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WP4 Ethics in Food Technologies_ Perspective from

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					             WP4
Ethics in Food Technologies:
   Perspective from India



      Sachin Chaturvedi
   GEST Meeting, Preston, UK
   March 15th and 16th, 2012
           What are the Issues?
•   Growing
•   Malnutrition
•   Food Insecurity
•   Changing Dietary Preferences
•   Changing Food Culture
•   Food Production Technologies
•   Food Processing Technologies
•   Safe Food
               Malnutrition
• Is it necessary to avoid traditional food system
  be used to improve micronutrient status of the
  people?

• What cultural attributes and environmental
  constraints new technologies generate for
  using these foods?
                  Malnutrition
What is uncultivated food?
• The greens from land that are not cultivated such as
  plant, creeper etc.
• The greens that are not cultivated but are available as
  per partner crop in a cultivated field etc.
• The greens that are available from cultivated plants,
  but the product was not the explicit objective of the
  cultivation
               Malnutrition
* Deccan Development Society led movement in
  India on Uncultivated Food Crops:
  - Millets
  - Greens like medicinal plants Very few
  greens are seen in chemical fertilizer applied
  fields as they die when they are    young
  due to burning effect.
* Tastier - Doggalikoora is more nutritious than
  broiler egg.
               Changing Food Profile
Country Simpson Index of Diversity               Sources of
                                                 Diversification (%)
                                                 Cropping Crop
                                                 Intensity Substitutio
                                                           n
               1981-82         1991-92   1999-   1991-92   1999-01
                                         2000
India          0.61            0.65      0.66    36.63     63.37
Source: Joshi et. al. (2004)
            Dietary energy protein and fat
                     consumption
Countries           Energy                  Protein                       Fat
                Cal/person/day            g/person/day                g/person/day
              1994 1999 2003- 1994-         1999-     2003-   1994-     1999-    2003-
              -96  -01  05    96            01        05      96        01       05
China         2811 2899 2940        79      85        88      70        80       86
Germany       3358 3430 3491        95      97        99      144       144      142
India         2343 2352 2358        57      56        56      44        50       52
Netherlands   3267 3222 3240        106     105       103     138       142      135
UK            3233 3397 3426        94      100       104     139       142      137

 Source: FAO Statistical Yearbook 2009.
     Share of Rural population in total
Countries                          Population
                                   Rural Share
                                   (% of share)
                    1980         1995             2010
China               80.0         68.3             54.8
Germany             27.2         26.7             26.2
India               76.9         73.4             69.9
Netherlands         35.3         27.2             17.1
UK                  12.2         11.2             10.1

Source: FAO, TH E STATE O F FOOD AND AGRICULTUE 2010 – 1 1
        Share of adult population with chronic energy
                          deficiency
Country        Share of adult             Share of children underweight (% of total)
              population with
              CED (% of total)
                                         By Sex        By Residence      By household
                                                                         wealth quintile
            Women      Men       Male       Female   Urban Rural        Poorest   Richest
India       35.6       33.7      46.0       49.0     38.0     51.0      61.0      25.0

Source: FAO Statistical Yearbook 2009.
              Food Price Volatility
• Since the food price crisis of 2007 to 2009, the number of
  hungry and unnourished increased to unprecedented levels.
• Nearly 1 billion in 2009.
• Nearly 925 million people live in Asia and the Pacific (62%)
  followed by Sub-Saharan Africa (26%).
• Since 1990, implied price volatility has systematically
  increased with a peak in 2008.
• The implied volatility represents market expectations of how
  much is the price of a commodity is likely to fluctuate in the
  future. (FAO 2011)
                                     Food Security
#   FAO: “Food security exists when all people, at all time, have physical and economic
    access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food
    preferences for an active and healthy life”.

#   World Bank: “Secure access by all people at all time to enough food for a healthy and
    active life”.

#   Thus plans to maintain the nutritional quality of the food supply are important to the
    promotion of food security.

#   Chronic and Transitory Food Security

    Lack of        Access      Availability
    purchasing
    power

#   India is one of the few countries which has experimented with a variety of food security
    related programmes.
     Food Self
                                  Food Availability                    Nutritional Quality
     Sufficiency
                                                                                             11
       Food Production

• GM technology and its
  concerns.
• Idea of labeling and associated
  costs
• Organic Production and its
  labeling.
                 Safe Food

• Huge amount of unsafe chemicals are being
  added fir early ripening of fruits and
  vegetables.
• Also for enhancing shelf life value
• Extra sweetening.

				
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