VIEWS: 0 PAGES: 42 POSTED ON: 5/18/2014
The Hero’s Journey THE MONOMYTH JOSEPH CAMPBELL Source Material The Hero with a Thousand Faces by Joseph Campbell Notes on The Hero's Adventure from the Power of Myth Series with Joseph Campbell and Bill Moyers Michael F. Haspil’s Apocalyptic Productions Glance at the Monomyth and its connection to film Liz Warren at the Maricopa Center for Learning and Instruction NOTE: This presentation should not be cited outside of the purposes of our class. The usual hero is someone: •*from whom something has been taken * who feels something is lacking from the normal experiences available or permitted to the "A hero is someone who has given his or her life to something members of his bigger than oneself" society -- Joseph Campbell The HERO is introduced in the ORDINARY WORLD, where he receives THE CALL TO ADVENTURE The call to adventure is the point in the hero's life when he is first given notice that everything is going to change, whether he knows it or not. Before receiving this CALL TO ADVENTURE, the hero is typically immersed in the The Journey Begins…. mundane of the ORDINARY WORLD. I. The Departure /The Separation NOTE: The HERALD does not necessarily have to be a person. It can be a force, such as a storm, or an animal such as an owl, etc. The HERALD can be anything that acts as a messenger to signal to the hero that a choice has to be made – that he is at the crossroads and he can heed the CALL TO ADVENTURE or ignore it. ALSO NOTE: The HERALD can function as other archetypes, as well. Once he delivers the message, he can then become an ALLY or a SIDEKICK (for example). Such is the case with Dumbledore. He delivers the call to Harry and The HERALD : Through a visit from the HERALD, the HERO receives quickly becomes a the call. A HERALD is a character who serves as a harbinger, a messenger. MENTOR. Such a character delivers the HERO’s CALL TO ADVENTURE. Some heroes set out responsibly and intentionally to perform the deed prescribed by the journey, as established in the CALL TO ADVENTURE. However, often when the call is given, the future HERO refuses to heed it. This refusal may be from a sense of duty or obligation, fear, insecurity, a sense of inadequacy, or any of a range of reasons that work to hold the person in his or her current circumstances. Eventually the HERO (in order to complete the journey) accepts the call, but it can take some time. REFUSAL OF THE CALL ARCHETYPAL CHARACTERS Once the HERO has committed to the quest, consciously or unconsciously, his or her guide and magical helper appears, or becomes known. In addition to various helpers, the HERO may encounter other archetypal characters who help or hinder his journey. Helper as ALLY By definition, an ALLY is someone on your side, someone there to help you achieve your goals. But in terms of the hero’s journey, an ALLY is of significant magnitude. Helper as ALLY Oftentimes, the ALLY may be a hero in his own right, The Ally is there to aid the HERO. Sometimes they having completed his own journey. In many ways, have difficulty relinquishing their own ego/hero ALLIES become greater heroes for partaking in this status. Other times they don’t grow at all. They HERO's journey. simply help the hero. ALLY as SIDEKICK Traditionally, the SIDEKICK is a character who is always there for the HERO and who the HERO can The HERO would be crippled if he lost his SIDEKICK, always count on. He doesn't experience growth or but he would be able to complete his quest. reap the benefits of the journey. Helper as MENTOR The MENTOR is someone who has walked the HERO’s path before. MENTORS are typically in the shape of old men or women. Their role is to pass on advice to the HERO. Often the MENTOR will accompany the HERO on the quest, but this is not always the case. Sometimes MENTORS only appear in the HERO’s memory. MENTORS all pass on knowledge and learning to the new HERO and they may pass on boons (gifts) that will be useful along the quest as well. One common element that all MENTORS share is that at some point in the story they are going to have to step aside and let the HERO be a hero. This can be accomplished simply through the MENTOR being unavailable or the MENTOR may die. More about MENTORS Obi Wan Kenobi’s death is often viewed Uncle Ben dies early on, but still as the death of Luke’s MENTOR. It acts as Peter's/Spiderman's mentor allows Luke to fulfill his role as HERO. Helper as SUPERNATURAL AID SUPERNATURAL AID is often presented as BOONS or TALISMANS - assistance given to the HERO by a supernatural source. The SUPERNATURAL AID HELPER is endowed with abilities beyond the normal. Wizards easily fall into this category, Gandalf and Merlin are perfect examples. The SUPERNATURAL AID will often provide the hero with a talisman or boon that will help him on his quest. Ben produces Luke's father's lightsaber. Merlin helps Arthur get Excalibur. Gandalf provides the party with Thror's Map which describes the secret entrance to the Lonely Mountain and Smaug's lair. Additionally, the One Ring, in The Hobbit absolutely falls into the category of SUPERNATURAL AID. Without it, Bilbo would not have succeeded. NOTE: Often the MENTOR is also the SUPERNATURAL AID HELPER Other Archetypal Figures Shapeshifter: The Shapeshifter's mask misleads the HERO by hiding a character's intentions and loyalties. Shadow: The Shadow can represent our