amateur_advanced_questions_en by niusheng11

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									Spectrum Management and Telecommunications   29 April, 2014




      Advanced Qualification Question Bank for
       Amateur Radio Operator Certificate
                    Examinations
Foreword:
This question bank contains the questions that will be used effective the date printed on the title page, for
making Advanced Qualification examinations for the Amateur Radio Operator Certificate.
The correct choice of the four suggested answers appears in brackets following each question identifier.
i.e. A-001-001-001 (D)

While every reasonable effort has been made to ensure accuracy in this document, no warranty is
expressed or implied.

Candidates for amateur radio operator certificate examinations are encouraged to contact the following
amateur radio organizations for information on study material.

Radio Amateurs of Canada
720 Belfast Road, Suite 217
Ottawa, Ontario
K1G 0Z5
www.rac.ca

Radio Amateur du Québec inc.
4545 Pierre-de-Coubertin Avenue
C.P. 1000, Succursale M
Montréal, Quebec
H1V 3R2
www.raqi.qc.ca

Instructions for examiners are contained in Radiocommunication Information Circular RIC-1, Guide for
Examiners Accredited to Conduct Examinations for the Amateur Radio Operator Certificate.

For additional information, please contact the Amateur Radio Service Centre:

Industry Canada
Amateur Radio Service Centre
2 Queen Street East
Sault Ste. Marie, ON
P6A 1Y3

E-mail address: spectrum.amateur@ic.gc.ca
Telephone: 1-888-780-3333 (Toll free)
Fax number: 1-705-941-4607
A-001-001-001      (C)                           A-001-001-005      (C)
What is the meaning of the term "time            What is meant by "back EMF"?
constant" in an RL circuit?
                                                 A   An opposing EMF equal to R times C
A   The time required for the voltage in the
                                                     percent of the applied EMF
    circuit to build up to 63.2% of the
    maximum value                                B   A current equal to the applied EMF
B   The time required for the voltage in the     C   A voltage that opposes the applied EMF
    circuit to build up to 36.8% of the          D   A current that opposes the applied EMF
    maximum value
C   The time required for the current in the     A-001-001-006      (C)
    circuit to build up to 63.2% of the
                                                 After two time constants, the capacitor in an
    maximum value
                                                 RC circuit is charged to what percentage of
D   The time required for the current in the     the supply voltage?
    circuit to build up to 36.8% of the
    maximum value                                A   95%
                                                 B   36.8%
A-001-001-002      (D)                           C   86.5%
What is the term for the time required for the   D   63.2%
capacitor in an RC circuit to be charged to
63.2% of the supply voltage?                     A-001-001-007      (B)
A   An exponential rate of one                   After two time constants, the capacitor in an
B   A time factor of one                         RC circuit is discharged to what percentage
C   One exponential period                       of the starting voltage?
D   One time constant                            A   63.2%
                                                 B   13.5%
A-001-001-003      (C)                           C   36.8%
What is the term for the time required for the   D   86.5%
current in an RL circuit to build up to 63.2%
of the maximum value?                            A-001-001-008      (B)
A   A time factor of one                         What is the time constant of a circuit having
B   One exponential rate                         a 100 microfarad capacitor in series with a
C   One time constant                            470 kilohm resistor?
D   An exponential period of one                 A   0.47 seconds
                                                 B   47 seconds
A-001-001-004      (C)                           C   4700 seconds
What is the term for the time it takes for a     D   470 seconds
charged capacitor in an RC circuit to
discharge to 36.8% of its initial value of       A-001-001-009      (C)
stored charge?
                                                 What is the time constant of a circuit having
A   An exponential discharge of one              a 470 microfarad capacitor in series with a
B   One discharge period                         470 kilohm resistor?
C   One time constant                            A   47 000 seconds
D   A discharge factor of one                    B   470 seconds
                                                 C   221 seconds
                                                 D   221 000 seconds
A-001-001-010      (B)                            A-001-002-004      (D)
What is the time constant of a circuit having     Why does most of an RF current flow within
a 220 microfarad capacitor in series with a       a very thin layer under the conductor's
470 kilohm resistor?                              surface?
A   220 seconds                                   A   Because the RF resistance of a
B   103 seconds                                       conductor is much less than the DC
                                                      resistance
C   470 000 seconds
                                                  B   Because a conductor has AC resistance
D   470 seconds
                                                      due to self-inductance
                                                  C   Because of heating of the conductor's
A-001-002-001      (B)
                                                      interior
What is the result of skin effect?                D   Because of skin effect

A   Thermal effects on the surface of the
                                                  A-001-002-005      (D)
    conductor decrease impedance
B   As frequency increases, RF current flows      Why is the resistance of a conductor
    in a thinner layer of the conductor, closer   different for RF currents than for direct
    to the surface                                currents?
C   As frequency decreases, RF current            A   Because of the Hertzberg effect
    flows in a thinner layer of the conductor,    B   Because conductors are non-linear
    closer to the surface                             devices
D   Thermal effects on the surface of the         C   Because the insulation conducts current
    conductor increase impedance                      at high frequencies
                                                  D   Because of skin effect
A-001-002-002      (D)
What effect causes most of an RF current to       A-001-002-006      (D)
flow along the surface of a conductor?
                                                  What unit measures the ability of a
A   Piezoelectric effect                          capacitor to store electrical charge?
B   Resonance effect                              A   Coulomb
C   Layer effect                                  B   Watt
D   Skin effect                                   C   Volt
                                                  D   Farad
A-001-002-003      (B)
Where does almost all RF current flow in a        A-001-002-007      (C)
conductor?
                                                  A wire has a current passing through it.
A   In the centre of the conductor                Surrounding this wire there is:
B   Along the surface of the conductor            A   a cloud of electrons
C   In a magnetic field in the centre of the      B   a skin effect that diminishes with
    conductor                                         distance
D   In a magnetic field around the conductor      C   an electromagnetic field
                                                  D   an electrostatic field

                                                  A-001-002-008      (C)
                                                  In what direction is the magnetic field
                                                  oriented about a conductor in relation to the
                                                  direction of electron flow?
                                                  A   In the same direction as the current
                                                  B   In the direct opposite to the current
                                                  C   In the direction determined by the left-
                                                      hand rule
                                                  D   In all directions
A-001-002-009       (B)                         A-001-003-003    (D)
What is the term for energy that is stored in   What is the resonant frequency of a series
an electromagnetic or electrostatic field?      RLC circuit, if R is 47 ohms, L is 50
                                                microhenrys and C is 10 picofarads?
A   Joule-coulombs
B   Potential energy                            A   7.12 kHz
C   Kinetic energy                              B   3.18 MHz
D   Ampere-joules                               C   3.18 kHz
                                                D   7.12 MHz
A-001-002-010       (A)
                                                A-001-003-004    (A)
Between the charged plates of a capacitor
there is:                                       What is the resonant frequency of a series
                                                RLC circuit, if R is 47 ohms, L is 25
A   an electrostatic field
                                                microhenrys and C is 10 picofarads?
B   a magnetic field
                                                A   10.1 MHz
C   a cloud of electrons
                                                B   63.7 MHz
D   an electric current
                                                C   10.1 kHz
A-001-002-011       (C)                         D   63.7 kHz

Energy is stored within an inductor that is
                                                A-001-003-005    (B)
carrying a current. The amount of energy
depends on this current, but it also depends    What is the resonant frequency of a series
on a property of the inductor. This property    RLC circuit, if R is 47 ohms, L is 3
has the following unit:                         microhenrys and C is 40 picofarads?
A   farad                                       A   14.5 kHz
B   watt                                        B   14.5 MHz
C   henry                                       C   13.1 MHz
D   coulomb                                     D   13.1 kHz

A-001-003-001       (B)                         A-001-003-006    (C)
What is the resonant frequency of a series      What is the resonant frequency of a series
RLC circuit if R is 47 ohms, L is 50            RLC circuit, if R is 47 ohms, L is 4
microhenrys and C is 40 picofarads?             microhenrys and C is 20 picofarads?
A   79.6 MHz                                    A   19.9 kHz
B   3.56 MHz                                    B   17.8 kHz
C   1.78 MHz                                    C   17.8 MHz
D   7.96 MHz                                    D   19.9 MHz

A-001-003-002       (C)                         A-001-003-007    (C)
What is the resonant frequency of a series      What is the resonant frequency of a series
RLC circuit, if R is 47 ohms, L is 40           RLC circuit, if R is 47 ohms, L is 8
microhenrys and C is 200 picofarads?            microhenrys and C is 7 picofarads?
A   1.99 MHz                                    A   2.84 MHz
B   1.78 kHz                                    B   2.13 MHz
C   1.78 MHz                                    C   21.3 MHz
D   1.99 kHz                                    D   28.4 MHz
A-001-003-008       (C)                         A-001-004-002     (B)
What is the resonant frequency of a series      What is the resonant frequency of a parallel
RLC circuit, if R is 47 ohms, L is 3            RLC circuit if R is 4.7 kilohms, L is 2
microhenrys and C is 15 picofarads?             microhenrys and C is 15 picofarads?
A   35.4 kHz                                    A   5.31 kHz
B   23.7 kHz                                    B   29.1 MHz
C   23.7 MHz                                    C   29.1 kHz
D   35.4 MHz                                    D   5.31 MHz

A-001-003-009       (C)                         A-001-004-003     (D)
What is the resonant frequency of a series      What is the resonant frequency of a parallel
RLC circuit, if R is 47 ohms, L is 4            RLC circuit if R is 4.7 kilohms, L is 5
microhenrys and C is 8 picofarads?              microhenrys and C is 9 picofarads?
A   49.7 kHz                                    A   23.7 kHz
B   28.1 kHz                                    B   3.54 MHz
C   28.1 MHz                                    C   3.54 kHz
D   49.7 MHz                                    D   23.7 MHz

A-001-003-010       (A)                         A-001-004-004     (D)
What is the resonant frequency of a series      What is the resonant frequency of a parallel
RLC circuit, if R is 47 ohms, L is 1            RLC circuit if R is 4.7 kilohms, L is 2
microhenry and C is 9 picofarads?               microhenrys and C is 30 picofarads?
A   53.1 MHz                                    A   2.65 MHz
B   5.31 MHz                                    B   2.65 kHz
C   17.7 MHz                                    C   20.5 kHz
D   1.77 MHz                                    D   20.5 MHz

A-001-003-011       (A)                         A-001-004-005     (B)
What is the value of capacitance (C) in a       What is the resonant frequency of a parallel
series R-L-C circuit, if the circuit resonant   RLC circuit if R is 4.7 kilohms, L is 15
frequency is 14.25 MHz and L is 2.84            microhenrys and C is 5 picofarads?
microhenrys?
                                                A   18.4 kHz
A   44 picofarads                               B   18.4 MHz
B   2.2 microfarads                             C   2.12 kHz
C   44 microfarads                              D   2.12 MHz
D   2.2 picofarads
                                                A-001-004-006     (A)
A-001-004-001       (C)
                                                What is the resonant frequency of a parallel
What is the resonant frequency of a parallel    RLC circuit if R is 4.7 kilohms, L is 3
RLC circuit if R is 4.7 kilohms, L is 1         microhenrys and C is 40 picofarads?
microhenry and C is 10 picofarads?
                                                A   14.5 MHz
A   50.3 kHz                                    B   1.33 kHz
B   15.9 MHz                                    C   1.33 MHz
C   50.3 MHz                                    D   14.5 kHz
D   15.9 kHz
A-001-004-007     (A)                          A-001-005-001      (A)
What is the resonant frequency of a parallel   What is the Q of a parallel RLC circuit, if it is
RLC circuit if R is 4.7 kilohms, L is 40       resonant at 14.128 MHz, L is 2.7
microhenrys and C is 6 picofarads?             microhenrys and R is 18 kilohms?
A   10.3 MHz                                   A   75.1
B   6.63 MHz                                   B   7.51
C   6.63 kHz                                   C   0.013
D   10.3 kHz                                   D   71.5

A-001-004-008     (C)                          A-001-005-002      (A)
What is the resonant frequency of a parallel   What is the Q of a parallel RLC circuit, if it is
RLC circuit if R is 4.7 kilohms, L is 10       resonant at 14.128 MHz, L is 4.7
microhenrys and C is 50 picofarads?            microhenrys and R is 18 kilohms?
A   3.18 MHz                                   A   43.1
B   3.18 kHz                                   B   13.3
C   7.12 MHz                                   C   0.023
D   7.12 kHz                                   D   4.31

A-001-004-009     (B)                          A-001-005-003      (B)
What is the resonant frequency of a parallel   What is the Q of a parallel RLC circuit, if it is
RLC circuit if R is 4.7 kilohms, L is 200      resonant at 4.468 MHz, L is 47 microhenrys
microhenrys and C is 10 picofarads?            and R is 180 ohms?
A   7.96 kHz                                   A   13.3
B   3.56 MHz                                   B   0.136
C   3.56 kHz                                   C   7.35
D   7.96 MHz                                   D   0.00735

A-001-004-010     (D)                          A-001-005-004      (D)
What is the resonant frequency of a parallel   What is the Q of a parallel RLC circuit, if it is
RLC circuit if R is 4.7 kilohms, L is 90       resonant at 14.225 MHz, L is 3.5
microhenrys and C is 100 picofarads?           microhenrys and R is 10 kilohms?
A   1.77 kHz                                   A   7.35
B   1.77 MHz                                   B   0.0319
C   1.68 kHz                                   C   71.5
D   1.68 MHz                                   D   31.9

A-001-004-011     (D)                          A-001-005-005      (C)
What is the value of inductance (L) in a       What is the Q of a parallel RLC circuit, if it is
parallel RLC circuit, if the resonant          resonant at 7.125 MHz, L is 8.2 microhenrys
frequency is 14.25 MHz and C is 44             and R is 1 kilohm?
picofarads?
                                               A   0.368
A   253.8 millihenrys                          B   0.273
B   3.9 millihenrys                            C   2.73
C   0.353 microhenry                           D   36.8
D   2.8 microhenrys
A-001-005-006      (D)                              A-001-005-011      (D)
What is the Q of a parallel RLC circuit, if it is   Why is a resistor often included in a parallel
resonant at 7.125 MHz, L is 10.1                    resonant circuit?
microhenrys and R is 100 ohms?
                                                    A   To increase the Q and decrease the skin
A   22.1                                                effect
B   0.00452                                         B   To decrease the Q and increase the
C   4.52                                                resonant frequency
D   0.221                                           C   To increase the Q and decrease
                                                        bandwidth
A-001-005-007      (B)                              D   To decrease the Q and increase the
                                                        bandwidth
What is the Q of a parallel RLC circuit, if it is
resonant at 7.125 MHz, L is 12.6                    A-002-001-001      (A)
microhenrys and R is 22 kilohms?
                                                    What two elements widely used in
A   25.6                                            semiconductor devices exhibit both metallic
B   39                                              and non-metallic characteristics?
C   22.1                                            A   Silicon and germanium
D   0.0256                                          B   Galena and germanium
                                                    C   Galena and bismuth
A-001-005-008      (C)
                                                    D   Silicon and gold
What is the Q of a parallel RLC circuit, if it is
resonant at 3.625 MHz, L is 3 microhenrys           A-002-001-002      (C)
and R is 2.2 kilohms?
                                                    In what application is gallium-arsenide used
A   31.1                                            as a semiconductor material in preference to
B   0.031                                           germanium or silicon?
C   32.2                                            A   At very low frequencies
D   25.6                                            B   In bipolar transistors
                                                    C   At microwave frequencies
A-001-005-009      (D)
                                                    D   In high-power circuits
What is the Q of a parallel RLC circuit, if it is
resonant at 3.625 MHz, L is 42 microhenrys          A-002-001-003      (B)
and R is 220 ohms?
                                                    What type of semiconductor material
A   2.3                                             contains fewer free electrons than pure
B   4.35                                            germanium or silicon crystals?
C   0.00435                                         A   Superconductor type
D   0.23                                            B   P-type
                                                    C   N-type
A-001-005-010      (D)
                                                    D   Bipolar type
What is the Q of a parallel RLC circuit, if it is
resonant at 3.625 MHz, L is 43 microhenrys          A-002-001-004      (A)
and R is 1.8 kilohms?
                                                    What type of semiconductor material
A   0.543                                           contains more free electrons than pure
B   54.3                                            germanium or silicon crystals?
C   23                                              A   N-type
D   1.84                                            B   P-type
                                                    C   Bipolar
                                                    D   Superconductor
A-002-001-005        (A)                      A-002-001-011       (B)
What are the majority charge carriers in P-   A semiconductor is said to be doped when it
type semiconductor material?                  has added to it small quantities of:
A   Holes                                     A   electrons
B   Free electrons                            B   impurities
C   Free protons                              C   protons
D   Free neutrons                             D   ions

A-002-001-006        (C)                      A-002-002-001       (B)
What are the majority charge carriers in N-   What is the principal characteristic of a
type semiconductor material?                  Zener diode?
A   Free protons                              A   An internal capacitance that varies with
B   Free neutrons                                 the applied voltage
C   Free electrons                            B   A constant voltage under conditions of
                                                  varying current
D   Holes
                                              C   A constant current under conditions of
                                                  varying voltage
A-002-001-007        (A)
                                              D   A negative resistance region
Silicon, in its pure form, is:
                                              A-002-002-002       (D)
A   an insulator
B   a superconductor                          What type of semiconductor diode varies its
                                              internal capacitance as the voltage applied
C   a semiconductor                           to its terminals varies?
D   a conductor
                                              A   Zener
A-002-001-008        (A)                      B   Silicon-controlled rectifier
                                              C   Hot-carrier (Schottky)
An element which is sometimes an insulator
and sometimes a conductor is called a:        D   Varactor

A   semiconductor
                                              A-002-002-003       (A)
B   intrinsic conductor
                                              What is a common use for the hot-carrier
C   N-type conductor                          (Schottky) diode?
D   P-type conductor
                                              A   As VHF and UHF mixers and detectors
A-002-001-009        (C)                      B   As balanced mixers in FM generation
                                              C   As a variable capacitance in an
Which of the following materials is used to
                                                  automatic frequency control (AFC) circuit
make a semiconductor?
                                              D   As a constant voltage reference in a
A   Copper                                        power supply
B   Sulphur
C   Silicon                                   A-002-002-004       (B)
D   Tantalum                                  What limits the maximum forward current in
                                              a junction diode?
A-002-001-010        (B)                      A   Peak inverse voltage
Substances such as silicon in a pure state    B   Junction temperature
are usually good:                             C   Forward voltage
A   inductors                                 D   Back EMF
B   insulators
C   conductors
D   tuned circuits
A-002-002-005      (D)                    A-002-002-010          (D)
What are the major ratings for junction   If a Zener diode rated at 10 V and 50 watts
diodes?                                   was operated at maximum dissipation
                                          rating, it would conduct ____ amperes:
A   Maximum reverse current and
    capacitance                           A   50
B   Maximum forward current and           B   0.05
    capacitance                           C   0.5
C   Maximum reverse current and peak      D   5
    inverse voltage (PIV)
D   Maximum forward current and peak      A-002-002-011          (C)
    inverse voltage (PIV)
                                          The power-handling capability of most Zener
A-002-002-006      (D)                    diodes is rated at 25 degrees C or
                                          approximately room temperature. If the
Structurally, what are the two main       temperature is increased, the power
categories of semiconductor diodes?       handling capability is:
A   Vacuum and point contact              A   much greater
B   Electrolytic and point contact        B   slightly greater
C   Electrolytic and junction             C   less
D   Junction and point contact            D   the same

