.
n   15) 法律面前,人人平等。Law is no respecter of
    persons.
n   汉译英反转正:
n   16) 他似乎想不出恰当的字眼来阐明自己的观点。He
    seemed to be at a loss for the precise words to
    elaberate his opinion.
n   17) 他提前三天到达是我们没想到的。His arrival three
    days in advance is beyond our expectation.
n   18) 请勿大声喧哗。Keep quiet.
n   19) 还没到家,她就激动得不得了。She got
    extremely excited before she reached her home.
n   20) 毋庸置疑,中国的航空航天工业在过去的四十年中已
    取得了辉煌的成就。It is beyond doubt that China
    has made brilliant achievements in aviation and
    space industry in the last forty years.
n   在运用正反译法时,我们一定要注意正说与反说
    之间的语体变化。如 “禁止张贴”翻译成正说
    “Posters Forbidden”较正规,而翻译成反说
    “No Posters, Please”就较口语化;同样,
    “Posters Forbidden”翻译成正说“禁止张贴” 较
    正规,而翻译成反说“不许张贴”较口语化。又如“
    的的确确” 翻译成正说“indeed”较为口语化,而
    翻译成反说“it is beyond doubt that”则显得较
    正规;同样,“indeed” 翻译成正说“的的确确”
    较口语化,而翻译成反说“毋庸置疑”则显得较正
    规。一般说来,正说显得较正规,反说较口语化
    。

				
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