; 11-3 Exploring Mendelian Genetics
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11-3 Exploring Mendelian Genetics

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									        Section 11-3
Exploring Mendelian Genetics
      Wanted To Know If:
Segregation Was Truly Independent
                  or
  Does The Segregation Of One Pair
  Of Alleles Affect The Segregation
   Of Another Pair Of Alleles????
     Mendel Performed A
       Two Factor Cross
   He Crossed
      Round/Yellow           RRYY
   With
       Wrinkled/Green           rryy
    This Provided The F1 Hybrids That He
                   Needed.
To make a Punnet square of
 a cross with two traits first
 figure out the possible
 gametes.
  RRYY All gametes would be RY
  rryy All gametes would be ry
All Hybrids would
 be RrYy
9:3:3:1
Expected
ratio for
independent
assortment
phenotypes
.
556 Seeds Produced
       315 Round/Yellow     F1 Parental
       32 Wrinkled/Green   Phenotypes
              Plus
    209 Unique Phenotypes Can Only Form
                                Via
           9:3:3:1         Independent
                            Assortment
The Alleles For Seed Shape And
 Color Segregated Independently
INDEPENDENT ASSORTMENT did occur.
   Therefore These Alleles
           DO NOT
    Influence Each Others
         Inheritance
 The Principle Of Independent
     Assortment States That
    Genes For Different Traits
  Can Segregate Independently
During The Formation Of Gametes.
1.   Inheritance of Biological Characteristics Is
     Determined By Individual Units Known As
     Genes.

     In Organisms That Reproduce Sexually,
     Genes Are Passed From Parents To Their
     Offspring.
2.   Where Two or More Forms Of The
     Alleles Exist,
      Some Forms Of The Allele Many
                   Be
               Dominant
           And Others May Be
               Recessive.
3.   In Most Sexually Reproducing
     Organisms, Each Adult Has Two
     Alleles In Each Gene – One From
     Each Parent

4.   These Alleles Are Segregated From
     Each Other When Gametes Are
     Formed.
5.   Alleles Contained In Different
     Genes Usually Segregate
     Independently Of One Another
Key Concept:
 Some Alleles Are Neither
  Dominant Nor Recessive, And
  Many Traits Are Controlled
  By Multiple Alleles or Genes.
Red Flower Crossed With White Flower Results
                In Pink Flower.

   In Incomplete Dominance The
      Heterozygous Phenotype Is
      Between The Homozygous
               Phenotypes.
     (Both Alleles Expressed In One Cell)
Both Alleles Completely Expressed
Red Hair Cattle Crossed With White
  Haired Cattle Produce Roan (Pink
   Brown) Cattle That Have Both
           Colored Hairs.
    (Both Alleles Expressed Independently)
RED      WHITE




      ROAN
   A Gene Is Controlled By >2 Alleles.
       Individuals Can Only Have 2 Alleles
       Populations Can Have More Than Two
         Rabbit Fur Color
         Blood Types
         Eye Color
   Phenotypes Produced By The
    Interaction Of Several Genes.
     Human Skin Color Is Controlled By
      More Than 4 Different Genes.
     Eye Color is Controlled By At Least 3
      Genes

								
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