A-002-002-007      (A)                    A-002-003-001          (C)
What is a common use for point contact    What is the alpha of a bipolar transistor?
diodes?
A   As an RF detector
                                          A   The change of base current with respect
                                              to collector current
B   As a constant current source
                                          B   The change of collector current with
C   As a constant voltage source              respect to gate current
D   As a high voltage rectifier           C   The change of collector current with
                                              respect to emitter current
A-002-002-008      (C)                    D   The change of collector current with
What is one common use for PIN diodes?        respect to base current

A   As a high voltage rectifier           A-002-003-002          (D)
B   As a constant voltage source          What is the beta of a bipolar transistor?
C   As an RF switch
D   As a constant current source          A   The change of base current with respect
                                              to emitter current
A-002-002-009      (A)                    B   The change of collector current with
                                              respect to emitter current
A Zener diode is a device used to:
                                          C   The change of base current with respect
                                              to gate current
A   regulate voltage
                                          D   The change of collector current with
B   dissipate voltage                         respect to base current
C   decrease current
D   increase current                      A-002-003-003          (C)
                                          Which component conducts electricity from
                                          a negative emitter to a positive collector
                                          when its base voltage is made positive?
                                          A   A triode vacuum tube
                                          B   A PNP transistor
                                          C   An NPN transistor
                                          D   A varactor
A-002-003-004       (B)                          A-002-003-010      (C)
What is the alpha of a bipolar transistor in     The current gain of a bipolar transistor in
common base configuration?                       common emitter or common collector
                                                 compared to common base configuration is:
A   Reverse voltage gain
B   Forward current gain                         A   usually about double
C   Forward voltage gain                         B   usually about half
D   Reverse current gain                         C   high to very high
                                                 D   very low
A-002-003-005       (B)
                                                 A-002-003-011      (D)
In a bipolar transistor, the change of
collector current with respect to base current   Beta of a bipolar transistor is equal to:
is called:
                                                 A   alpha / (1 + alpha)
A   alpha
                                                 B   alpha x (1 - alpha)
B   beta
                                                 C   alpha x (1 + alpha)
C   gamma
                                                 D   alpha / (1 - alpha)
D   delta

                                                 A-002-004-001      (C)
A-002-003-006       (D)
                                                 What is an enhancement-mode FET?
The alpha of a bipolar transistor is specified
for what configuration?
                                                 A   An FET with a channel that allows
A   Common collector                                 current when the gate voltage is zero
B   Common gate                                  B   An FET without a channel to hinder
C   Common emitter                                   current through the gate
D   Common base                                  C   An FET without a channel; no current
                                                     occurs with zero gate voltage
A-002-003-007       (D)                          D   An FET with a channel that blocks
                                                     voltage through the gate
The beta of a bipolar transistor is specified
for what configurations?                         A-002-004-002      (C)
A   Common emitter or common gate                What is a depletion-mode FET?
B   Common base or common collector
C   Common base or common emitter                A   An FET without a channel to hinder
D   Common emitter or common collector               current through the gate
                                                 B   An FET that has a channel that blocks
A-002-003-008       (B)                              current when the gate voltage is zero
                                                 C   An FET that has a channel with no gate
Which component conducts electricity from            voltage applied; a current flows with zero
a positive emitter to a negative collector           gate voltage
when its base is made negative?
                                                 D   An FET without a channel; no current
A   An NPN transistor                                flows with zero gate voltage
B   A PNP transistor
C   A triode vacuum tube
D   A varactor

A-002-003-009       (B)
Alpha of a bipolar transistor is equal to:

A   beta / (1 - beta)
B   beta / (1 + beta)
C   beta x (1 + beta)
D   beta x (1 - beta)
A-002-004-003      (B)                           A-002-004-007      (B)
Why do many MOSFET devices have built-in         What are the two basic types of junction
gate protective Zener diodes?                    field-effect transistors (JFET)?
A   The gate-protective Zener diode provides     A   Silicon and germanium
    a voltage reference to provide the correct   B   N-channel and P-channel
    amount of reverse-bias gate voltage
                                                 C   High power and low power
B   The gate-protective Zener diode prevents     D   MOSFET and GaAsFET
    the gate insulation from being punctured
    by small static charges or excessive
    voltages                                     A-002-004-008      (A)
C   The gate-protective Zener diode keeps        Electron conduction in an n-channel
    the gate voltage within specifications to    depletion type MOSFET is associated with:
    prevent the device from overheating
                                                 A   n-channel depletion
D   The gate-protective Zener diode protects
    the substrate from excessive voltages        B   p-channel depletion
                                                 C   p-channel enhancement
A-002-004-004      (A)                           D   q-channel enhancement
Why are special precautions necessary in
handling FET and CMOS devices?                   A-002-004-009      (D)

A   They are susceptible to damage from          Electron conduction in an n-channel
    static charges                               enhancement MOSFET is associated with:
B   They are light-sensitive                     A   q-channel depletion
C   They have micro-welded semiconductor         B   p-channel enhancement
    junctions that are susceptible to            C   p-channel depletion
    breakage                                     D   n-channel enhancement
D   They have fragile leads that may break off
                                                 A-002-004-010      (A)
A-002-004-005      (C)
                                                 Hole conduction in a p-channel depletion
How does the input impedance of a field-         type MOSFET is associated with:
effect transistor (FET) compare with that of a
bipolar transistor?                              A   p-channel depletion
                                                 B   n-channel enhancement
A   An FET has low input impedance; a
    bipolar transistor has high input            C   q-channel depletion
    impedance                                    D   n-channel depletion
B   The input impedance of FETs and bipolar
    transistors is the same                      A-002-004-011      (B)
C   An FET has high input impedance; a           Hole conduction in a p-channel
    bipolar transistor has low input             enhancement type MOSFET is associated
    impedance                                    with:
D   One cannot compare input impedance
    without knowing supply voltage               A   q-channel depletion
                                                 B   p-channel enhancement
A-002-004-006      (A)                           C   n-channel depletion
What are the three terminals of a junction       D   n-channel enhancement
field-effect transistor (JFET)?
                                                 A-002-005-001      (D)
A   Gate, drain, source
B   Emitter, base 1, base 2                      What are the three terminals of a silicon
                                                 controlled rectifier (SCR)?
C   Emitter, base, collector
D   Gate 1, gate 2, drain                        A   Gate, base 1 and base 2
                                                 B   Base, collector and emitter
                                                 C   Gate, source and sink
                                                 D   Anode, cathode and gate
A-002-005-002      (B)                             A-002-005-007       (D)
What are the two stable operating conditions       The silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) is a
of a silicon controlled rectifier (SCR)?           member of which family?
A   Oscillating and quiescent                      A   Phase locked loops
B   Conducting and non-conducting                  B   Varactors
C   Forward conducting and reverse                 C   Varistors
    conducting                                     D   Thyristors
D   NPN conduction and PNP conduction
                                                   A-002-005-008       (C)
A-002-005-003      (C)
                                                   In amateur radio equipment, which is the
When a silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) is       major application for the silicon controlled
triggered, to what other semiconductor diode       rectifier (SCR)?
are its electrical characteristics similar (as
                                                   A   Microphone preamplifier circuit
measured between its cathode and anode)?
                                                   B   SWR detector circuit
A   The hot-carrier (Schottky) diode
                                                   C   Power supply overvoltage "crowbar"
B   The varactor diode                                 circuit
C   The junction diode                             D   Class C amplifier circuit
D   The PIN diode
                                                   A-002-005-009       (A)
A-002-005-004      (A)
                                                   Which of the following devices has anode,
Under what operating condition does a              cathode, and gate?
silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) exhibit
                                                   A   The silicon controlled rectifier (SCR)
electrical characteristics similar to a forward-
biased silicon rectifier?                          B   The bipolar transistor
                                                   C   The field effect transistor
A   When it is gated "on"
                                                   D   The triode vacuum tube
B   When it is gated "off"
C   When it is used as a detector
                                                   A-002-005-010       (C)
D   During a switching transition
                                                   When it is gated "on", the silicon controlled
                                                   rectifier (SCR) exhibits electrical
A-002-005-005      (A)
                                                   characteristics similar to a:
The silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) is what
                                                   A   forward-biased PIN diode
type of device?
                                                   B   reverse-biased hot-carrier (Schottky)
A   PNPN                                               diode
B   NPPN                                           C   forward-biased silicon rectifier
C   PNNP                                           D   reverse-biased silicon rectifier
D   PPNN
                                                   A-002-005-011       (C)
A-002-005-006      (B)
                                                   Which of the following is a PNPN device?
The control element in the silicon controlled
rectifier (SCR) is called the:                     A   Hot carrier (Schottky) diode
A   emitter                                        B   Zener diode
B   gate                                           C   Silicon controlled rectifier (SCR)
C   anode                                          D   PIN diode
D   cathode
A-002-006-001     (B)                         A-002-006-006     (D)
For what portion of a signal cycle does a     Which of the following classes of amplifier
Class A amplifier operate?                    provides the highest efficiency?
A   Less than 180 degrees                     A   Class A
B   The entire cycle                          B   Class AB
C   Exactly 180 degrees                       C   Class B
D   More than 180 degrees but less than 360   D   Class C
    degrees
                                              A-002-006-007     (B)
A-002-006-002     (A)
                                              Which of the following classes of amplifier
Which class of amplifier has the highest      would provide the highest efficiency in the
linearity and least distortion?               output stage of a CW, RTTY or FM
                                              transmitter?
A   Class A
B   Class AB                                  A   Class A
C   Class B                                   B   Class C
D   Class C                                   C   Class AB
                                              D   Class B
A-002-006-003     (A)
For what portion of a cycle does a Class AB   A-002-006-008     (C)
amplifier operate?                            Which class of amplifier provides the least
                                              efficiency?
A   More than 180 degrees but less than 360
    degrees                                   A   Class B
B   Exactly 180 degrees                       B   Class AB
C   The entire cycle                          C   Class A
D   Less than 180 degrees                     D   Class C

A-002-006-004     (D)                         A-002-006-009     (D)
For what portion of a cycle does a Class B    Which class of amplifier has the poorest
amplifier operate?                            linearity and the most distortion?
A   Less than 180 degrees                     A   Class AB
B   More than 180 degrees but less than 360   B   Class A
    degrees                                   C   Class B
C   The entire cycle                          D   Class C
D   180 degrees
                                              A-002-006-010     (D)
A-002-006-005     (C)
                                              Which class of amplifier operates over the
For what portion of a signal cycle does a     full cycle?
Class C amplifier operate?
                                              A   Class AB
A   The entire cycle                          B   Class B
B   180 degrees                               C   Class C
C   Less than 180 degrees                     D   Class A
D   More than 180 degrees but less than 360
    degrees
A-002-006-011      (A)                           A-002-007-004      (B)
Which class of amplifier operates over less      In the common base amplifier, when the
than 180 degrees of the cycle?                   input and output signals are compared:
A   Class C                                      A   the signals are 180 degrees out of phase
B   Class AB                                     B   the signals are in phase
C   Class A                                      C   the output signal lags the input signal by
D   Class B                                          90 degrees
                                                 D   the output signals leads the input signal
A-002-007-001      (B)                               by 90 degrees

What determines the input impedance of a         A-002-007-005      (A)
FET common-source amplifier?
                                                 In the common base amplifier, the input
A   The input impedance is essentially           impedance, when compared to the output
    determined by the resistance between         impedance is:
    the drain and substrate
                                                 A   very low
B   The input impedance is essentially
    determined by the gate biasing network       B   only slightly higher
C   The input impedance is essentially           C   only slightly lower
    determined by the resistance between         D   very high
    the source and substrate
D   The input impedance is essentially           A-002-007-006      (A)
    determined by the resistance between
    the source and the drain                     In the common emitter amplifier, when the
                                                 input and output signals are compared:
A-002-007-002      (B)                           A   the signals are 180 degrees out of phase
What determines the output impedance of a        B   the output signal leads the input signal
FET common-source amplifier?                         by 90 degrees
                                                 C   the output signal lags the input signal by
A   The output impedance is essentially
                                                     90 degrees
    determined by the input impedance of the
    FET                                          D   the signals are in phase
B   The output impedance is essentially
    determined by the drain resistor             A-002-007-007      (A)
C   The output impedance is essentially          In the common collector amplifier, when the
    determined by the drain supply voltage       input and output signals are compared:
D   The output impedance is essentially          A   the signals are in phase
    determined by the gate supply voltage
                                                 B   the output signal leads the input signal
                                                     by 90 degrees
A-002-007-003      (C)
                                                 C   the output signal lags the input signal by
What are the advantages of a Darlington pair         90 degrees
audio amplifier?                                 D   the signals are 180 degrees out of phase
A   Mutual gain, low input impedance and
    low output impedance                         A-002-007-008      (D)
B   Low output impedance, high mutual            The FET amplifier source follower circuit is
    impedance and low output current             another name for:
C   High gain, high input impedance and low
    output impedance                             A   common source circuit
D   Mutual gain, high stability and low mutual   B   common mode circuit
    inductance                                   C   common gate circuit
                                                 D   common drain circuit
A-002-007-009     (D)                           A-002-008-002      (A)
The FET amplifier common source circuit is      What would be the characteristics of the
similar to which of the following bipolar       ideal op-amp?
transistor amplifier circuits?
                                                A   Infinite input impedance, zero output
A   Common collector                                impedance, infinite gain, and flat
B   Common base                                     frequency response
C   Common mode                                 B   Zero input impedance, zero output
                                                    impedance, infinite gain, and flat
D   Common emitter
                                                    frequency response
                                                C   Infinite input impedance, infinite output
A-002-007-010     (C)
                                                    impedance, infinite gain and flat
The FET amplifier common drain circuit is           frequency response
similar to which of the following bipolar       D   Zero input impedance, infinite output
transistor amplifier circuits?                      impedance, infinite gain, and flat
A   Common base                                     frequency response
B   Common mode
                                                A-002-008-003      (C)
C   Common collector
                                                What determines the gain of a closed-loop
D   Common emitter
                                                op-amp circuit?

A-002-007-011     (C)                           A   The voltage applied to the circuit

The FET amplifier common gate circuit is
                                                B   The collector-to-base capacitance of the
similar to which of the following bipolar           PNP stage
transistor amplifier circuits?                  C   The external feedback network
                                                D   The PNP collector load
A   Common collector
B   Common emitter
                                                A-002-008-004      (B)
C   Common base
                                                What is meant by the term op-amp offset
D   Common mode
                                                voltage?

A-002-008-001     (C)                           A   The output voltage of the op-amp minus
                                                    its input voltage
What is an operational amplifier (op-amp)?
                                                B   The potential between the amplifier input
                                                    terminals of the op-amp in a closed-loop
A   An amplifier used to increase the average
                                                    condition
    output of frequency modulated amateur
    signals to the legal limit                  C   The difference between the output voltage
                                                    of the op-amp and the input voltage
B   A program subroutine that calculates the
                                                    required for the next stage
    gain of an RF amplifier
                                                D   The potential between the amplifier input
C   A high-gain, direct-coupled differential
                                                    terminals of the op-amp in an open-loop
    amplifier whose characteristics are
                                                    condition
    determined by components mounted
    externally
                                                A-002-008-005      (C)
D   A high-gain, direct-coupled audio
    amplifier whose characteristics are         What is the input impedance of a
    determined by internal components of the    theoretically ideal op-amp?
    device
                                                A   Exactly 100 ohms
                                                B   Exactly 1000 ohms
                                                C   Very high
                                                D   Very low
A-002-008-006      (A)                           A-002-008-010      (A)
What is the output impedance of a                What is a non-inverting op-amp circuit?
theoretically ideal op-amp?
                                                 A   An operational amplifier circuit connected
A   Very low
                                                     such that the input and output signals are
B   Very high                                        in phase
C   Exactly 100 ohms                             B   An operational amplifier circuit connected
D   Exactly 1000 ohms                                such that the input and output signals are
                                                     90 degrees out of phase
A-002-008-007      (C)                           C   An operational amplifier circuit connected
                                                     such that the input impedance is held
What are the advantages of using an op-amp
                                                     low, and the output impedance is high
instead of LC elements in an audio filter?
                                                 D   An operational amplifier circuit connected
A   Op-amps are available in more styles and         such that the input and output signals are
    types than are LC elements                       180 degrees out of phase
B   Op-amps are fixed at one frequency
C   Op-amps exhibit gain rather than             A-002-008-011      (D)
    insertion loss                               What term is most appropriate for a high
D   Op-amps are more rugged and can              gain, direct-coupled differential amplifier
    withstand more abuse than can LC             whose characteristics are determined by
    elements                                     components mounted externally?
                                                 A   Difference amplifier
A-002-008-008      (D)
                                                 B   High gain audio amplifier
What are the principal uses of an op-amp
                                                 C   Summing amplifier
RC active filter in amateur circuitry?
                                                 D   Operational amplifier
A   Op-amp circuits are used as low-pass
    filters at the output of transmitters
                                                 A-002-009-001      (D)
B   Op-amp circuits are used as filters for
    smoothing power supply output                What is the mixing process?
C   Op-amp circuits are used as high-pass        A   The elimination of noise in a wideband
    filters to block RFI at the input of
                                                     receiver by phase differentiation
    receivers
                                                 B   The recovery of intelligence from a
D   Op-amp circuits are used as audio filters
                                                     modulated signal
    for receivers
                                                 C   The elimination of noise in a wideband
A-002-008-009      (B)                               receiver by phase comparison
                                                 D   The combination of two signals to
What is an inverting op-amp circuit?                 produce sum and difference frequencies