darkest desires, our untapped resources, or even rejected qualities. It can also symbolize our greatest fears and phobias. Shadows may not be all bad, and may reveal admirable, even redeeming qualities. The HERO's enemies and villains often wear the Shadow mask. This physical force is determined to destroy the HERO and his cause. Trickster: Tricksters relish the disruption of the status quo, turning the Ordinary World into chaos with their quick turns of phrase and physical antics. Although they may not change during the course of their Journeys, their world and its inhabitants are transformed by their antics. The Trickster uses laughter [and ridicule] to make characters see the absurdity of the situation, and perhaps force a change. This is the point where the HERO actually crosses into the field of adventure, leaving the known limits of his or her world and venturing into an unknown and dangerous realm where the rules and limits are not known. The THRESHOLD often manifests itself as a physical place, but it does not have to be. Sometimes the THRESHOLD is manifested as an actual barrier or boundary, such as a river, bridge, doorway, etc. The key that defines the CROSSING OF THE THRESHOLD is that it is where there is a clear “We’re not in Kansas anymore.” definition that the HERO is no longer in the world of The Crossing of the Threshold common day and is actually on the adventure itself. Thresholds Harry Potter crosses from the Ordinary Lucy crosses into Narnia World to the New World through Platform 9 ¾ at King's Cross Station. through the wardrobe. THRESHOLD GUARDIANS When the HERO reaches the THRESHOLD, he will not be permitted to pass without effort. He must earn his passage across. To help him do that, and to turn less worthy individuals away from the path, are THRESHOLD GUARDIANS. To get further on in the adventure, the HERO must somehow overcome them. Sometimes the THRESHOLD GUARDIANS are very obvious because they are actually guarding a threshold. The THRESHOLD GUARDIAN is not necessarily evil, but, the THRESHOLD GUARDIAN’s role can be said to always be adversarial to that of the HERO. The job of the THRESHOLD GUARDIAN is to get the HERO to rethink whether or not he wishes to proceed on this adventure. BELLY OF THE WHALE This is a biblical reference to the story of Jonah and the Whale. The BELLY OF THE WHALE represents the final separation from the hero's known world and self. It is sometimes described as the HERO’s lowest point, but it is actually the point when the HERO is between or transitioning between worlds and selves. The separation has been made, or is being made, or being fully recognized between the old world and old self and the potential for a new world/self. The experiences that will shape the new world and self will begin shortly, or may be beginning with this experience which is often symbolized by something dark, unknown and frightening. By entering this stage, the HERO shows his willingness to undergo a metamorphosis, to die to him or herself. The Road of Trials The road of trials is a series of tests, tasks, or ordeals that the HERO must undergo to begin the transformation. The trials fall into two categories of hero deeds: The PHYSICAL DEED (the HERO performs a courageous act in battle or save lives) The SPIRITUAL DEED (the HERO learns to experience the supernormal range of human spiritual life and then comes back with a The Journey Continues…. message). II. Initiation The Spiritual and The Physical TESTS and TRIALS The trials the HERO faces are designed to see if he should really be a hero. Is he really a match for the task? Can he overcome the dangers? Does he have the courage, the knowledge, the capacity to enable him to serve? In addition, the HERO learns something about his own character through his adventures. There are several different challenges the HERO might face: Brother Battle: Many HEROES find themselves locked in battle, either physical or psychological with someone who is a "brother" whether a blood relation or a symbolic brother. Abduction / Sea Journey / Night Journey: Often in the HERO's journey, either the HERO or someone close to the HERO will be abducted and taken away. As the HERO is transported elsewhere, or as the HERO chases after the captors, the journey may take the HERO over the sea or on a long night journey. Even if there is no abduction involved, most HEROES are traveling great distances, so a sea journey or night journey is not uncommon. Dragon Battle: Some HEROES will battle literal dragons guarding their treasure, but other HEROES will battle their inner dragons, the doubts and fears they have about their own ability. Whether literal or figurative, the dragons must be slain in order for the HERO to complete the journey. NOTE: Often the HERO fails one or more of these tests. Often the tests occur in threes. BATTLES Harry Potter's Beowulf’s Underwater Battle Dragon Battle APPROACHING THE INMOST CAVE The Hero must make the preparations needed to approach the Inmost Cave that leads to the Journey's heart………………………..or THE SUPREME ORDEAL. The Approach may be a time for some romance or a Maps may be reviewed, attacks planned, possibly the few jokes before the battle, or it may signal a ticking enemies forces whittled down before the HERO can clock or a heightening of the stakes. face his greatest fear, or the supreme danger lurking SUPREME ORDEAL The SUPREME