A   An operational amplifier circuit connected
                                                 A-002-009-002      (D)
    such that the input impedance is held to
    zero, while the output impedance is high     What are the principal frequencies that
B   An operational amplifier circuit connected   appear at the output of a mixer circuit?
    such that the input and output signals are   A   1.414 and 0.707 times the input
    180 degrees out of phase                         frequencies
C   An operational amplifier circuit connected   B   The sum, difference and square root of
    such that the input and output signals are       the input frequencies
    in phase
                                                 C   Two and four times the original frequency
D   An operational amplifier circuit connected
                                                 D   The original frequencies and the sum and
    such that the input and output signals are
                                                     difference frequencies
    90 degrees out of phase
A-002-009-003       (C)                         A-002-009-007         (A)
What occurs when an excessive amount of         In a frequency multiplier circuit, an
signal energy reaches the mixer circuit?        inductance (L1) and a variable capacitor (C2)
                                                are connected in series between VCC+ and
A   A beat frequency is generated
                                                ground. The collector of a transistor is
B   Mixer blanking occurs                       connected to a tap on L1. A fixed capacitor
C   Spurious signals are generated              (C3) is connected between the VCC+ side of
D   Automatic limiting occurs                   L1 and ground. The purpose of C3 is to:
                                                A   provide an RF ground at the VCC
A-002-009-004       (B)                             connection point of L1
In a frequency multiplier circuit, the input    B   form a pi filter with L1 and C2
signal is coupled to the base of a transistor   C   resonate with L1
through a capacitor. A radio frequency          D   by-pass any audio components
choke is connected between the base of the
transistor and ground. The capacitor is:
                                                A-002-009-008         (D)
A   part of the output tank circuit
                                                In a frequency multiplier circuit, an
B   a DC blocking capacitor                     inductance (L1) and a variable capacitor (C2)
C   part of the input tuned circuit             are connected in series between VCC+ and
D   a by-pass for the circuit                   ground. The collector of a transistor is
                                                connected to a tap on L1. C2 in conjunction
                                                with L1 operate as a:
A-002-009-005       (B)
                                                A   frequency divider
A frequency multiplier circuit must be
operated in:                                    B   voltage divider
                                                C   voltage doubler
A   class A
                                                D   frequency multiplier
B   class C
C   class AB                                    A-002-009-009         (D)
D   class B
                                                In a circuit where the components are tuned
                                                to resonate at a higher frequency than
A-002-009-006       (B)                         applied, the circuit is most likely a:
In a frequency multiplier circuit, an           A   a VHF/UHF amplifier
inductance (L1) and a variable capacitor (C2)
are connected in series between VCC+ and        B   a linear amplifier
ground. The collector of a transistor is        C   a frequency divider
connected to a tap on L1. The purpose of        D   a frequency multiplier
the variable capacitor is to:
A   provide positive feedback                   A-002-009-010         (B)
B   tune L1 to the desired harmonic             In a frequency multiplier circuit, an
C   by-pass RF                                  inductance (L1) and a variable capacitor (C2)
D   tune L1 to the frequency applied to the     are connected in series between VCC+ and
    base                                        ground. The collector of a transistor is
                                                connected to a tap on L1. A fixed capacitor
                                                (C3) is connected between the VCC+ side of
                                                L1 and ground. C3 is a:
                                                A   coupling capacitor
                                                B   RF by-pass capacitor
                                                C   DC blocking capacitor
                                                D   tuning capacitor
A-002-009-011       (D)                            A-002-010-004       (B)
What stage in a transmitter would change a         What is a NOT gate (also known as an
5.3-MHz input signal to 14.3 MHz?                  INVERTER)?
A   A linear translator                            A   A circuit that produces a logic "1" at its
B   A frequency multiplier                             output when the input is logic "1"
C   A beat frequency oscillator                    B   A circuit that produces a logic "0" at its
                                                       output when the input is logic "1"
D   A mixer
                                                   C   A circuit that does not allow data
                                                       transmission when its input is high
A-002-010-001       (A)
                                                   D   A circuit that allows data transmission
What is a NAND gate?                                   only when its input is high

A   A circuit that produces a logic "0" at its     A-002-010-005       (C)
    output only when all inputs are logic "1"
                                                   What is an EXCLUSIVE OR gate?
B   A circuit that produces a logic "1" at its
    output only when all inputs are logic "1"
                                                   A   A circuit that produces a logic "1" at its
C   A circuit that produces a logic "0" at its         output when all of the inputs are logic "1"
    output if some but not all of its inputs are
    logic "1"
                                                   B   A circuit that produces a logic "1" at its
                                                       output when all of the inputs are logic "0"
D   A circuit that produces a logic "0" at its
    output only when all inputs are logic "0"      C   A circuit that produces a logic "1" at its
                                                       output when only one of the inputs is
                                                       logic "1"
A-002-010-002       (D)
                                                   D   A circuit that produces a logic "0" at its
What is an OR gate?                                    output when only one of the inputs is
                                                       logic "1"
A   A circuit that produces a logic "0" at its
    output if all inputs are logic "1"             A-002-010-006       (B)
B   A circuit that produces logic "1" at its
                                                   What is an EXCLUSIVE NOR gate?
    output if all inputs are logic "0"
C   A circuit that produces a logic "0" at its     A   A circuit that produces a logic "0" at its
    output if any input is logic "1"                   output when all of the inputs are logic "1"
D   A circuit that produces a logic "1" at its     B   A circuit that produces a logic "1" at its
    output if any input is logic "1"
                                                       output when all of the inputs are logic "1"
                                                   C   A circuit that produces a logic "1" at its
A-002-010-003       (D)
                                                       output when only one of the inputs is
What is a NOR gate?                                    logic "0"
                                                   D   A circuit that produces a logic "1" at its
A   A circuit that produces a logic "0" at its         output when only one of the inputs are
    output only if all inputs are logic "0"            logic "1"
B   A circuit that produces a logic "1" at its
    output only if all inputs are logic "1"        A-002-010-007       (A)
C   A circuit that produces a logic "1" at its     What is an AND gate?
    output if some but not all of its inputs are
    logic "1"                                      A   A circuit that produces a logic "1" at its
D   A circuit that produces a logic "0" at its         output only if all its inputs are logic "1"
    output if any or all inputs are logic "1"      B   A circuit that produces a logic "1" at the
                                                       output if at least one input is a logic "0"
                                                   C   A circuit that produces a logic "1" at its
                                                       output only if one of its inputs is logic "1"
                                                   D   A circuit that produces a logic "1" at its
                                                       output if all inputs are logic "0"
A-002-010-008       (D)                           A-002-011-002       (B)
What is a flip-flop circuit?                      What factor determines the bandwidth and
                                                  response shape of a crystal lattice filter?
A   A binary sequential logic element with
                                                  A   The amplitude of the signals passing
    eight stable states
                                                      through the filter
B   A binary sequential logic element with
                                                  B   The relative frequencies of the individual
    four stable states
                                                      crystals
C   A binary sequential logic element with
                                                  C   The centre frequency chosen for the filter
    one stable state
                                                  D   The gain of the RF stage following the
D   A binary sequential logic element with
                                                      filter
    two stable states

                                                  A-002-011-003       (B)
A-002-010-009       (B)
                                                  For single-sideband phone emissions, what
What is a bistable multivibrator?
                                                  would be the bandwidth of a good crystal
                                                  lattice filter?
A   A clock
B   A flip-flop                                   A   6 kHz
C   An OR gate                                    B   2.4 kHz
D   An AND gate                                   C   15 kHz
                                                  D   500 Hz
A-002-010-010       (B)
                                                  A-002-011-004       (C)
What type of digital logic is also known as a
latch?                                            The main advantage of a crystal oscillator
                                                  over a tuned LC oscillator is:
A   An op-amp
B   A flip-flop                                   A   freedom from harmonic emissions
C   A decade counter                              B   simplicity
D   An OR gate                                    C   much greater frequency stability
                                                  D   longer life under severe operating use
A-002-010-011       (C)
                                                  A-002-011-005       (C)
In a multivibrator circuit, when one transistor
conducts, the other is:                           A quartz crystal filter is superior to an LC
                                                  filter for narrow bandpass applications
A   reverse-biased
                                                  because of the:
B   forward-biased
                                                  A   LC circuit's high Q
C   cut off
                                                  B   crystal's simplicity
D   saturated
                                                  C   crystal's high Q
A-002-011-001       (B)                           D   crystal's low Q

What is a crystal lattice filter?
                                                  A-002-011-006       (B)
A   A power supply filter made with interlaced    Piezoelectricity is generated by:
    quartz crystals
B   A filter with narrow bandwidth and steep      A   moving a magnet near a crystal
    skirts made using quartz crystals             B   deforming certain crystals
C   A filter with wide bandwidth and shallow      C   touching crystals with magnets
    skirts made using quartz crystals             D   adding impurities to a crystal
D   An audio filter made with four quartz
    crystals that resonate at 1 kHz intervals
A-002-011-007         (D)                         A-002-012-001      (B)
Electrically, what does a crystal look like?      What are the three general groupings of
                                                  filters?
A   A very low Q tuned circuit
                                                  A   Inductive, capacitive and resistive
B   A variable capacitance
                                                  B   High-pass, low-pass and band-pass
C   A variable tuned circuit
                                                  C   Hartley, Colpitts and Pierce
D   A very high Q tuned circuit
                                                  D   Audio, radio and capacitive

A-002-011-008         (D)
                                                  A-002-012-002      (B)
Crystals are sometimes used in a circuit
                                                  What are the distinguishing features of a
which has an output close to an integral
                                                  Butterworth filter?
multiple of the crystal frequency. This circuit
is called:                                        A   It only requires capacitors
A   a crystal multiplier                          B   It has a maximally flat response over its
                                                      pass-band
B   a crystal lattice
                                                  C   The product of its series and shunt-
C   a crystal ladder
                                                      element impedances is a constant for all
D   an overtone oscillator                            frequencies
                                                  D   It only requires conductors
A-002-011-009         (B)
Which of the following properties does not        A-002-012-003      (A)
apply to a crystal when used in an oscillator
                                                  Which filter type is described as having
circuit?
                                                  ripple in the passband and a sharp cutoff?
A   Good frequency accuracy
                                                  A   A Chebyshev filter
B   High power output
                                                  B   An active LC filter
C   Good frequency stability
                                                  C   A passive op-amp filter
D   Very low noise because of high Q
                                                  D   A Butterworth filter

A-002-011-010         (A)
                                                  A-002-012-004      (B)
Crystal oscillators, filters and microphones
                                                  What are the distinguishing features of a
depend upon which principle?
                                                  Chebyshev filter?
A   Piezoelectric effect
                                                  A   It has a maximally flat response in the
B   Hertzberg effect                                  passband
C   Ferro-resonance                               B   It allows ripple in the passband in return
D   Overtone effect                                   for steeper skirts
                                                  C   It requires only inductors
A-002-011-011         (C)                         D   It requires only capacitors
Crystals are not applicable to which of the
following?                                        A-002-012-005      (A)
A   Lattice filters                               Resonant cavities are used by amateurs as
B   Oscillators                                   a:
C   Active filters                                A   narrow bandpass filter at VHF and higher
D   Microphones                                       frequencies
                                                  B   power line filter
                                                  C   low-pass filter below 30 MHz
                                                  D   high-pass filter above 30 MHz
A-002-012-006      (D)                           A-002-012-011      (A)
On VHF and above, 1/4 wavelength coaxial         Which of the following filter types is not
cavities are used to give protection from        suitable for use at audio and low radio
high-level signals. For a frequency of           frequencies?
approximately 50 MHz, the diameter of such
                                                 A   Cavity
a device would be about 10 cm (4 in). What
would be its approximate length?                 B   Elliptical
                                                 C   Chebyshev
A   0.6 metres (2 ft)
                                                 D   Butterworth
B   2.4 metres (8 ft)
C   3.7 metres (12 ft)
                                                 A-003-001-001      (A)
D   1.5 metres (5 ft)
                                                 What is the easiest amplitude dimension to
                                                 measure by viewing a pure sine wave on an
A-002-012-007      (C)
                                                 oscilloscope?
A device which helps with receiver overload
                                                 A   Peak-to-peak voltage
and spurious responses at VHF, UHF and
above may be installed in the receiver front     B   Peak voltage
end. It is called a:                             C   RMS voltage
A   directional coupler                          D   Average voltage
B   duplexer
                                                 A-003-001-002      (D)
C   helical resonator
D   diplexer                                     What is the RMS value of a 340 volt peak-to-
                                                 peak pure sine wave?
A-002-012-008      (C)                           A   170 volts
Where you require bandwidth at VHF and           B   240 volts
higher frequencies about equal to a              C   300 volts
television channel, a good choice of filter is   D   120 volts
the:
A   Butterworth                                  A-003-001-003      (C)
B   Chebyshev                                    What is the equivalent to the RMS value of
C   none of the above                            an AC voltage?
D   resonant cavity                              A   The DC voltage causing the same heating
                                                     of a given resistor as the peak AC voltage
A-002-012-009      (C)                           B   The AC voltage found by taking the
What is the primary advantage of the                 square root of the average AC value
Butterworth filter over the Chebyshev filter?    C   The AC voltage causing the same heating
                                                     of a given resistor as a DC voltage of the
A   It requires only inductors
                                                     same value
B   It requires only capacitors                  D   The AC voltage found by taking the
C   It has maximally flat response over its          square root of the peak AC voltage
    passband
D   It allows ripple in the passband in return   A-003-001-004      (A)
    for steeper skirts
                                                 If the peak value of a 100 Hz sinusoidal
                                                 waveform is 20 volts, the RMS value is:
A-002-012-010      (D)
                                                 A   14.14 volts
What is the primary advantage of the
Chebyshev filter over the Butterworth filter?    B   28.28 volts
                                                 C   7.07 volts
A   It requires only capacitors
                                                 D   16.38 volts
B   It requires only inductors
C   It has maximally flat response over the
    passband
D   It allows ripple in the passband in return
    for steeper skirts
A-003-001-005     (C)                           A-003-001-011       (C)
In applying Ohm's law to AC circuits, current   A sine wave of 17 volts peak is equivalent to
and voltage values are:                         how many volts RMS?
A   average values times 1.414                  A   34 volts
B   none of the proposed answers                B   8.5 volts
C   peak values times 0.707                     C   12 volts
D   average values                              D   24 volts

A-003-001-006     (B)                           A-003-002-001       (C)
The effective value of a sine wave of voltage   The power supplied to the antenna
or current is:                                  transmission line by a transmitter during an
                                                RF cycle at the highest crest of the
A   63.6% of the maximum value
                                                modulation envelope is known as:
B   70.7% of the maximum value
                                                A   carrier power
C   50% of the maximum value
                                                B   full power
D   100% of the maximum value
                                                C   peak-envelope power
A-003-001-007     (A)                           D   mean power

AC voltmeter scales are usually calibrated to
                                                A-003-002-002       (B)
read:
                                                To compute one of the following, multiply the
A   RMS voltage
                                                peak-envelope voltage by 0.707 to obtain the
B   peak voltage                                RMS value, square the result and divide by
C   instantaneous voltage                       the load resistance. Which is the correct
D   average voltage                             answer?
                                                A   power factor
A-003-001-008     (B)                           B   PEP
An AC voltmeter is calibrated to read the:      C   PIV
                                                D   ERP
A   peak value
B   effective value                             A-003-002-003       (B)
C   peak-to-peak value                          Peak-Envelope Power (PEP) for SSB
D   average value                               transmission is:
                                                A   a hypothetical measurement
A-003-001-009     (D)
                                                B   Peak-Envelope Voltage (PEV) multiplied
Which AC voltage value will produce the             by 0.707, squared and divided by the load
same amount of heat as a DC voltage, when           resistance
applied to the same resistance?
                                                C   peak-voltage multiplied by peak current
A   The average value                           D   equal to the RMS power
B   The peak value
C   The peak-to-peak value                      A-003-002-004       (C)
D   The RMS value                               The formula to be used to calculate the
                                                power output of a transmitter into a resistor
A-003-001-010     (B)                           load using a voltmeter is:
What is the peak-to-peak voltage of a sine      A   P = EI cos 0
wave that has an RMS voltage of 120 volts?      B   P = IR
A   204.8 volts                                 C   P = E2 /R
B   339.5 volts                                 D   P = EI/R
C   84.8 volts
D   169.7 volts
A-003-002-005     (D)                          A-003-002-009      (B)
How is the output Peak-Envelope Power of a     What is the output PEP from a transmitter, if
transmitter calculated if an oscilloscope is   an oscilloscope measures 400 volts peak-to-
used to measure the Peak-Envelope Voltage      peak across a 50 ohm dummy load
across a dummy resistive load (where PEP       connected to the transmitter output?
= Peak-Envelope Power, PEV = Peak-
                                               A   1000 watts
Envelope Voltage, Vp = peak-voltage, RL =
load resistance)?                              B   400 watts
                                               C   200 watts
A   PEP = [(Vp)(Vp)] / (RL)
                                               D   600 watts
B   PEP = (Vp)(Vp)(RL)
C   PEP = [(1.414 PEV)(1.414 PEV)] / RL
                                               A-003-002-010      (A)
D   PEP = [(0.707 PEV)(0.707 PEV)] / RL
                                               What is the output PEP from a transmitter, if
                                               an oscilloscope measures 800 volts peak-to-
A-003-002-006     (C)
                                               peak across a 50 ohm dummy load
What is the output PEP from a transmitter if   connected to the transmitter output?
an oscilloscope measures 200 volts peak-to-
                                               A   1600 watts
peak across a 50-ohm dummy load
connected to the transmitter output?           B   800 watts
                                               C   6400 watts
A   1000 watts
                                               D   3200 watts
B   200 watts
C   100 watts
                                               A-003-002-011      (C)
D   400 watts
                                               An oscilloscope measures 500 volts peak-
                                               to-peak across a 50 ohm dummy load
A-003-002-007     (C)
                                               connected to the transmitter output during
What is the output PEP from a transmitter if   unmodulated carrier conditions. What would
an oscilloscope measures 500 volts peak-to-    an average-reading power meter indicate
peak across a 50-ohm dummy load                under the same transmitter conditions?
connected to the transmitter output?
                                               A   884 watts
A   2500 watts                                 B   442 watts
B   500 watts                                  C   625 watts
C   625 watts                                  D   427.5 watts
D   1250 watts
                                               A-003-003-001      (D)
A-003-002-008     (C)
                                               What is a dip meter?
What is the output PEP of an unmodulated
carrier transmitter if a wattmeter connected   A   An SWR meter
to the transmitter output indicates an         B   A marker generator
average reading of 1060 watts?
                                               C   A field-strength meter
A   1500 watts                                 D   A variable frequency oscillator with
B   530 watts                                      metered feedback current
C   1060 watts
D   2120 watts                                 A-003-003-002      (D)
                                               What does a dip meter do?

                                               A   It measures transmitter output power
                                                   accurately
                                               B   It measures field strength accurately
                                               C   It measures frequency accurately
                                               D   It gives an indication of the resonant
                                                   frequency of a circuit
A-003-003-003      (C)                           A-003-003-007      (B)
What two ways could a dip meter be used in       What is a signal generator?
an amateur station?
                                                 A   A high-stability oscillator which generates
A   To measure antenna resonance and
                                                     reference signals at exact frequency
    percentage modulation
                                                     intervals
B   To measure resonant frequency of
                                                 B   A high-stability oscillator which can
    antenna traps and percentage modulation
                                                     produce a wide range of frequencies and
C   To measure resonant frequencies of               amplitudes
    antenna traps and to measure a tuned
                                                 C   A low-stability oscillator which sweeps
    circuit resonant frequency
                                                     through a range of frequencies
D   To measure antenna resonance and
                                                 D   A low-stability oscillator used to inject a
    impedance
                                                     signal into a circuit under test

A-003-003-004      (D)
                                                 A-003-003-008      (A)
A dip meter supplies the radio frequency
                                                 A dip meter:
energy which enables you to check:
A   the calibration of an absorption-type        A   should be loosely coupled to the circuit
    wavemeter                                        under test
B   the impedance mismatch in a circuit          B   should be tightly coupled to the circuit
C   the adjustment of an inductor                    under test
D   the resonant frequency of a circuit          C   may be used only with series tuned
                                                     circuits
A-003-003-005      (D)                           D   accurately measures frequencies

A dip meter may not be used directly to:
                                                 A-003-003-009      (A)
A   align transmitter-tuned circuits             Which two instruments are needed to
B   determine the frequency of oscillations      measure FM receiver sensitivity for a 12 dB
                                                 SINAD ratio (signal + noise + distortion over
C   align receiver-tuned circuits                noise + distortion)?
D   measure the value of capacitance or
    inductance                                   A   Calibrated RF signal generator with FM
                                                     tone modulation and total harmonic
                                                     distortion (THD) analyzer
A-003-003-006      (A)
                                                 B   RF signal generator with FM tone
The dial calibration on the output attenuator        modulation and a deviation meter
of a signal generator:
                                                 C   Oscilloscope and spectrum analyzer
A   reads accurately only when the               D   Receiver noise bridge and total harmonic
    attenuator is properly terminated                distortion analyser
B   always reads the true output of the signal
    generator                                    A-003-003-010      (B)
C   reads twice the true output when the         The dip meter is most directly applicable to:
    attenuator is properly terminated
D   reads half the true output when the          A   series tuned circuits
    attenuator is properly terminated
                                                 B   parallel tuned circuits
                                                 C   operational amplifier circuits
                                                 D   digital logic circuits
A-003-003-011       (B)                         A-003-004-004       (C)
Which of the following is not a factor          If a frequency counter with a time base
affecting the frequency accuracy of a dip       accuracy of +/- 0.1 PPM (parts per million)
meter?                                          reads 146 520 000 Hz, what is the most that
                                                the actual frequency being measured could
A   Over coupling
                                                differ from that reading?
B   Transmitter power output
                                                A   1.4652 Hz
C   Hand capacity
                                                B   1.4652 kHz
D   Stray capacity
                                                C   14.652 Hz
A-003-004-001       (C)                         D   0.1 MHz

What does a frequency counter do?
                                                A-003-004-005       (C)
A   It generates broad-band white noise for     If a frequency counter, with a time base
    calibration                                 accuracy of 10 PPM (parts per million) reads
B   It produces a reference frequency           146 520 000 Hz, what is the most the actual
                                                frequency being measured could differ from
C   It makes frequency measurements             that reading?
D   It measures frequency deviation
                                                A   146.52 kHz
A-003-004-002       (C)                         B   1465.2 kHz
                                                C   1465.2 Hz
What factors limit the accuracy, frequency
response and stability of a frequency           D   146.52 Hz
counter?
                                                A-003-004-006       (D)
A   Number of digits in the readout, speed of
    the logic, and time base stability          The clock in a frequency counter normally
B   Number of digits in the readout, external   uses a:
    frequency reference and temperature         A   self-oscillating Hartley oscillator
    coefficient of the logic
                                                B   mechanical tuning fork
C   Time base accuracy, speed of the logic,
                                                C   free-running multivibrator
    and time base stability
                                                D   crystal oscillator
D   Time base accuracy, temperature
    coefficient of the logic and time base
    stability                                   A-003-004-007       (D)
                                                The frequency accuracy of a frequency
A-003-004-003       (B)                         counter is determined by:
How can the accuracy of a frequency             A   the size of the frequency counter
counter be improved?
                                                B   type of display used in the counter
A   By improving the accuracy of the            C   the number of digits displayed
    frequency response                          D   the characteristics of the internal time-
B   By increasing the accuracy of the time          base generator
    base
C   By using slower digital logic               A-003-004-008       (B)
D   By using faster digital logic               Which device relies on a stable low-
                                                frequency oscillator, with harmonic output,
                                                to facilitate the frequency calibration of
                                                receiver dial settings?
                                                A   Frequency counter
                                                B   Frequency-marker generator
                                                C   Signal generator
                                                D   Harmonic calibrator
A-003-004-009      (D)                           A-003-005-002      (B)
What is the traditional way of verifying the     What factors limit the accuracy, frequency
accuracy of a crystal calibrator?                response and stability of an oscilloscope?
A   Compare the oscillator with your             A   Tube face voltage increments and
    transmitter                                      deflection amplifier voltages
B   Use a dip-meter to determine the             B   Accuracy of the time base and the
    oscillator's fundamental frequency               linearity and bandwidth of the deflection
C   Compare the oscillator with your receiver        amplifiers
D   Zero-beat the crystal oscillator against a   C   Deflection amplifier output impedance
    standard frequency station such as               and tube face frequency increments
    WWV                                          D   Accuracy and linearity of the time base
                                                     and tube face voltage increments
A-003-004-010      (D)
                                                 A-003-005-003      (C)
Out of the following oscillators, one is NOT,
by itself, considered a high-stability           How can the frequency response of an
reference:                                       oscilloscope be improved?
A   temperature compensated crystal              A   By increasing the vertical sweep rate and
    oscillator (TCXO)                                the horizontal amplifier frequency
B   oven-controlled crystal oscillator (OCXO)        response
C   GPS disciplined oscillator (GPSDO)           B   By using triggered sweep and a crystal
                                                     oscillator for the timebase
D   voltage-controlled crystal oscillator
    (VCXO)                                       C   By increasing the horizontal sweep rate
                                                     and the vertical amplifier frequency
A-003-004-011      (A)                               response
                                                 D   By using a crystal oscillator as the time
You want to calibrate your station frequency         base and increasing the vertical sweep
reference to the WWV signal on your                  rate
receiver. The resulting beat tone must be:
A   of a frequency as low as possible and        A-003-005-004      (A)
    with a period as long as possible
                                                 You can use an oscilloscope to display the
B   a combined frequency above both              input and output of a circuit at the same
C   the mathematical mean of both                time by:
    frequencies                                  A   utilizing a dual trace oscilloscope
D   at the highest audio frequency possible
                                                 B   measuring the input on the X axis and the
                                                     output on the Y axis
A-003-005-001      (B)
                                                 C   measuring the input on the X axis and the
If a 100 Hz signal is fed to the horizontal          output on the Z axis
input of an oscilloscope and a 150 Hz signal     D   measuring the input on the Y axis and
is fed to the vertical input, what type of           the output on the X axis
pattern should be displayed on the screen?
A   A looping pattern with 100 horizontal        A-003-005-005      (B)
    loops and 150 vertical loops                 An oscilloscope cannot be used to:
B   A looping pattern with 3 horizontal loops,
    and 2 vertical loops                         A   determine the amplitude of complex
C   A rectangular pattern 100 mm wide and            voltage wave forms
    150 mm high                                  B   determine FM carrier deviation directly
D   An oval pattern 100 mm wide and 150          C   measure frequency
    mm high                                      D   measure DC voltage
A-003-005-006       (B)                           A-003-005-011      (D)
The bandwidth of an oscilloscope is:              What is the best signal source to connect to
                                                  the vertical input of an oscilloscope for
A   a function of the time-base accuracy          checking the quality of a transmitted signal?
B   the highest frequency signal the scope        A   The RF signals of a nearby receiving
    can display                                       antenna
C   directly related to gain compression          B   The IF output of a monitoring receiver
D   indirectly related to screen persistence      C   The audio input of the transmitter
                                                  D   The RF output of the transmitter through
A-003-005-007       (B)                               a sampling device
When using Lissajous figures to determine
phase differences, an indication of zero or       A-003-006-001      (A)
180 degrees is represented on the screen of       A meter has a full-scale deflection of 40
an oscilloscope by:                               microamperes and an internal resistance of
A   a circle                                      96 ohms. You want it to read 0 to 1 mA. The
                                                  value of the shunt to be used is:
B   a diagonal straight line
C   a horizontal straight line                    A   4 ohms
D   an ellipse                                    B   24 ohms
                                                  C   16 ohms
A-003-005-008       (D)                           D   40 ohms
A 100-kHz signal is applied to the horizontal
channel of an oscilloscope. A signal of           A-003-006-002      (D)
unknown frequency is applied to the vertical      A moving-coil milliammeter having a full-
channel. The resultant wave form has 5            scale deflection of 1 mA and an internal
loops displayed vertically and 2 loops            resistance of 0.5 ohms is to be converted to
horizontally. The unknown frequency is:           a voltmeter of 20 volts full-scale deflection. It
A   20 kHz                                        would be necessary to insert a:
B   50 kHz                                        A   series resistance of 1 999.5 ohms
C   30 kHz                                        B   shunt resistance of 19 999.5 ohms
D   40 kHz                                        C   shunt resistance of 19.5 ohms
                                                  D   series resistance of 19 999.5 ohms
A-003-005-009       (A)
An oscilloscope probe must be                     A-003-006-003      (A)
compensated:                                      A voltmeter having a range of 150 volts and
A   every time the probe is use with a            an internal resistance of 150 000 ohms is to
    different oscilloscope                        be extended to read 750 volts. The required
                                                  multiplier resistor would have a value of:
B   when measuring a sine wave
C   through the addition of a high-value series   A   600 000 ohms
    resistor                                      B   1 500 ohms
D   when measuring a signal whose                 C   750 000 ohms
    frequency varies                              D   1 200 000 ohms

A-003-005-010       (C)
                                                  A-003-006-004      (C)
What is the best instrument to use to check
                                                  The sensitivity of an ammeter is an
the signal quality of a CW or single-sideband
                                                  expression of:
phone transmitter?
                                                  A   the loading effect the meter will have on a
A   A signal tracer and an audio amplifier
                                                      circuit
B   A field-strength meter
                                                  B   the value of the shunt resistor
C   An oscilloscope
                                                  C   the amount of current causing full-scale
D   A sidetone monitor                                deflection
                                                  D   the resistance of the meter
A-003-006-005      (C)                            A-003-006-009      (D)
Voltmeter sensitivity is usually expressed in     How can the range of an ammeter be
ohms per volt. This means that a voltmeter        increased?
with a sensitivity of 20 kilohms per volt would
                                                  A   By adding resistance in series with the
be a:
                                                      circuit under test
A   50 milliampere meter                          B   By adding resistance in parallel with the
B   100 milliampere meter                             circuit under test
C   50 microampere meter                          C   By adding resistance in series with the
D   1 milliampere meter                               meter
                                                  D   By adding resistance in parallel with the
A-003-006-006      (A)                                meter

The sensitivity of a voltmeter, whose             A-003-006-010      (B)
resistance is 150 000 ohms on the 150-volt
range, is:                                        Where should an RF wattmeter be
                                                  connected for the most accurate readings of
A   1000 ohms per volt                            transmitter output power?
B   100 000 ohms per volt
                                                  A   At the antenna feed point
C   10 000 ohms per volt
                                                  B   At the transmitter output connector
D   150 ohms per volt
                                                  C   One-half wavelength from the transmitter
                                                      output
A-003-006-007      (B)
                                                  D   One-half wavelength from the antenna
The range of a DC ammeter can easily be               feed point
extended by:
A   changing the internal capacitance of the      A-003-006-011      (A)
    meter to resonance                            At what line impedance do most RF
B   connecting an external resistance in          wattmeters usually operate?
    parallel with the internal resistance         A   50 ohms
C   connecting an external resistance in
                                                  B   25 ohms
    series with the internal resistance
                                                  C   100 ohms
D   changing the internal inductance of the
    meter                                         D   300 ohms

A-003-006-008      (A)                            A-004-001-001      (A)
What happens inside a multimeter when you         For the same transformer secondary voltage,
switch it from a lower to a higher voltage        which rectifier has the highest average
range?                                            output voltage?
A   Resistance is added in series with the        A   Bridge
    meter                                         B   Half-wave
B   Resistance is reduced in series with the      C   Quarter-wave
    meter                                         D   Full-wave centre-tap
C   Resistance is reduced in parallel with the
    meter                                         A-004-001-002      (B)
D   Resistance is added in parallel with the
    meter                                         In a half-wave power supply with a capacitor
                                                  input filter and a load drawing little or no
                                                  current, the peak inverse voltage (PIV)
                                                  across the diode can reach _____ times the
                                                  RMS voltage.
                                                  A   1.4
                                                  B   2.8
                                                  C   0.45
                                                  D   5.6
A-004-001-003      (A)                           A-004-001-008      (D)
In a full-wave centre-tap power supply,          Full-wave voltage doublers:
regardless of load conditions, the peak
inverse voltage (PIV) will be _____ times the    A   create four times the output voltage of
RMS voltage:                                         half-wave doublers
A   2.8                                          B   use less power than half-wave doublers
B   0.636                                        C   are used only in high-frequency power
                                                     supplies
C   0.707
                                                 D   use both halves of an AC wave
D   1.4

                                                 A-004-001-009      (D)
A-004-001-004      (C)
                                                 What are the two major ratings that must
A full-wave bridge rectifier circuit makes use
                                                 not be exceeded for silicon-diode rectifiers
of both halves of the AC cycle, but unlike the
                                                 used in power-supply circuits?
full-wave centre-tap rectifier circuit it does
not require:                                     A   Average power; average voltage
A   a centre-tapped primary on the               B   Capacitive reactance; avalanche voltage
    transformer                                  C   Peak load impedance; peak voltage
B   diodes across each leg of the transformer    D   Peak inverse voltage; average forward
C   a centre-tapped secondary on the                 current
    transformer
D   any output filtering                         A-004-001-010      (B)
                                                 In a high voltage power supply, why should a
A-004-001-005      (A)                           resistor and capacitor be wired in parallel
                                                 with the power-supply rectifier diodes?
For a given transformer the maximum output
voltage available from a full-wave bridge        A   To ensure that the current through each
rectifier circuit will be:                           diode is about the same
A   double that of the full-wave centre-tap      B   To equalize voltage drops and guard
    rectifier                                        against transient voltage spikes
B   half that of the full-wave centre-tap
                                                 C   To smooth the output waveform
    rectifier                                    D   To decrease the output voltage
C   the same as the full-wave centre-tap
    rectifier                                    A-004-001-011      (A)
D   the same as the half-wave rectifier          What is the output waveform of an unfiltered
                                                 full-wave rectifier connected to a resistive
A-004-001-006      (A)                           load?
The ripple frequency produced by a full-wave     A   A series of pulses at twice the frequency
power supply connected to a normal                   of the AC input
household circuit is:                            B   A steady DC voltage
A   120 Hz                                       C   A sine wave at half the frequency of the
B   60 Hz                                            AC input
                                                 D   A series of pulses at the same frequency
C   90 Hz
                                                     as the AC input
D   30 Hz
                                                 A-004-002-001      (D)
A-004-001-007      (C)
                                                 Filter chokes are rated according to:
The ripple frequency produced by a half-wave
power supply connected to a normal               A   reactance at 1000 Hz
household circuit is:
                                                 B   power loss
A   120 Hz                                       C   breakdown voltage
B   30 Hz                                        D   inductance and current-handling capacity
C   60 Hz
D   90 Hz
A-004-002-002       (B)                            A-004-002-007       (D)
Which of the following circuits gives the best     In a power supply, series chokes will:
regulation, under similar load conditions?
                                                   A   readily pass the DC and the AC
A   A full-wave rectifier with a capacitor input
                                                       component
    filter
                                                   B   impede the passage of DC but will pass
B   A full-wave rectifier with a choke input
                                                       the AC component
    filter
                                                   C   impede both DC and AC
C   A half-wave bridge rectifier with a
    capacitor input filter                         D   readily pass the DC but will impede the
                                                       flow of the AC component
D   A half-wave rectifier with a choke input
    filter
                                                   A-004-002-008       (A)
A-004-002-003       (C)                            When using a choke input filter, a minimum
                                                   current should be drawn all the time when
The advantage of the capacitor input filter
                                                   the device is switched on. This can be
over the choke input filter is:
                                                   accomplished by:
A   improved voltage regulation
                                                   A   including a suitable bleeder resistance
B   lower peak rectifier currents
                                                   B   utilizing a full-wave bridge rectifier circuit
C   a higher terminal voltage output
                                                   C   placing an ammeter in the output circuit
D   better filtering action or smaller ripple
                                                   D   increasing the value of the output
    voltage
                                                       capacitor

A-004-002-004       (C)
                                                   A-004-002-009       (A)
With a normal load, the choke input filter will
                                                   In the design of a power supply, the designer
give the:
                                                   must be careful of resonance effects
A   greatest ripple frequency                      because the ripple voltage could build up to
B   highest output voltage                         a high value. The components that must be
                                                   carefully selected are:
C   best regulated output
D   greatest percentage of ripple                  A   first choke and first capacitor
                                                   B   the bleeder resistor and the first choke
A-004-002-005       (D)                            C   first capacitor and second capacitor
There are two types of filters in general use      D   first choke and second capacitor
in a power supply. They are called:
                                                   A-004-002-010       (C)
A   choke output and capacitor output
B   choke input and capacitor output               Excessive rectifier peak current and
                                                   abnormally high peak inverse voltages can
C   choke output and capacitor input               be caused in a power supply by the filter
D   choke input and capacitor input                forming a:
                                                   A   parallel resonant circuit with the first
A-004-002-006       (B)
                                                       choke and second capacitor
The main function of the bleeder resistor in a     B   tuned inductance in the filter choke
power supply is to provide a discharge path
                                                   C   series resonant circuit with the first
for the capacitor in the power supply. But it
                                                       choke and first capacitor
may also be used for a secondary function,
which is to:                                       D   short circuit across the bleeder