ORDEAL is a test in which the HERO faces the central crisis of the story (not the climax). In an action movie, it will be the big action sequence. The key is that there is a central theme of death and change. The HERO will be submitted to death in some way or form. It could be the failure of his mission, the end of a relationship, the loss of his mentor, or facing his greatest fears. This is usually where the HERO will face the ENEMY for the first time in full form. Prior to this stage, the HERO has been battling minions and THRESHOLD GUARDIANS. The ENEMY was not truly out to stop the HERO. But now the worst the ENEMY has will be thrown the HERO’s way. Whatever the outcome, the HERO will emerge changed. SUPREME ORDEAL Joseph Campbell indicates that the SUPREME ORDEAL (sometimes called the ABYSS) often includes the following experiences: Sacred Marriage A.K.A. Meeting with the Goddess Woman as Temptress (a subcategory) Father Atonement Symbolic Death or Dismemberment (a subcategory) Apotheosis/Resurrection All of them may take on a physical nature and yet they are all deeply psychological. Not all of them take place in the development of every SUPREME ORDEAL and sometimes they are mixed and matched. The Meeting with the Goddess or Sacred Marriage The MEETING WITH THE GODDESS represents the point in the adventure when the HERO experiences a love of enormous power and significance. It is also known as the "hieros gamos", or SACRED MARRIAGE, the union of opposites, This is a very important step in the process and is often represented by the HERO finding the one person he or she is meant to love most completely. Although Campbell symbolizes this step as a meeting with a goddess, unconditional love and /or self unification does not have to be represented by a woman. For example, if the HERO is a female, the MEETING OF THE GODDESS can be with a male. Take Buffy and Angel, for example…. more on the SACRED MARRIAGE There may be an actual meeting (Frodo meeting Galadriel, Luke meeting Leia), but it is not necessary. The marriage may be between the two halves of the HERO in order to make him or her whole. The meeting of opposites may take place entirely within the HERO. In other words, the HERO begins to see himself in a non-dualistic way. For instance, the male hero is seeking out the ANIMA, his inner feminine qualities, like intuition, which may have previously remained unrecognized. The female HERO will be seeking the ANIMUS, the male qualities of reason and authority, which she has repressed. [ Or the opposite of those roles, consider Leia, who brings rationality and logic to Luke’s quest]. In either case, the HERO will come out of the ordeal whole and complete for the first time in the adventure; it is in this stage that the HERO will come to recognize inevitable truths regarding his situation within the scheme of things. WOMAN AS TEMPTRESS At one level, this element is about those temptations that may lead the HERO to abandon or stray from his or her quest, which, as with the MEETING WITH THE GODDESS, does not necessarily have to be represented by a woman. For Campbell, however, this step is about the revulsion that the usually male hero may feel about his own fleshy/earthy nature, and the subsequent attachment or projection of that revulsion to women. Woman is a metaphor for the physical or material temptations of life, since the HERO -knight was often tempted by lust from his spiritual journey. ATONEMENT WITH THE FATHER In this step the HERO must confront and be initiated by whatever holds the ultimate power in his or her life. In many myths and stories this is the father, or a father figure who has life and death power. This is the center point of the journey. All the previous steps have been moving in to this place; all that follow will move out from it. Although this step is most frequently symbolized by an encounter with a male entity, it does not have to be a male; just someone or thing with incredible power. For the transformation to take place, the HERO as he or she has been must be "killed" so that the new self can come into being. Sometime this killing is literal, and the earthly journey for that character is either over or moves into a different realm. Symbolic Death or Dismemberment In order for the HERO to be transformed, he/she must give up his/her old life. Many times this is done through a symbolic death. In other stories, the HERO will lose a limb, which will signify the loss of the old self. As noted in the last slide, this event often occurs during the FATHER ATONEMENT, but not necessarily. SYMBOLIC DEATH OR DISMEMBERMENT APOTHEOSIS or RESURRECTION To APOTHEOSIZE is to deify. When someone dies a physical death, or dies to the self to live in spirit, he or she moves beyond the pairs of opposites to a state of divine knowledge, love, compassion and bliss. This is a god-like state; the person is in heaven and beyond all strife. A more mundane way of looking at this step is that it is a period of rest, peace and fulfillment before the HERO begins the return. NOTE: THE RESURRECTION sometimes comes later in the journey. RESURRECTION in detail The Hero faces the Resurrection, his most dangerous meeting with death. This final life-or-death Ordeal shows that the Hero has maintained and can apply all that he has brought back to the Ordinary World. This Ordeal and Resurrection can represent a "cleansing" or