A   act as a secondary smoothing device in
    conjunction with the filter
B   improve voltage regulation
C   provide a ground return for the transformer
D   inhibit the flow of current through the
    supply
A-004-002-011       (B)                          A-004-003-004      (B)
In a properly designed choke input filter        What type of linear regulator is used in
power supply, the no-load voltage across the     applications requiring efficient utilization of
filter capacitor will be about nine-tenths of    the primary power source?
the AC RMS voltage; yet it is advisable to
                                                 A   A shunt current source
use capacitors rated at the peak transformer
voltage. Why is this large safety margin         B   A series regulator
suggested?                                       C   A shunt regulator
A   Under no-load conditions, the current        D   A constant current source
    could reach a high level
B   Under no-load conditions and a burned-       A-004-003-005      (C)
    out bleeder, voltages could reach the        What type of linear voltage regulator is used
    peak transformer voltage                     in applications requiring a constant load on
C   Resonance can be set up in the filter        the unregulated voltage source?
    producing high voltages
                                                 A   A shunt current source
D   Under heavy load, high currents and
    voltages are produced                        B   A series regulator
                                                 C   A shunt regulator
A-004-003-001       (D)                          D   A constant current source
What is one characteristic of a linear
electronic voltage regulator?                    A-004-003-006      (D)

A   It has a ramp voltage at its output          How is remote sensing accomplished in a
                                                 linear voltage regulator?
B   A pass transistor switches from its "on"
    state to its "off" state                     A   An error amplifier compares the input
C   The control device is switched on or off,        voltage to the reference voltage
    with the duty cycle proportional to the      B   A load connection is made outside the
    line or load conditions                          feedback loop
D   The conduction of a control element is       C   By wireless inductive loops
    varied in direct proportion to the line      D   A feedback connection to an error
    voltage or load current                          amplifier is made directly to the load

A-004-003-002       (C)                          A-004-003-007      (B)
What is one characteristic of a switching        What is a three-terminal regulator?
voltage regulator?
A   It provides more than one output voltage     A   A regulator that supplies three voltages
                                                     with variable current
B   It gives a ramp voltage at its output
                                                 B   A regulator containing a voltage
C   The control device is switched on and off,
                                                     reference, error amplifier, sensing
    with the duty cycle proportional to the
                                                     resistors and transistors, and a pass
    line or load conditions
                                                     element
D   The conduction of a control element is
                                                 C   A regulator that supplies three voltages at
    varied in direct proportion to the line
                                                     a constant current
    voltage or load current
                                                 D   A regulator containing three error
                                                     amplifiers and sensing transistors
A-004-003-003       (A)
What device is typically used as a stable
reference voltage in a linear voltage
regulator?
A   A Zener diode
B   An SCR
C   A varactor diode
D   A junction diode
A-004-003-008      (D)                           A-004-004-001      (B)
In addition to an input voltage range what are   In a series-regulated power supply, the
the important characteristics of a three-        power dissipation of the pass transistor is:
terminal regulator?
                                                 A   indirectly proportional to the load voltage
A   Maximum output voltage and minimum               and the input/output voltage differential
    output current                               B   directly proportional to the load current
B   Minimum output voltage and maximum               and the input/output voltage differential
    output current                               C   the inverse of the load current and the
C   Output voltage and minimum output                input/output voltage differential
    current                                      D   dependent upon the peak inverse voltage
D   Output voltage and maximum output                appearing across the Zener diode
    current
                                                 A-004-004-002      (A)
A-004-003-009      (C)
                                                 In any regulated power supply, the output is
What type of voltage regulator contains a        cleanest and the regulation is best:
voltage reference, error amplifier, sensing
                                                 A   at the point where the sampling network
resistors and transistors, and a pass
                                                     or error amplifier is connected
element in one package?
                                                 B   across the secondary of the pass
A   A switching regulator                            transistor
B   A Zener regulator                            C   across the load
C   A three-terminal regulator                   D   at the output of the pass transistor
D   An op-amp regulator
                                                 A-004-004-003      (A)
A-004-003-010      (C)
                                                 When discussing a power supply
When extremely low ripple is required, or        the_______ resistance is equal to the output
when the voltage supplied to the load must       voltage divided by the total current drawn,
remain constant under conditions of large        including the current drawn by the bleeder
fluctuations of current and line voltage, a      resistor:
closed-loop amplifier is used to regulate the
                                                 A   load
power supply. There are two main categories
of electronic regulators. They are:              B   ideal
                                                 C   rectifier
A   linear and non-linear
                                                 D   differential
B   stiff and switching
C   linear and switching
                                                 A-004-004-004      (D)
D   non-linear and switching
                                                 The regulation of long-term changes in the
                                                 load resistance of a power supply is called:
A-004-003-011      (B)
                                                 A   active regulation
A modern type of regulator, which features a
reference, high-gain amplifier, temperature-     B   analog regulation
compensated voltage sensing resistors and        C   dynamic regulation
transistors as well as a pass element is         D   static regulation
commonly referred to as a:
A   regulator six-terminal regulator             A-004-004-005      (D)
B   three-terminal regulator                     The regulation of short-term changes in the
C   nine-pin terminal regulator                  load resistance of a power supply is called:
D   twenty-four pin terminal                     A   static regulation
                                                 B   analog regulation
                                                 C   active regulation
                                                 D   dynamic regulation
A-004-004-006      (A)                             A-004-004-011      (B)
The dynamic regulation of a power supply is        In a regulated power supply, a diode
improved by increasing the value of:               connected across the input and output
                                                   terminals of a regulator is used to:
A   the output capacitor
B   the choke                                      A   protect the regulator from voltage
                                                       fluctuations in the primary of the
C   the input capacitor
                                                       transformer
D   the bleeder resistor
                                                   B   protect the regulator from reverse
                                                       voltages
A-004-004-007      (D)
                                                   C   provide an RF by-pass for the voltage
The output capacitor, in a power supply filter         control
used to provide power for an SSB or CW             D   provide additional capacity
transmitter, will give better dynamic
regulation if:
                                                   A-005-001-001      (D)
A   the negative terminal of the electrolytic
                                                   How is the positive feedback coupled to the
    capacitor is connected to the positive and
                                                   input in a Hartley oscillator?
    the positive terminal to ground
B   a battery is placed in series with the         A   Through a capacitive divider
    output capacitor                               B   Through link coupling
C   it is placed in series with other capacitors   C   Through a neutralizing capacitor
D   the output capacitance is increased            D   Through a tapped coil

A-004-004-008      (A)                             A-005-001-002      (A)
In a regulated power supply, four diodes           How is positive feedback coupled to the
connected together in a BRIDGE act as:             input in a Colpitts oscillator?
A   a rectifier                                    A   Through a capacitive divider
B   equalization across the transformer            B   Through a tapped coil
C   matching between the secondary of the          C   Through a neutralizing capacitor
    power transformer and the filter               D   Through a link coupling
D   a tuning network
                                                   A-005-001-003      (B)
A-004-004-009      (D)
                                                   How is positive feedback coupled to the
In a regulated power supply, components            input in a Pierce oscillator?
that conduct alternating current at the input
                                                   A   Through a tapped coil
before the transformer and direct current
before the output are:                             B   Through capacitive coupling
                                                   C   Through a neutralizing capacitor
A   capacitors
                                                   D   Through link coupling
B   diodes
C   chokes
                                                   A-005-001-004      (A)
D   fuses
                                                   Why is the Colpitts oscillator circuit
                                                   commonly used in a VFO?
A-004-004-010      (D)
                                                   A   It is stable
In a regulated power supply, the output of
the electrolytic filter capacitor is connected     B   It can be used with or without crystal
to the:                                                lock-in
                                                   C   The frequency is a linear function with
A   pi filter
                                                       load impedance
B   solid-state by-pass circuit                    D   It has high output power
C   matching circuit for the load
D   voltage regulator
A-005-001-005       (D)                            A-005-001-009         (B)
Why must a very stable reference oscillator        A circuit depending on positive feedback for
be used as part of a phase-locked loop             its operation would be a:
(PLL) frequency synthesizer?
                                                   A   audio amplifier
A   Any phase variations in the reference          B   variable-frequency oscillator
    oscillator signal will produce harmonic
                                                   C   mixer
    distortion in the modulating signal
                                                   D   detector
B   Any amplitude variations in the reference
    oscillator signal will prevent the loop from
    changing frequency                             A-005-001-010         (C)
C   Any amplitude variations in the reference      An apparatus with an oscillator and a class
    oscillator signal will prevent the loop from   C amplifier would be:
    locking to the desired signal
                                                   A   a two-stage frequency-modulated
D   Any phase variations in the reference              transmitter
    oscillator signal will produce phase noise
    in the synthesizer output                      B   a two-stage regenerative receiver
                                                   C   a two-stage CW transmitter
A-005-001-006       (C)                            D   a fixed-frequency single-sideband
                                                       transmitter
Positive feedback from a capacitive divider
indicates the oscillator type is:
                                                   A-005-001-011         (C)
A   Hartley
                                                   In an oscillator where positive feedback is
B   Miller                                         provided through a capacitor in series with a
C   Colpitts                                       crystal, that type of oscillator is a:
D   Pierce                                         A   Hartley
                                                   B   Franklin
A-005-001-007       (D)
                                                   C   Pierce
In an RF oscillator circuit designed for high      D   Colpitts
stability, the positive feedback is drawn from
two capacitors connected in series. These
two capacitors would most likely be:               A-005-002-001         (A)
                                                   The output tuning controls on a transmitter
A   ceramic
                                                   power amplifier with an adjustable PI
B   electrolytics                                  network:
C   Mylar
                                                   A   allow efficient transfer of power to the
D   silver mica                                        antenna
                                                   B   allow switching to different antennas
A-005-001-008       (A)
                                                   C   reduce the possibility of cross-modulation
In an oscillator circuit where positive                in adjunct receivers
feedback is obtained through a single              D   are involved with frequency multiplication
capacitor in series with the crystal, the type         in the previous stage
of oscillator is:
A   Pierce                                         A-005-002-002         (A)
B   Colpitts                                       The purpose of using a centre-tap return
C   Hartley                                        connection on the secondary of transmitting
D   Miller                                         tube's filament transformer is to:
                                                   A   prevent modulation of the emitted wave
                                                       by the alternating current filament supply
                                                   B   reduce the possibility of harmonic
                                                       emissions
                                                   C   keep the output voltage constant with a
                                                       varying load
                                                   D   obtain optimum power output
A-005-002-003      (B)                         A-005-002-008       (B)
In a grounded grid amplifier using a triode    In a grounded grid amplifier using a triode
vacuum tube, the input signal is applied to:   vacuum tube, what would be the
                                               approximate B+ voltage required for an
A   the filament leads
                                               output of 400 watts at 400 mA with
B   the cathode                                approximately 50 percent efficiency?
C   the plate                                  A   1000 volts
D   the control grid
                                               B   2000 volts
                                               C   500 volts
A-005-002-004      (B)
                                               D   3000 volts
In a grounded grid amplifier using a triode
vacuum tube, the plate is connected to the
                                               A-005-002-009       (C)
pi-network through a:
                                               In a grounded grid amplifier using a triode
A   electrolytic capacitor
                                               vacuum tube, each side of the filament is
B   blocking capacitor                         connected to a capacitor whose other end is
C   by-pass capacitor                          connected to ground. These are:
D   tuning capacitor                           A   electrolytic capacitors
                                               B   blocking capacitors
A-005-002-005      (D)
                                               C   by-pass capacitors
In a grounded grid amplifier using a triode    D   tuning capacitors
vacuum tube, the plate is connected to a
radio frequency choke. The other end of the
                                               A-005-002-010       (A)
radio frequency choke connects to the:
                                               After you have opened a VHF power
A   filament voltage
                                               amplifier to make internal tuning
B   ground                                     adjustments, what should you do before you
C   B- (bias)                                  turn the amplifier on?
D   B+ (high voltage)                          A   Be certain all amplifier shielding is
                                                   fastened in place
A-005-002-006      (C)                         B   Make sure that the power interlock
In a grounded grid amplifier using a triode        switch is bypassed so you can test the
vacuum tube, the cathode is connected to a         amplifier
radio frequency choke. The other end of the    C   Be certain no antenna is attached so that
radio frequency choke connects to the:             you will not cause any interference
A   filament voltage
                                               D   Remove all amplifier shielding to ensure
                                                   maximum cooling
B   B+ (high voltage)
C   B- (bias)                                  A-005-002-011       (B)
D   ground
                                               Harmonics produced in an early stage of a
                                               transmitter may be reduced in a later stage
A-005-002-007      (D)                         by:
In a grounded grid amplifier using a triode    A   transistors instead of tubes
vacuum tube, the secondary winding of a
transformer is connected directly to the
                                               B   tuned circuit coupling between stages
vacuum tube. This transformer provides:        C   larger value coupling capacitors
                                               D   greater input to the final stage
A   B- (bias)
B   B+ (high voltage)
C   Screen voltage
D   filament voltage
A-005-003-001        (D)                          A-005-003-005       (C)
In a simple 2 stage CW transmitter circuit,       As a power amplifier is tuned, what reading
the oscillator stage and the class C amplifier    on its grid current meter indicates the best
stage are inductively coupled by a RF             neutralization?
transformer. Another role of the RF
                                                  A   Maximum grid current
transformer is to:
                                                  B   A maximum change in grid current as the
A   act as part of a pi filter                        output circuit is changed
B   provide the necessary feedback for            C   A minimum change in grid current as the
    oscillation                                       output circuit is changed
C   act as part of a balanced mixer               D   Minimum grid current
D   be part of a tuned circuit
                                                  A-005-003-006       (D)
A-005-003-002        (B)
                                                  What does a neutralizing circuit do in an RF
In a simple 2 stage CW transmitter, current       amplifier?
to the collector of the transistor in the class
                                                  A   It eliminates AC hum from the power
C amplifier stage flows through a radio
                                                      supply
frequency choke (RFC) and a tapped
inductor. The RFC, on the tapped inductor         B   It reduces incidental grid modulation
side, is also connected to grounded               C   It controls differential gain
capacitors. The purpose of the RFC and            D   It cancels the effects of positive feedback
capacitors is to:
A   form a RF-tuned circuit                       A-005-003-007       (B)
B   form a low-pass filter                        What is the reason for neutralizing the final
C   provide negative feedback                     amplifier stage of a transmitter?
D   form a key-click filter                       A   To keep the carrier on frequency
                                                  B   To eliminate parasitic oscillations
A-005-003-003        (B)
                                                  C   To limit the modulation index
In a simple 2 stage CW transmitter, the           D   To cut off the final amplifier during
transistor in the second stage would act as:          standby periods
A   an audio oscillator
B   a power amplifier                             A-005-003-008       (C)
C   a frequency multiplier                        Parasitic oscillations are usually generated
D   the master oscillator                         due to:
                                                  A   excessive drive or excitation to the power
A-005-003-004        (A)                              amplifier
An advantage of keying the buffer stage in a      B   a mismatch between power amplifier and
transmitter is that:                                  transmission line
                                                  C   accidental resonant frequencies in the
A   changes in oscillator frequency are less
                                                      power amplifier
    likely
                                                  D   harmonics from some earlier multiplier
B   key clicks are eliminated                         stage
C   the radiated bandwidth is restricted
D   high RF voltages are not present              A-005-003-009       (D)
                                                  Parasitic oscillations would tend to occur
                                                  mostly in:
                                                  A   high gain audio output stages
                                                  B   high voltage rectifiers
                                                  C   mixer stages
                                                  D   RF power output stages
A-005-003-010      (A)                         A-005-004-004      (B)
Why is neutralization necessary for some       Transmission with SSB, as compared to
vacuum-tube amplifiers?                        conventional AM transmission, results in:
A   To cancel oscillation caused by the        A   3 dB gain in the transmitter
    effects of interelectrode capacitance      B   6 dB gain in the transmitter and 3 dB
B   To reduce grid-to-cathode leakage              gain in the receiver
C   To cancel AC hum from the filament         C   6 dB gain in the receiver
    transformer                                D   a greater bandpass requirement in the
D   To reduce the limits of loaded Q               receiver

A-005-003-011      (D)                         A-005-004-005      (C)
Parasitic oscillations in an RF power          The peak power output of a single-sideband
amplifier may be caused by:                    transmitter, when being tested by a two-tone
                                               generator is:
A   overdriven stages
                                               A   one-half of the RF peak output power of
B   poor voltage regulation
                                                   any of the tones
C   excessive harmonic production
                                               B   one-quarter of the RF peak output power
D   lack of neutralization
                                                   of any of the tones
                                               C   twice the RF power output of any of the
A-005-004-001      (C)                             tones
What type of signal does a balanced            D   equal to the RF peak output power of any
modulator produce?                                 of the tones
A   Full carrier
                                               A-005-004-006      (A)
B   Single sideband, suppressed carrier
C   Double sideband, suppressed carrier        What kind of input signal is used to test the
                                               amplitude linearity of a single-sideband
D   FM with balanced deviation
                                               phone transmitter while viewing the output
                                               on an oscilloscope?
A-005-004-002      (C)
                                               A   Two audio-frequency sine waves
How can a single-sideband phone signal be
                                               B   An audio-frequency sine wave
produced?
                                               C   An audio-frequency square wave
A   By using a loop modulator followed by a    D   Normal speech
    mixer
B   By using a reactance modulator followed    A-005-004-007      (C)
    by a mixer
C   By using a balanced modulator followed     When testing the amplitude linearity of a
    by a filter                                single-sideband transmitter what audio tones
                                               are fed into the microphone input and on
D   By driving a product detector with a DSB
                                               what kind of kind of instrument is the output
    signal
                                               observed?

A-005-004-003      (C)                         A   Two harmonically related tones are fed in,
                                                   and the output is observed on a distortion
Carrier suppression in a single-sideband           analyzer
transmitter takes place in:
                                               B   Two non-harmonically related tones are
A   the mechanical filter                          fed in, and the output is observed on a
B   the frequency multiplier stage                 distortion analyzer
C   the balanced modulator stage               C   Two non-harmonically related tones are
                                                   fed in, and the output is observed on an
D   the carrier decouple stage
                                                   oscilloscope
                                               D   Two harmonically related tones are fed in,
                                                   and the output is observed on an
                                                   oscilloscope
A-005-004-008       (D)                           A-005-005-001     (C)
What audio frequencies are used in a two-         In an FM phone signal having a maximum
tone test of the linearity of a single-sideband   frequency deviation of 3000 Hz either side of
phone transmitter?                                the carrier frequency, what is the modulation
                                                  index, when the modulating frequency is
A   20 Hz and 20 kHz tones must be used
                                                  1000 Hz?
B   1200 Hz and 2400 Hz tones must be
    used                                          A   3000
C   Any two audio tones may be used, but          B   1000
    they must be within the transmitter audio     C   3
    passband, and must be harmonically            D   0.3
    related
D   Any two audio tones may be used, but          A-005-005-002     (D)
    they must be within the transmitter audio
    passband, and should not be                   What is the modulation index of an FM
    harmonically related                          phone transmitter producing an
                                                  instantaneous carrier deviation of 6 kHz
A-005-004-009       (A)                           when modulated with a 2 kHz modulating
                                                  frequency?
What measurement can be made of a
single-sideband phone transmitter's amplifier     A   0.333
by performing a two-tone test using an            B   2000
oscilloscope?                                     C   6000
A   Its linearity                                 D   3
B   Its frequency deviation
C   Its percent of carrier phase shift            A-005-005-003     (B)
D   Its percent of frequency modulation           What is the deviation ratio of an FM phone
                                                  transmitter having a maximum frequency
A-005-004-010       (D)                           swing of plus or minus 5 kHz and accepting
                                                  a maximum modulation rate of 3 kHz?
How much is the carrier suppressed below
peak output power in a single-sideband            A   0.6
phone transmission?                               B   1.66
A   No more than 20 dB                            C   60
                                                  D   0.16
B   No more than 30 dB
C   At least 60 dB
                                                  A-005-005-004     (C)
D   At least 40 dB
                                                  What is the deviation ratio of an FM phone
A-005-004-011       (B)                           transmitter having a maximum frequency
                                                  swing of plus or minus 7.5 kHz and
What is meant by "flat topping" in a single-      accepting a maximum modulation rate of 3.5
sideband phone transmission?                      kHz?
A   The transmitter's carrier is properly         A   47
    suppressed                                    B   0.214
B   Signal distortion caused by excessive         C   2.14
    drive
                                                  D   0.47
C   Signal distortion caused by insufficient
    collector current
D   The transmitter's automatic level control
    is properly adjusted
A-005-005-005         (C)                      A-005-005-010      (A)
When the transmitter is not modulated, or      What is the significant bandwidth of an FM-
the amplitude of the modulating signal is      phone transmission having a +/- 5-kHz
zero, the frequency of the carrier is called   deviation and a 3-kHz modulating frequency?
its:
                                               A   16 kHz
A   frequency shift                            B   8 kHz
B   modulating frequency                       C   5 kHz
C   centre frequency                           D   3 kHz
D   frequency deviation
                                               A-005-005-011      (B)
A-005-005-006         (B)
                                               What is the frequency deviation for a 12.21-
In an FM transmitter system, the amount of     MHz reactance-modulated oscillator in a +/-
deviation from the centre frequency is         5-kHz deviation, 146.52-MHz FM-phone
determined solely by the:                      transmitter?
A   modulating frequency and the amplitude     A   +/- 41.67 Hz
    of the centre frequency                    B   +/- 416.7 Hz
B   amplitude of the modulating frequency      C   +/- 12 kHz
C   frequency of the modulating frequency      D   +/- 5 kHz
D   amplitude and the frequency of the
    modulating frequency                       A-005-006-001      (B)

A-005-005-007         (B)                      If the signals of two repeater transmitters
                                               mix together in one or both of their final
Any FM wave with single-tone modulation        amplifiers and unwanted signals at the sum
has:                                           and difference frequencies of the original
                                               signals are generated and radiated, what is
A   one sideband frequency
                                               this called?
B   an infinite number of sideband
    frequencies                                A   Amplifier desensitization
C   two sideband frequencies                   B   Intermodulation interference
D   four sideband frequencies                  C   Neutralization
                                               D   Adjacent channel interference
A-005-005-008         (D)
Some types of deviation meters work on the     A-005-006-002      (D)
principle of:                                  How does intermodulation interference
                                               between two repeater transmitters usually
A   detecting the frequencies in the
                                               occur?
    sidebands
B   the amplitude of power in the sidebands    A   When the signals are reflected in phase
                                                   by aircraft passing overhead
C   a carrier peak and dividing by the
    modulation index                           B   When they are in close proximity and the
D   a carrier null and multiplying the             signals cause feedback in one or both of
    modulation frequency by the modulation         their final amplifiers
    index                                      C   When the signals are reflected out of
                                                   phase by aircraft passing overhead
A-005-005-009         (D)                      D   When they are in close proximity and the
                                                   signals mix in one or both of their final
When using some deviation meters, it is
                                                   amplifiers
important to know:
A   modulation index
B   modulating frequency
C   pass-band of the IF filter
D   modulating frequency and the modulation
    index
A-005-006-003          (D)                         A-005-006-008      (B)
How can intermodulation interference               The characteristic difference between a
between two repeater transmitters in close         phase modulator and a frequency modulator
proximity often be reduced or eliminated?          is:
A   By installing a low-pass filter in the         A   frequency inversion
    antenna transmission line                      B   pre-emphasis
B   By installing a high-pass filter in the        C   the centre frequency
    antenna transmission line                      D   de-emphasis
C   By using a Class C final amplifier with
    high driving power
                                                   A-005-006-009      (C)
D   By installing a terminated circulator or
    ferrite isolator in the transmission line to   In most modern FM transmitters, to produce
    the transmitter and duplexer                   a better sound, a compressor and a clipper
                                                   are placed:
A-005-006-004          (C)                         A   between the modulator and the oscillator
If a receiver tuned to 146.70 MHz receives         B   in the microphone circuit, before the
an intermodulation product signal whenever             audio amplifier
a nearby transmitter transmits on 146.52,          C   between the audio amplifier and the
what are the two most likely frequencies for           modulator
the other interfering signal?                      D   between the multiplier and the PA
A   146.01 MHz and 147.30 MHz
B   73.35 MHz and 239.40 MHz                       A-005-006-010      (B)
C   146.34 MHz and 146.61 MHz                      Three important parameters to be verified in
D   146.88 MHz and 146.34 MHz                      an FM transmitter are:
                                                   A   frequency stability, de-emphasis and
A-005-006-005          (D)                             linearity
What type of circuit varies the tuning of an       B   power, frequency deviation and frequency
amplifier tank circuit to produce FM signals?          stability
A   A balanced modulator                           C   distortion, bandwidth and sideband power
                                                   D   modulation, pre-emphasis and carrier
B   A double balanced mixer
                                                       suppression
C   An audio modulator
D   A phase modulator                              A-005-006-011      (A)
                                                   Intermodulation interference products are not
A-005-006-006          (D)
                                                   typically associated with which of the
What audio shaping network is added at an          following:
FM transmitter to attenuate the lower audio
                                                   A   intermediate frequency stage
frequencies?
                                                   B   final amplifier stage
A   An audio prescaler
                                                   C   receiver frontend
B   A heterodyne suppressor                        D   passive intermodulation
C   A de-emphasis network
D   A pre-emphasis network                         A-005-007-001      (D)
                                                   Maintaining the peak RF output of a SSB
A-005-006-007          (C)
                                                   transmitter at a relatively constant level
Which type of filter would be best to use in a     requires a circuit called the:
2-metre repeater duplexer?
                                                   A   automatic gain control (AGC)
A   An L-C filter                                  B   automatic output control (AOC)
B   A crystal filter                               C   automatic volume control (AVC)
C   A cavity filter                                D   automatic level control (ALC)
D   A DSP filter
A-005-007-002        (B)                           A-005-007-007      (A)
Speech compression associated with SSB             Which principle is not associated with
transmission implies:                              analog signal processing?
A   circuit level instability                      A   Frequency division
B   full amplification of low level signals and    B   Compression
    reducing or eliminating amplification of       C   Bandwidth limiting
    high level signals                             D   Clipping
C   full amplification of high level signals and
    reducing or eliminating signals
                                                   A-005-007-008      (A)
    amplification of low level
D   a lower signal-to-noise ratio                  Which of the following is not a method used
                                                   for peak limiting, in a signal processor?
A-005-007-003        (D)                           A   Frequency clipping
Which of the following functions is not            B   RF clipping
included in a typical digital signal               C   Compression
processor?                                         D   AF clipping
A   Analog to digital converter
B   Digital to analog converter                    A-005-007-009      (A)
C   Mathematical transform                         What is the undesirable result of AF clipping
D   Aliasing amplifier                             in a speech processor?
                                                   A   Increased harmonic distortion
A-005-007-004        (C)                           B   Reduced average power
How many bits are required to provide 256          C   Increased average power
discrete levels, or a ratio of 256:1?              D   Reduction in peak amplitude
A   16 bits
B   4 bits                                         A-005-007-010      (C)
C   8 bits                                         Which description is not correct? You are
D   6 bits                                         planning to build a speech processor for
                                                   your transceiver. Compared to AF clipping,
                                                   RF clipping:
A-005-007-005        (D)
                                                   A   is more expensive to implement
Adding one bit to the word length, is
equivalent to adding ____ dB to the dynamic        B   is more difficult to implement
range of the digitizer:                            C   is easier to implement
A   1 dB                                           D   has less distortion
B   4 dB
                                                   A-005-007-011      (B)
C   3 dB
D   6 dB                                           Automatic Level Control (ALC) is another
                                                   name for:
A-005-007-006        (B)                           A   AF clipping
What do you call the circuit which employs         B   RF compression
an analog to digital converter, a                  C   AF compression
mathematical transform, a digital to analog        D   RF clipping
converter and a low pass filter?
A   Digital transformer
B   Digital signal processor
C   Digital formatter
D   Mathematical transformer
A-005-008-001      (B)                           A-005-008-005      (A)
What digital code consists of elements           What type of error control system is used in
having unequal length?                           AMTOR ARQ (Mode A)?
A   ASCII                                        A   The receiving station automatically
B   Varicode                                         requests repeats when needed
C   AX.25                                        B   The receiving station checks the frame
                                                     check sequence (FCS) against the
D   Baudot
                                                     transmitted FCS
                                                 C   Each character is sent twice
A-005-008-002      (C)
                                                 D   Mode A AMTOR does not include an
Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model             error control system
standardizes communications functions as
layers within a data communications              A-005-008-006      (D)
system. Amateur digital radio systems
often follow the OSI model in structure.         What error-correction system is used in
What is the base layer of the OSI model          AMTOR FEC (Mode B)?
involving the interconnection of a packet        A   Mode B AMTOR does not include an
radio TNC to a computer terminal?
                                                     error-correction system
A   The network layer                            B   The receiving station automatically
B   The transport layer                              requests repeats when needed
C   The physical layer                           C   The receiving station checks the frame
D   The link layer                                   check sequence (FCS) against the
                                                     transmitted FCS
                                                 D   Each character is sent twice
A-005-008-003      (C)
What is the purpose of a Cyclic Redundancy       A-005-008-007      (B)
Check (CRC)?
                                                 APRS (Automatic Packet Reporting
A   Error correction                             System) does NOT support which one of
B   Lossless compression                         these functions?
C   Error detection                              A   Amateur-specific local information
D   Lossy compression                                broadcast
                                                 B   Automatic link establishment
A-005-008-004      (B)                           C   Two-way messaging
What is one advantage of using ASCII rather      D   Telemetry
than Baudot code?
A   The larger character set allows store-and-   A-005-008-008      (D)
    forward                                      Which algorithm may be used to create a
B   It includes both upper and lower case        Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC)?
    text characters in the code
                                                 A   Dynamic Huffman code
C   ASCII includes built-in error correction
                                                 B   Convolution code
D   ASCII characters contain fewer
    information bits                             C   Lempel-Ziv routine
                                                 D   Hash function

                                                 A-005-008-009      (B)
                                                 The designator AX.25 is associated with
                                                 which amateur radio mode?
                                                 A   spread spectrum speech
                                                 B   packet
                                                 C   RTTY
                                                 D   ASCII
A-005-008-010      (A)                           A-005-009-004      (D)
How many information bits are included in        Frequency hopping is used with which type
the Baudot code?                                 of transmission?
A   5                                            A   AMTOR
B   7                                            B   Packet
C   8                                            C   RTTY
D   6                                            D   Spread spectrum

A-005-008-011      (D)                           A-005-009-005      (D)
How many information bits are included in        Direct sequence is used with which type of
the ISO-8859 extension to the ASCII code?        transmission?
A   7                                            A   AMTOR
B   6                                            B   Packet
C   5                                            C   RTTY
D   8                                            D   Spread spectrum

A-005-009-001      (D)                           A-005-009-006      (D)
What term describes a wide-band                  Which type of signal is used to produce a
communications system in which the RF            predetermined alteration in the carrier for
carrier varies according to some                 spread spectrum communication?
predetermined sequence?
                                                 A   Frequency-companded sequence
A   Amplitude-companded single sideband          B   Quantizing noise
B   AMTOR                                        C   Random noise sequence
C   Time domain frequency modulation             D   Pseudo-random sequence
D   Spread spectrum communication
                                                 A-005-009-007      (C)
A-005-009-002      (C)
                                                 Why is it difficult to monitor a spread
What is the term used to describe a spread       spectrum transmission?
spectrum communications system where
                                                 A   It varies too quickly in amplitude
the centre frequency of a conventional carrier
is changed many times per second in              B   The signal is too distorted for comfortable
accordance with a pseudorandom list of               listening
channels?                                        C   Your receiver must be frequency-
                                                     synchronized to the transmitter
A   Time-domain frequency modulation
                                                 D   It requires narrower bandwidth than most
B   Frequency companded spread spectrum
                                                     receivers have
C   Frequency hopping
D   Direct sequence                              A-005-009-008      (D)
                                                 What is frequency hopping spread
A-005-009-003      (D)                           spectrum?
What term is used to describe a spread           A   The carrier is amplitude-modulated over a
spectrum communications system in which
                                                     wide range called the spread
a very fast binary bit stream is used to shift
the phase of an RF carrier?                      B   The carrier is frequency-companded
                                                 C   The carrier is phase-shifted by a fast
A   Frequency hopping
                                                     binary bit stream
B   Phase companded spread spectrum              D   The carrier frequency is changed in
C   Binary phase-shift keying                        accordance with a pseudo-random list of
D   Direct sequence                                  channels
A-005-009-009      (B)                             A-006-001-002          (A)
What is direct-sequence spread spectrum?           What factors should be considered when
                                                   selecting an intermediate frequency?
A   The carrier is altered in accordance with
                                                   A   Image rejection and responses to
    a pseudo-random list of channels
                                                       unwanted signals
B   The carrier is phase-shifted by a fast
                                                   B   Noise figure and distortion
    binary bit stream
                                                   C   Interference to other services
C   The carrier is amplitude modulated over a
    range called the spread                        D   Cross-modulation distortion and
                                                       interference
D   The carrier is frequency-companded

                                                   A-006-001-003          (C)
A-005-009-010      (A)
                                                   One of the greatest advantages of the
Why are received spread-spectrum signals           double-conversion over the single-conversion
so resistant to interference?                      receiver is that it:
A   Signals not using the spectrum-spreading       A   is much more sensitive
    algorithm are suppressed in the receiver
                                                   B   produces a louder signal at the output
B   The receiver is always equipped with a
    special digital signal processor (DSP)
                                                   C   greater reduction of image interference for
    interference filter                                a given front end selectivity
                                                   D   is much more stable
C   If interference is detected by the receiver,
    it will signal the transmitter to change
    frequencies                                    A-006-001-004          (C)
D   The high power used by a spread-               In a communications receiver, a crystal filter
    spectrum transmitter keeps its signal          would be located in the:
    from being easily overpowered
                                                   A   audio output stage
A-005-009-011      (D)                             B   detector
How does the spread-spectrum technique of
                                                   C   IF circuits
frequency hopping work?                            D   local oscillator

A   If interference is detected by the receiver,
                                                   A-006-001-005          (D)
    it will signal the transmitter to change
    frequency                                      A multiple conversion superheterodyne
B   If interference is detected by the receiver,   receiver is more susceptible to spurious
    it will signal the transmitter to wait until   responses than a single-conversion receiver
    the frequency is clear                         because of the:
C   A pseudo-random bit stream is used to          A   poorer selectivity in the IF caused by the
    shift the phase of an RF carrier very              multitude of frequency changes
    rapidly in a particular sequence               B   greater sensitivity introducing higher
D   The frequency of an RF carrier is                  levels of RF to the receiver
    changed very rapidly according to a            C   AGC being forced to work harder causing
    particular pseudo-random sequence
                                                       the stages concerned to overload
                                                   D   additional oscillators and mixing
A-006-001-001      (B)
                                                       frequencies involved in the design
What are the advantages of the frequency
conversion process in a superheterodyne            A-006-001-006          (C)
receiver?
                                                   In a dual-conversion superheterodyne
A   Automatic squelching and increased             receiver what are the respective aims of the
    sensitivity                                    first and second conversion:
B   Increased selectivity and optimal tuned        A   selectivity and dynamic range
    circuit design
                                                   B   image rejection and noise figure
C   Automatic detection in the RF amplifier
    and increased sensitivity
                                                   C   image rejection and selectivity
D   Automatic soft-limiting and automatic
                                                   D   selectivity and image rejection
    squelching
A-006-001-007      (D)                           A-006-002-001      (B)
Which stage of a receiver has its input and      The mixer stage of a superheterodyne
output circuits tuned to the received            receiver is used to:
frequency?
                                                 A   produce an audio frequency for the
A   The local oscillator                             speaker
B   The audio frequency amplifier                B   change the frequency of the incoming
C   The detector                                     signal to that of the IF
D   The RF amplifier                             C   allow a number of IF frequencies to be
                                                     used
A-006-001-008      (C)                           D   remove image signals from the receiver

Which stage of a superheterodyne receiver
                                                 A-006-002-002      (C)
lies between a tuneable stage and a fixed
tuned stage?                                     A superheterodyne receiver designed for
                                                 SSB reception must have a beat-frequency
A   Intermediate frequency amplifier
                                                 oscillator (BFO) because:
B   Local oscillator
                                                 A   it reduces the pass-band of the IF stages
C   Mixer
                                                 B   it beats with the receiver carrier to
D   Radio frequency amplifier
                                                     produce the missing sideband
                                                 C   the suppressed carrier must be replaced
A-006-001-009      (B)
                                                     for detection
A single conversion receiver with a 9 MHz IF     D   it phases out the unwanted sideband
has a local oscillator operating at 16 MHz.          signal
The frequency it is tuned to is:
A   9 MHz                                        A-006-002-003      (B)
B   7 MHz                                        The first mixer in the receiver mixes the
C   16 MHz                                       incoming signal with the local oscillator to
                                                 produce:
D   21 MHz
                                                 A   a high frequency oscillator (HFO)
A-006-001-010      (A)                               frequency

A double conversion receiver designed for
                                                 B   an intermediate frequency
SSB reception has a beat frequency               C   an audio frequency
oscillator and:                                  D   a radio frequency
A   two IF stages and two local oscillators
                                                 A-006-002-004      (A)
B   one IF stage and one local oscillator
C   two IF stages and three local oscillators    If the incoming signal to the mixer is 3 600
                                                 kHz and the first IF is 9 MHz, at which one
D   two IF stages and one local oscillator
                                                 of the following frequencies would the local
                                                 oscillator (LO) operate?
A-006-001-011      (A)
                                                 A   5 400 kHz
The advantage of a double conversion
receiver over a single conversion receiver is
                                                 B   3 400 kHz
that it:                                         C   10 600 kHz
                                                 D   21 600 kHz
A   suffers less from image interference for a
    given front end sensitivity
B   does not drift off frequency
C   is a more sensitive receiver
D   produces a louder audio signal
A-006-002-005       (A)                          A-006-002-009      (D)
The BFO is off-set slightly (500 - 1 500 Hz)     What receiver stage combines a 14.25-MHz
from the incoming signal to the detector.        input signal with a 13.795-MHz oscillator
This is required:                                signal to produce a 455-kHz intermediate
                                                 frequency (IF) signal?
A   to beat with the incoming signal
B   to pass the signal without interruption      A   BFO
C   to provide additional amplification          B   VFO
D   to protect the incoming signal from          C   Multiplier
    interference                                 D   Mixer

A-006-002-006       (B)                          A-006-002-010      (C)
It is very important that the oscillators        Which two stages in a superheterodyne
contained in a superheterodyne receiver are:     receiver have input tuned circuits tuned to
                                                 the same frequency?
A   selective and spectrally pure
B   stable and spectrally pure                   A   RF and IF
C   sensitive and selective                      B   RF and local oscillator
D   stable and sensitive                         C   RF and first mixer
                                                 D   IF and local oscillator
A-006-002-007       (A)
In a superheterodyne receiver, a stage           A-006-002-011      (D)
before the IF amplifier has a variable           The mixer stage of a superheterodyne
capacitor in parallel with a trimmer capacitor   receiver:
and an inductance. The variable capacitor is
for:                                             A   produces spurious signals
                                                 B   acts as a buffer stage
A   tuning of the local oscillator (LO)
                                                 C   demodulates SSB signals
B   tuning both the antenna and the BFO
                                                 D   produces an intermediate frequency
C   tuning of the beat-frequency oscillator
    (BFO)
                                                 A-006-003-001      (A)
D   tuning both the antenna and the LO
                                                 What is meant by the noise floor of a
A-006-002-008       (C)                          receiver?