purification that must occur now that the Hero has emerged from the land of the dead. The Hero is reborn or transformed with the attributes of the Ordinary self in addition to the lessons and insights from the characters he has met along the road. The Resurrection may be a physical Ordeal, or final showdown between the Hero and the Shadow. This battle is for much more than the Hero's life. Other lives, or an entire world may be at stake and the Hero must now prove that he has achieved Heroic status and willingly accept his sacrifice for the benefit of the Ordinary World. Other Allies may come to the last minute rescue to lend assistance, but in the end the Hero must rise to the sacrifice at hand. ULTIMATE BOON The ULTIMATE BOON or MAGIC ELIXIR is the achievement of the goal of the quest. It is what the person went on the journey to get. This step is also often called THE REWARD or THE SWORD. All the previous steps serve to prepare and purify the HERO for this step, since in many myths the BOON is something transcendent like the elixir of life itself, or a plant that supplies immortality, or the holy grail. Sometimes the HERO needs to engage in the THEFT OF THE ELIXIR and needs to return quickly after possessing it. If this is the case, he will be chased through his return and need to cross another threshold before re-entering the Ordinary World. Refusal of the Return So why, when all has been achieved, the ambrosia has been drunk, and we have conversed with the gods, come back to normal life with all its cares and woes? Sometimes HEROES resist the return. Consider Harry Potter’s reluctance to return to the Dursley home and Back to the Ordinary World… his stays with the Weasley family. III. RETURN Sometimes the HERO must escape with the boon, if it is something that the gods have been jealously guarding. It can be just as adventurous and dangerous returning from the journey as it was to go on it. Essentially, it is a movement away from the greater antagonism and manifests itself in a number of ways. It typically includes a flight with the treasure. Consider Andy Dufresne escaping with the Warden’s papers, the Magic Flight ones that prove the the chase with the ELIXIR Warden to be corrupt. FINAL STEPS in the RETURN Rescue from Without Just as the HERO may need guides and assistants to set out on the quest, often times he or she must have powerful guides and rescuers to bring them back to everyday life, especially if the HERO has been wounded or weakened by the experience. Or perhaps the HERO doesn't realize that it is time to return, that he can return, or that others need his boon. The Crossing of the Return Threshold The trick in returning is to retain the wisdom gained on the quest, to integrate that wisdom into a human life, and then maybe figure out how to share the wisdom with the rest of the world. This is usually extremely difficult. Master of the Two Worlds In myth, this step is usually represented by a transcendental HERO like Jesus or Buddha. For a human hero, it may mean achieving a balance between the material and spiritual. The person has become comfortable and competent in both the inner and outer worlds. Freedom to Live Mastery leads to freedom from the fear of death, which in turn is the freedom to live. This is sometimes referred to as living in the moment, neither anticipating the future nor regretting the past. There are many interpretations of the Hero’s Journey Cycle. It is depicted differently, with sometimes slight variations and sometimes entirely altered wording. Regardless, the pattern is what keeps people returning to Campbell’s work, reviewing our cultural stories, our origin tales, our religions, our films. It has also become a pattern for storytelling. This is quite obvious in the influx of Hero’s Journey films as of late. Take a look at some of the visual depictions of the cycle….. Campbell in the Media . One aspect of the hero’s journey that is potentially dangerous is the misapplication of the hero’s story in modern media. In Campbell’s examination of the hero life, he outlines three MAJOR steps: separation – initiation – return. Campbell emphasizes the hero not only conquers the problem, but returns to society to “bestow boons on his fellow people.” In modern American cinema, however, the fixation on the conquering or initiation aspect of the hero has hidden from viewers of modern myth the full life of the hero – that of maturation into leadership and wisdom. Ancient heroes would often return after their journeys to marry and lead lives of maturity, imparting their hard-won wisdom to their people. The lack of portrayal of this part of the hero’s life in modern media leads to an “arrested adolescence” that “constantly avoids social responsibility and marital commitment” (Burke 6). The result is an incomplete individuation process, with members of a society caught in a dangerous, “self-destructive individualism,” (Burke 3) unable or unwilling to reconcile the worlds of personal ego and community. THE END YOU ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR THE MATERIAL WITHIN THIS PRESENTATION. PLEASE REVIEW. TAKE NOTES. REFERENCE WHEN NECESSARY. USE THE FOLLOW-UP FILM, STAR WARS: THE LEGACY REVEALED, TO BOLSTER YOUR UNDERSTANDING OF THE STEPS. WE WILL VIEW EXCERPTS OF THIS FILM IN CLASS.
Pages to are hidden for
"HERO'S_JOURNEY_POWERPOINT"Please download to view full document