In a superheterodyne receiver without an RF      A   The weakest signal that can be detected
amplifier, the input to the mixer stage has a        above the receiver internal noise
variable capacitor in parallel with an           B   The weakest signal that can be detected
inductance. The variable capacitor is for:           under noisy atmospheric conditions
A   tuning the beat-frequency oscillator         C   The minimum level of noise that will
                                                     overload the receiver RF amplifier stage
B   tuning both the antenna and the local
                                                 D   The amount of noise generated by the
    oscillator
                                                     receiver local oscillator
C   tuning the receiver preselector to the
    reception frequency
                                                 A-006-003-002      (C)
D   tuning both the antenna and the beat-
    frequency oscillator                         Which of the following is a purpose of the
                                                 first IF amplifier stage in a receiver?
                                                 A   To increase dynamic response
                                                 B   To improve noise figure performance
                                                 C   To improve selectivity and gain
                                                 D   To tune out cross-modulation distortion
A-006-003-003      (D)                          A-006-003-008       (B)
How much gain should be used in the RF          The noise generated in a receiver of good
amplifier stage of a receiver?                  design originates in the:
A   As much gain as possible, short of self-    A   IF amplifier and detector
    oscillation                                 B   RF amplifier and mixer
B   It depends on the amplification factor of   C   detector and AF amplifier
    the first IF stage                          D   BFO and detector
C   Sufficient gain to keep weak signals
    below the noise of the first mixer stage
                                                A-006-003-009       (D)
D   Sufficient gain to allow weak signals to
    overcome noise generated in the first       Why are very low noise figures relatively
    mixer stage                                 unimportant for a high frequency receiver?
                                                A   Ionospheric distortion of the received
A-006-003-004      (C)                              signal creates high noise levels
What is the primary purpose of an RF            B   The use of SSB and CW on the HF
amplifier in a receiver?                            bands overcomes the noise
A   To develop the AGC voltage                  C   Regardless of the front end, the
                                                    succeeding stages when used on HF are
B   To provide most of the receiver gain            very noisy
C   To improve the receiver noise figure        D   External HF noise, man-made and
D   To vary the receiver image rejection by         natural, are higher than the internal noise
    using the AGC                                   generated by the receiver

A-006-003-005      (B)                          A-006-003-010       (D)
How is receiver sensitivity often expressed     The term which relates specifically to the
for UHF FM receivers.?                          amplitude levels of multiple signals that can
                                                be accommodated during reception is
A   Overall gain in decibels
                                                called:
B   RF level for 12 dB SINAD
                                                A   AGC
C   RF level for a given Bit Error Rate (BER)
D   Noise Figure in decibels                    B   cross-modulation index
                                                C   noise figure
A-006-003-006      (B)                          D   dynamic range

What is the term used for the decibel
difference (or ratio) between the largest       A-006-003-011       (B)
tolerable receiver input signal (without        Normally, front-end selectivity is provided by
causing audible distortion products) and the    the resonant networks both before and after
minimum discernible signal (sensitivity)?       the RF stage in a superheterodyne receiver.
                                                This whole section of the receiver is often
A   Noise figure
                                                referred to as the:
B   Dynamic range
                                                A   pass-selector
C   Design parameter
D   Stability                                   B   preselector
                                                C   preamble
A-006-003-007      (B)                          D   preamplifier

The lower the receiver noise figure becomes,
the greater will be the receiver's _________:   A-006-004-001       (C)
                                                What audio shaping network is added at an
A   stability
                                                FM receiver to restore proportionally
B   sensitivity                                 attenuated lower audio frequencies?
C   rejection of unwanted signals
                                                A   An audio prescaler
D   selectivity
                                                B   A heterodyne suppressor
                                                C   A de-emphasis network
                                                D   A pre-emphasis network
A-006-004-002       (B)                             A-006-004-007      (B)
What does a product detector do?                    The overall output of an AM/CW/SSB
                                                    receiver can be adjusted by means of
A   It detects cross-modulation products            manual controls on the receiver or by use of
B   It mixes an incoming signal with a locally      a circuit known as:
    generated carrier                               A   automatic load control
C   It provides local oscillations for input to a   B   automatic gain control
    mixer
                                                    C   automatic frequency control
D   It amplifies and narrows band-pass
                                                    D   inverse gain control
    frequencies

A-006-004-003       (C)                             A-006-004-008      (D)

Distortion in a receiver that only affects          AGC voltage is applied to the:
strong signals usually indicates a defect in
or mis-adjustment of the:                           A   AF and IF amplifiers
                                                    B   RF and AF amplifiers
A   AF amplifier
                                                    C   detector and AF amplifiers
B   RF amplifier
                                                    D   RF and IF amplifiers
C   automatic gain control (AGC)
D   IF amplifier
                                                    A-006-004-009      (D)

A-006-004-004       (B)                             AGC is derived in a receiver from one of two
                                                    circuits. Depending on the method used, it
In a superheterodyne receiver with automatic        is called:
gain control (AGC), as the strength of the
signal increases, the AGC:                          A   RF derived or audio derived
                                                    B   IF derived or RF derived
A   introduces limiting
                                                    C   detector derived or audio derived
B   reduces the receiver gain
                                                    D   IF derived or audio derived
C   increases the receiver gain
D   distorts the signal
                                                    A-006-004-010      (D)

A-006-004-005       (B)                             Which two variables primarily determine the
                                                    behaviour of an automatic gain control (AGC)
The amplified IF signal is applied to the           loop?
____________ stage in a superheterodyne
receiver:                                           A   Blanking level and slope
                                                    B   Slope and bandwidth
A   LO
                                                    C   Clipping level and hang time
B   detector
                                                    D   Threshold and decay time
C   RF amplifier
D   audio output
                                                    A-006-004-011      (A)

A-006-004-006       (D)                             What circuit combines signals from an IF
                                                    amplifier stage and a beat-frequency
The low-level output of a detector is:              oscillator (BFO), to produce an audio signal?

A   grounded via the chassis
                                                    A   A product detector circuit
B   fed directly to the speaker
                                                    B   An AGC circuit
C   applied to the RF amplifier
                                                    C   A power supply circuit
D   applied to the AF amplifier
                                                    D   A VFO circuit
A-006-005-001      (B)                           A-006-005-006      (A)
What part of a superheterodyne receiver          Which of the following is an important
determines the image rejection ratio of the      reason for using a VHF intermediate
receiver?                                        frequency in an HF receiver?
A   IF filter                                    A   To move the image response far away
B   RF amplifier pre-selector                        from the filter passband
C   Product detector                             B   To provide a greater tuning range
D   AGC loop                                     C   To tune out cross-modulation distortion
                                                 D   To prevent the generation of spurious
A-006-005-002      (B)                               mixer products

What is the term for the reduction in receiver   A-006-005-007      (D)
sensitivity caused by a strong signal near
the received frequency?                          Intermodulation interference is produced by:
A   Quieting                                     A   the interaction of products from high-
B   Desensitization                                  powered transmitters in the area
C   Cross-modulation interference                B   the high-voltage stages in the final
D   Squelch gain rollback                            amplifier of an amplitude or frequency-
                                                     modulated transmitter
A-006-005-003      (C)                           C   the mixing of more than one signal in the
                                                     first or second intermediate frequency
What causes receiver desensitization?                amplifiers of a receiver
                                                 D   the mixing of two or more signals in the
A   Squelch gain adjusted too low
                                                     front-end of a superheterodyne receiver
B   Audio gain adjusted too low
C   Strong near frequency signals                A-006-005-008      (B)
D   Squelch gain adjusted too high
                                                 Which of the following is NOT a direct cause
                                                 of instability in a receiver?
A-006-005-004      (D)
                                                 A   Temperature variations
What is one way receiver desensitization
                                                 B   Dial display accuracy
can be reduced?
                                                 C   Mechanical rigidity
A   Decrease the receiver squelch gain           D   Feedback components
B   Increase the receiver bandwidth
C   Increase the transmitter audio gain          A-006-005-009      (D)
D   Use a cavity filter
                                                 Poor frequency stability in a receiver usually
                                                 originates in the:
A-006-005-005      (A)
                                                 A   detector
What causes intermodulation in an
                                                 B   RF amplifier
electronic circuit?
                                                 C   mixer
A   Nonlinear circuits or devices                D   local oscillator and power supply
B   Too little gain
C   Positive feedback                            A-006-005-010      (A)
D   Lack of neutralization
                                                 Poor dynamic range of a receiver can cause
                                                 many problems when a strong signal
                                                 appears within or near the front-end
                                                 bandpass. Which of the following is NOT
                                                 caused as a direct result?
                                                 A   Feedback
                                                 B   Desensitization
                                                 C   Intermodulation
                                                 D   Cross-modulation
A-006-005-011      (C)                          A-007-001-004       (D)
Which of these measurements is a good           For an antenna tuner of the "Pi" type, which
indicator of VHF receiver intermodulation       of the following statements is false?
performance in an environment of strong out-
                                                A   The transmitter input is suitable for
of-band signals?
                                                    impedance of 50 ohms
A   Blocking Dynamic Range                      B   The antenna output is suitable for
B   Intermediate frequency rejection ratio          impedances from low to high
C   Two-tone Third-Order IMD Dynamic            C   The circuit is a Pi-type antenna tuner
    Range, 10 MHz spacing                       D   The circuit is a series local oscillator type
D   Third-Order Intercept Point                     antenna tuner

A-007-001-001      (A)                          A-007-001-005       (B)
For an antenna tuner of the "Transformer"       What is a pi-network?
type, which of the following statements is
FALSE?                                          A   A power incidence network
A   The circuit is known as a Pi-type antenna   B   A network consisting of one inductor and
    tuner                                           two capacitors or two inductors and one
                                                    capacitor
B   The input is suitable for 50 ohm
    impedance
                                                C   An antenna matching network that is
                                                    isolated from ground
C   The output is suitable for impedances
                                                D   A network consisting of four inductors or
    from low to high
                                                    four capacitors
D   The circuit is known as a transformer-
    type antenna tuner
                                                A-007-001-006       (A)
A-007-001-002      (A)                          Which type of network offers the greatest
                                                transformation ratio?
For an antenna tuner of the "Series" type,
which of the following statements is false?     A   Pi-network
A   The circuit is known as a Pi-type antenna   B   Chebyshev
    tuner                                       C   Butterworth
B   The circuit is known as a Series-type       D   L-network
    antenna tuner
C   The output is suitable for impedances       A-007-001-007       (A)
    from low to high                            Why is an L-network of limited utility in
D   The input is suitable for impedance of 50   impedance matching?
    ohms
                                                A   It matches only a small impedance range
A-007-001-003      (C)                          B   It is thermally unstable
For an antenna tuner of the "L" type, which
                                                C   It is prone to self-resonance
of the following statements is false?           D   It has limited power handling capability

A   The antenna output is high impedance
                                                A-007-001-008       (B)
B   The circuit is known as an L-type
    antenna tuner                               How does a network transform one
                                                impedance to another?
C   The circuit is suitable for matching to a
    vertical ground plane antenna               A   Network resistances substitute for load
D   The transmitter input is suitable for 50        resistances
    ohms impedance                              B   It cancels the reactive part of an
                                                    impedance and changes the resistive part
                                                C   It produces transconductance to cancel
                                                    the reactive part of an impedance
                                                D   It introduces negative resistance to
                                                    cancel the resistive part of an impedance
A-007-001-009      (C)                        A-007-002-002      (D)
What advantage does a pi-L network have       What kind of impedance does a quarter
over a pi-network for impedance matching      wavelength transmission line present to the
between a vacuum tube linear amplifier and    source if the line is open at the far end?
a multiband antenna?
                                              A   A very high impedance
A   Lower losses                              B   The same as the output impedance of the
B   Greater transformation range                  source
C   Greater harmonic suppression              C   The same as the characteristic
D   Higher efficiency                             impedance of the transmission line
                                              D   A very low impedance
A-007-001-010      (A)
                                              A-007-002-003      (C)
Which type of network provides the greatest
harmonic suppression?                         What kind of impedance does a half
                                              wavelength transmission line present to the
A   Pi-L network
                                              source when the line is open at the far end?
B   Inverse pi-network
                                              A   The same as the output impedance of the
C   Pi-network
                                                  source
D   L-network
                                              B   A very low impedance
                                              C   A very high impedance
A-007-001-011      (D)
                                              D   The same as the characteristic
A Smith Chart is useful:                          impedance of the transmission line

A   only to solve matching and transmission   A-007-002-004      (B)
    line problems
                                              What kind of impedance does a half
B   to solve problems in direct current
                                              wavelength transmission line present to the
    circuits
                                              source when the line is shorted at the far
C   because it only works with complex        end?
    numbers
D   because it simplifies mathematical
                                              A   The same as the output impedance of the
    operations                                    source
                                              B   A very low impedance
A-007-002-001      (C)                        C   A very high impedance
What kind of impedance does a quarter         D   The same as the characteristic
wavelength transmission line present to the       impedance of the transmission line
source when the line is shorted at the far
end?                                          A-007-002-005      (A)
A   The same as the output impedance of the   What is the velocity factor of a transmission
    source                                    line?
B   A very low impedance                      A   The velocity of the wave on the
C   A very high impedance                         transmission line divided by the velocity
D   The same as the characteristic                of light
    impedance of the transmission line        B   The velocity of the wave on the
                                                  transmission line multiplied by the
                                                  velocity of light in a vacuum
                                              C   The index of shielding for coaxial cable
                                              D   The ratio of the characteristic impedance
                                                  of the line to the terminating impedance
A-007-002-006         (C)                       A-007-002-011      (B)
What is the term for the ratio of the actual    The velocity factor of a transmission line is
velocity at which a signal travels through a    the:
transmission line to the speed of light in a
                                                A   speed to which the standing waves are
vacuum?
                                                    reflected back to the transmitter
A   Surge impedance                             B   ratio of the velocity of propagation in the
B   Standing wave ratio                             transmission line to the velocity of
C   Velocity factor                                 propagation in free space
D   Characteristic impedance                    C   impedance of the line, e.g. 50 ohm, 75
                                                    ohm, etc.
A-007-002-007         (B)                       D   speed at which the signal travels in free
                                                    space
What is a typical velocity factor for coaxial
cable with polyethylene dielectric?             A-007-003-001      (D)
A   2.7                                         What term describes a method used to
B   0.66                                        match a high-impedance transmission line
C   0.33                                        to a lower impedance antenna by connecting
                                                the line to the driven element in two places,
D   0.1
                                                spaced a fraction of a wavelength on each
                                                side of the driven element centre?
A-007-002-008         (D)
                                                A   The gamma match
What determines the velocity factor in a
transmission line?
                                                B   The omega match
                                                C   The stub match
A   The line length
                                                D   The T match
B   The centre conductor resistivity
C   The terminal impedance                      A-007-003-002      (C)
D   Dielectrics in the line
                                                What term describes an unbalanced feed
                                                system in which the driven element of an
A-007-002-009         (A)                       antenna is fed both at the centre and a
Why is the physical length of a coaxial         fraction of a wavelength to one side of
cable shorter than its electrical length?       centre?

A   RF energy moves slower along the            A   The stub match
    coaxial cable than in air                   B   The T match
B   The surge impedance is higher in the        C   The gamma match
    parallel transmission line                  D   The omega match
C   Skin effect is less pronounced in the
    coaxial cable                               A-007-003-003      (A)
D   The characteristic impedance is higher in
                                                What term describes a method of antenna
    a parallel transmission line
                                                impedance matching that uses a short
                                                section of transmission line connected to
A-007-002-010         (A)                       the antenna transmission line near the
The reciprocal of the square root of the        antenna and perpendicular to the
dielectric constant of the material used to     transmission line?
separate the conductors in a transmission       A   The stub match
line gives the ____________ of the line:
                                                B   The omega match
A   velocity factor                             C   The delta match
B   VSWR                                        D   The gamma match
C   impedance
D   hermetic losses
A-007-003-004         (A)                        A-007-003-009      (A)
Assuming a velocity factor of 0.66 what          A Yagi antenna uses a gamma match. The
would be the physical length of a typical        centre of the driven element connects to:
coaxial stub that is electrically one quarter
                                                 A   the coaxial line braid
wavelength long at 14.1 MHz?
                                                 B   the coaxial line centre conductor
A   3.51 metres (11.5 feet)
                                                 C   the adjustable gamma rod
B   20 metres (65.6 feet)                        D   a variable capacitor
C   2.33 metres (7.64 feet)
D   0.25 metre (0.82 foot)                       A-007-003-010      (C)
                                                 A Yagi antenna uses a gamma match. The
A-007-003-005         (C)
                                                 adjustable gamma rod connects to:
The driven element of a Yagi antenna is
                                                 A   an adjustable point on the reflector
connected to a coaxial transmission line.
The coax braid is connected to the centre of     B   the centre of the driven element
the driven element and the centre conductor      C   the variable capacitor
is connected to a variable capacitor in series   D   the coaxial line centre conductor
with an adjustable mechanical arrangement
on one side of the driven element. The type
of matching is:                                  A-007-003-011      (D)
                                                 A Yagi antenna uses a gamma match. The
A   T match
                                                 variable capacitor connects to the:
B   zeta match
                                                 A   an adjustable point on the director
C   gamma match
D   lambda match                                 B   center of the driven element
                                                 C   coaxial line braid
A-007-003-006         (D)                        D   adjustable gamma rod

A quarter-wave stub, for use at 15 MHz, is
made from a coaxial cable having a velocity      A-007-004-001      (C)
factor of 0.8. Its physical length will be:      In a half-wave dipole, the distribution of
                                                 _______ is highest at each end.
A   12 m (39.4 ft)
B   8 m (26.2 ft)                                A   inductance
C   7.5 m (24.6 ft)                              B   capacitance
D   4 m (13.1 ft)                                C   voltage
                                                 D   current
A-007-003-007         (D)
The matching of a driven element with a          A-007-004-002      (C)
single adjustable mechanical and capacitive      In a half-wave dipole, the distribution of
arrangement is descriptive of:                   _______ is lowest at each end.
A   a "T" match                                  A   inductance
B   an "omega" match                             B   capacitance
C   a "Y" match                                  C   current
D   a "gamma" match                              D   voltage

A-007-003-008         (C)                        A-007-004-003      (B)
A Yagi antenna uses a gamma match. The           The feed point in a centre-fed half-wave
coaxial braid connects to:                       antenna is at the point of:
A   the adjustable gamma rod                     A   maximum voltage
B   the centre of the reflector                  B   maximum current
C   the centre of the driven element             C   minimum current
D   the variable capacitor                       D   minimum voltage and current
A-007-004-004        (A)                          A-007-004-010        (A)
In a half-wave dipole, the lowest distribution    In a half-wave dipole, where does the
of _________ occurs at the middle.                minimum current occur?
A   voltage                                       A   At both ends
B   capacity                                      B   At the centre
C   inductance                                    C   It is equal at all points
D   current                                       D   At the right end

A-007-004-005        (B)                          A-007-004-011        (D)
In a half-wave dipole, the highest distribution   In a half-wave dipole, where does the
of ________ occurs at the middle.                 minimum impedance occur?
A   capacity                                      A   It is the same at all points
B   current                                       B   At the right end
C   inductance                                    C   At both ends
D   voltage                                       D   At the centre

A-007-004-006        (C)                          A-007-005-001        (A)
A half-wave dipole antenna is normally fed at     What is meant by circularly polarized
the point where:                                  electromagnetic waves?
A   the resistance is maximum                     A   Waves with a rotating electric field
B   the antenna is resonant                       B   Waves with an electric field bent into
C   the current is maximum                            circular shape
D   the voltage is maximum                        C   Waves that circle the earth
                                                  D   Waves produced by a circular loop
A-007-004-007        (A)                              antenna

At the ends of a half-wave dipole:                A-007-005-002        (D)
A   voltage is high and current is low            What type of polarization is produced by
                                                  crossed dipoles fed 90 degrees out of
B   voltage and current are both high
                                                  phase?
C   voltage and current are both low
D   voltage is low and current is high
                                                  A   Cross-polarization
                                                  B   Perpendicular polarization
A-007-004-008        (B)                          C   None of the above, the two fields cancel
                                                      out
The impedance of a half-wave antenna at its
                                                  D   Circular polarization
centre is low, because at this point:
A   voltage is high and current is low            A-007-005-003        (C)
B   voltage is low and current is high
                                                  Which of these antennas does not produce
C   voltage and current are both high             circular polarization?
D   voltage and current are both low
                                                  A   Lindenblad antenna

A-007-004-009        (B)
                                                  B   Axial-mode helical antenna
                                                  C   Loaded helical-wound antenna
In a half-wave dipole, where does minimum
                                                  D   Crossed dipoles fed 90 degrees out of
voltage occur?
                                                      phase
A   Both ends
B   The centre
C   At the right end
D   It is equal at all points
A-007-005-004       (C)                        A-007-005-009      (A)
On VHF/UHF frequencies, Doppler shift          One antenna which will respond
becomes of consequence on which type of        simultaneously to vertically- and
communication?                                 horizontally-polarized signals is the:
A   Simplex line-of-sight contact between      A   helical-beam antenna
    hand-held transceivers                     B   folded dipole antenna
B   Contact with terrestrial mobile stations   C   ground-plane antenna
C   Contact via satellite                      D   quad antenna
D   Contact through a hilltop repeater
                                               A-007-005-010      (A)
A-007-005-005       (C)
                                               In amateur work, what is the surface error
For VHF and UHF signals over a fixed path,     upper limit you should try not to exceed on a
what extra loss can be expected when           parabolic reflector?
linearly-polarized antennas are crossed-
                                               A   0.1 lambda
polarized (90 degrees)?
                                               B   0.25 lambda
A   6 dB
                                               C   5 mm (0.2 in) regardless of frequency
B   10 dB                                      D   1% of the diameter
C   20 dB or more
D   3 dB                                       A-007-005-011      (D)
                                               You want to convert a surplus parabolic dish
A-007-005-006       (A)
                                               for amateur radio use, the gain of this
Which of the following is NOT a valid          antenna depends on:
parabolic dish illumination arrangement?
                                               A   the polarization of the feed device
A   Newtonian                                      illuminating it
B   Front feed                                 B   the focal length of the antenna
C   Offset feed                                C   the material composition of the dish
D   Cassegrain                                 D   the diameter of the antenna in
                                                   wavelengths
A-007-005-007       (C)
                                               A-007-006-001      (A)
A parabolic antenna is very efficient
because:                                       A transmitter has an output of 100 watts.
                                               The cable and connectors have a composite
A   no impedance matching is required          loss of 3 dB, and the antenna has a gain of
B   a horn-type radiator can be used to trap   6 dBd. What is the Effective Radiated
    the received energy                        Power?
C   all the received energy is focused to a    A   200 watts
    point where the pick-up antenna is
    located
                                               B   350 watts
D   a dipole antenna can be used to pick up    C   400 watts
    the received energy                        D   300 watts

A-007-005-008       (D)                        A-007-006-002      (A)
A helical-beam antenna with right-hand         As standing wave ratio rises, so does the
polarization will best receive signals with:   loss in the transmission line. This is caused
                                               by:
A   left-hand polarization
B   vertical polarization only                 A   dielectric and conductor heat losses
C   horizontal polarization                    B   high antenna currents
D   right-hand polarization                    C   high antenna voltage
                                               D   leakage to ground through the dielectric
A-007-006-003      (C)                             A-007-006-007        (D)
What is the Effective Radiated Power of an         If the overall gain of an amateur station is
amateur transmitter, if the transmitter output     increased by 3 dB the ERP (Effective
power is 200 watts, the transmission line          Radiated Power) will:
loss is 5 watts, and the antenna power gain
                                                   A   decrease by 3 watts
is 3 dBd?
                                                   B   remain the same
A   228 watts
                                                   C   be cut in half
B   178 watts                                      D   double
C   390 watts
D   197 watts                                      A-007-006-008        (C)
                                                   A transmitter has a power output of 125
A-007-006-004      (B)
                                                   watts. There is a loss of 0.8 dB in the
Effective Radiated Power means the:                transmission line, 0.2 dB in the antenna
                                                   tuner, and a gain of 10 dBd in the antenna.
A   ratio of signal output power to signal input   The Effective Radiated Power (ERP) is:
    power
                                                   A   1125
B   transmitter output power, minus line
                                                   B   134
    losses, plus antenna gain relative to a
    dipole                                         C   1000
C   power supplied to the antenna before the       D   1250
    modulation of the carrier
D   power supplied to the transmission line        A-007-006-009        (B)
    plus antenna gain                              If a 3 dBd gain antenna is replaced with a 9
                                                   dBd gain antenna, with no other changes,
A-007-006-005      (B)                             the Effective Radiated Power (ERP) will
A transmitter has an output power of 200           increase by:
watts. The coaxial and connector losses are        A   2
3 dB in total, and the antenna gain is 9 dBd.
                                                   B   4
What is the approximate Effective Radiated
Power of this system?                              C   6
                                                   D   1.5
A   400 watts
B   800 watts                                      A-007-006-010        (A)
C   3200 watts
                                                   A transmitter has an output of 2000 watts
D   1600 watts
                                                   PEP. The transmission line, connectors and
                                                   antenna tuner have a composite loss of 1
A-007-006-006      (B)                             dB, and the gain from the stacked Yagi
A transmitter has a power output of 100            antenna is 10 dBd. What is the Effective
watts. There is a loss of 1.30 dB in the           Radiated Power (ERP) in watts PEP?
transmission line, a loss of 0.2 dB through        A   16 000
the antenna tuner, and a gain of 4.50 dBd in
                                                   B   18 000
the antenna. The Effective Radiated Power
(ERP) is:                                          C   20 000
                                                   D   2009
A   100 watts
B   200 watts
C   800 watts
D   400 watts
A-007-006-011      (D)                          A-007-007-004      (A)
A transmitter has an output of 1000 watts       Why is a ground-mounted vertical quarter-
PEP. The coaxial cable, connectors and          wave antenna in reasonably open
antenna tuner have a composite loss of 1        surroundings better for long distance
dB, and the antenna gain is 10 dBd. What is     contacts than a half-wave dipole at a quarter
the Effective Radiated Power (ERP) in watts     wavelength above ground?
PEP?
                                                A   The vertical radiation angle is lower
A   1009                                        B   The radiation resistance is lower
B   10 000                                      C   It has an omnidirectional characteristic
C   9000                                        D   It uses vertical polarization
D   8000
                                                A-007-007-005      (D)
A-007-007-001      (C)
                                                When a half-wave dipole antenna is installed
For a 3-element Yagi antenna with               one-half wavelength above ground, the:
horizontally mounted elements, how does
                                                A   radiation pattern changes to produce side
the main lobe takeoff angle vary with height
                                                    lobes at 15 and 50 degrees
above flat ground?
                                                B   side lobe radiation is cancelled
A   It does not vary with height
                                                C   radiation pattern is unaffected
B   It depends on E-region height, not          D   vertical or upward radiation is effectively
    antenna height
                                                    cancelled
C   It decreases with increasing height
D   It increases with increasing height         A-007-007-006      (A)
                                                How does antenna height affect the
A-007-007-002      (A)                          horizontal (azimuthal) radiation pattern of a
Most simple horizontally polarized antennas     horizontal dipole HF antenna?
do not exhibit significant directivity unless   A   If the antenna is less than one-half
they are:
                                                    wavelength high, reflected radio waves
A   a half wavelength or more above the             from the ground significantly distort the
    ground                                          pattern
B   an eighth of a wavelength above the         B   Antenna height has no effect on the
    ground                                          pattern
C   a quarter wavelength above the ground       C   If the antenna is less than one-half
D   three-eighths of a wavelength above the         wavelength high, radiation off the ends of
    ground                                          the wire is eliminated
                                                D   If the antenna is too high, the pattern
A-007-007-003      (C)                              becomes unpredictable

The plane from which ground reflections can     A-007-007-007      (D)
be considered to take place, or the effective
ground plane for an antenna is:                 For long distance propagation, the vertical
                                                radiation angle of the energy from the
A   as much as a meter above ground             antenna should be:
B   at ground level exactly
                                                A   more than 45 degrees but less than 90
C   several centimeters to as much as 2             degrees
    meters below ground, depending upon
    soil conditions
                                                B   90 degrees
D   as much as 6 cm below ground                C   more than 30 degrees but less than 45
    depending upon soil conditions                  degrees
                                                D   less than 30 degrees
A-007-007-008      (A)                           A-007-008-001       (C)
Greater distance can be covered with             What is meant by the radiation resistance of
multiple-hop transmissions by decreasing         an antenna?
the:
                                                 A   The specific impedance of an antenna
A   vertical radiation angle of the antenna      B   The combined losses of the antenna
B   power applied to the antenna                     elements and transmission line
C   main height of the antenna                   C   The equivalent resistance that would
D   length of the antenna                            dissipate the same amount of power as
                                                     that radiated from an antenna
A-007-007-009      (C)                           D   The resistance in the atmosphere that an
                                                     antenna must overcome to be able to
The impedance at the centre of a dipole              radiate a signal
antenna more than 3 wavelengths above
ground would be nearest to:                      A-007-008-002       (B)
A   300 ohms                                     Why would one need to know the radiation
B   600 ohms                                     resistance of an antenna?
C   75 ohms                                      A   To calculate the front-to-back ratio of the
D   25 ohms                                          antenna
                                                 B   To match impedances for maximum
A-007-007-010      (B)                               power transfer
Why can a horizontal antenna closer to           C   To measure the near-field radiation
ground be advantageous for close range               density from a transmitting antenna
communications on lower HF bands?                D   To calculate the front-to-side ratio of the
                                                     antenna
A   The radiation resistance is higher
B   The ground tends to act as a reflector       A-007-008-003       (C)
C   Lower antenna noise temperature
                                                 What factors determine the radiation
D   Low radiation angle for closer distances
                                                 resistance of an antenna?

A-007-007-011      (B)                           A   Sunspot activity and time of day
                                                 B   It is a physical constant and is the same
Which antenna system and operating
                                                     for all antennas
frequency are most suitable for Near Vertical
Incidence ((NVIS) communications?                C   Antenna location with respect to nearby
                                                     objects and the conductors
A   A vertical antenna and a frequency above         length/diameter ratio
    the lowest usable frequency                  D   Transmission line length and antenna
B   A horizontal antenna less than 1/4               height
    wavelength above ground and a frequency
    below the current critical frequency         A-007-008-004       (D)
C   A horizontal antenna at a height of half a
                                                 What is the term for the ratio of the radiation
    wavelength and an operating frequency at
                                                 resistance of an antenna to the total
    the optimum working frequency
                                                 resistance of the system?
D   A vertical antenna and a frequency below
    the maximum usable frequency                 A   Beamwidth
                                                 B   Effective Radiated Power
                                                 C   Radiation conversion loss
                                                 D   Antenna efficiency
A-007-008-005       (C)                           A-007-008-009       (D)
What is included in the total resistance of an    Antenna beamwidth is the angular distance
antenna system?                                   between:
A   Transmission line resistance plus             A   the maximum lobe spread points on the
    radiation resistance                              major lobe
B   Radiation resistance plus space               B   the 6 dB power points on the major lobe
    impedance                                     C   the 3 dB power points on the first minor
C   Radiation resistance plus ohmic                   lobe
    resistance                                    D   the points on the major lobe at the half-
D   Radiation resistance plus transmission            power points
    resistance
                                                  A-007-008-010       (D)
A-007-008-006       (A)
                                                  If the ohmic resistance of a half-wave dipole
How can the approximate beamwidth of a            is 2 ohms, and the radiation resistance is 72
beam antenna be determined?                       ohms, what is the antenna efficiency?
A   Note the two points where the signal          A   74%
    strength is down 3 dB from the maximum        B   72%
    signal point and compute the angular
                                                  C   100%
    difference
                                                  D   97.3%
B   Draw two imaginary lines through the
    ends of the elements and measure the
    angle between the lines                       A-007-008-011       (C)
C   Measure the ratio of the signal strengths     If the ohmic resistance of a miniloop antenna
    of the radiated power lobes from the front    is 2 milliohms and the radiation resistance is
    and side of the antenna                       50 milliohms, what is the antenna
D   Measure the ratio of the signal strengths     efficiency?
    of the radiated power lobes from the front    A   25%
    and rear of the antenna
                                                  B   50%
A-007-008-007       (C)                           C   96.15%
                                                  D   52%
How is antenna percent efficiency
calculated?
                                                  A-007-009-001       (D)
A   (total resistance / radiation resistance) x
    100                                           Waveguide is typically used:
B   (effective radiated power / transmitter       A   at frequencies above 2 MHz
    output) x 100
                                                  B   at frequencies below 150 MHz
C   (radiation resistance / total resistance) x
    100                                           C   at frequencies below 1500 MHz
D   (radiation resistance / transmission          D   at frequencies above 3000 MHz
    resistance) x 100
                                                  A-007-009-002       (A)
A-007-008-008       (C)                           Which of the following is not correct?
What is the term used for an equivalent           Waveguide is an efficient transmission
resistance which would dissipate the same         medium because it features:
amount of energy as that radiated from an         A   low hysteresis loss
antenna?
                                                  B   low radiation loss
A   Antenna resistance                            C   low dielectric loss
B   K factor                                      D   low copper loss
C   Radiation resistance
D   j factor
A-007-009-003         (B)                       A-007-009-008      (A)
Which of the following is an advantage of       Compared with coaxial cable, microstripline:
waveguide as a transmission line?
                                                A   has poorer shielding
A   Heavy and difficult to install
                                                B   has superior shielding
B   Low loss
                                                C   must have much lower characteristic
C   Frequency sensitive based on
                                                    impedance
    dimensions
                                                D   must have much higher characteristic
D   Expensive
                                                    impedance

A-007-009-004         (D)                       A-007-009-009      (C)
For rectangular waveguide to transfer           A section of waveguide:
energy, the cross-section should be at least:
A   three-eighths wavelength                    A   operates like a band-stop filter
B   one-eighth wavelength                       B   is lightweight and easy to install
C   one-quarter wavelength                      C   operates like a high-pass filter
D   one-half wavelength                         D   operates like a low-pass filter

A-007-009-005         (C)                       A-007-009-010      (A)
Which of the following statements about         Stripline is a:
waveguide IS NOT correct?
                                                A   printed circuit transmission line
A   In the transverse magnetic mode, a
    component of the electric field is in the   B   small semiconductor family
    direction of propagation                    C   high power microwave antenna
B   Waveguide has low loss at high              D   family of fluids for removing coatings from
    frequencies, but high loss below cutoff         small parts
    frequency
C   Waveguide has high loss at high             A-007-009-011      (A)
    frequencies, but low loss below cutoff      What precautions should you take before
    frequency                                   beginning repairs on a microwave feed horn
D   In the transverse electric mode, a          or waveguide?
    component of the magnetic field is in the
    direction of propagation
                                                A   Be sure the transmitter is turned off and
                                                    the power source is disconnected
A-007-009-006         (C)                       B   Be sure the weather is dry and sunny
                                                C   Be sure propagation conditions are
Which of the following is a major advantage
                                                    unfavourable for tropospheric ducting
of waveguide over coaxial cable for use at
microwave frequencies?                          D   Be sure to wear tight-fitting clothes and
                                                    gloves to protect your body and hands
A   Easy to install                                 from sharp edges
B   Inexpensive to install
C   Very low losses
D   Frequency response from 1.8 MHz to
    24GHz

A-007-009-007         (C)
What is printed circuit transmission line
called?
A   Dielectric imprinting
B   Ground plane
C   Microstripline
D   Dielectric substrate

								
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