The Toolbox Introduction The 7-Step Montana Model on Social Norms Marketing (Montana Model) was developed to expand the application of social normative theory to prevention practice. The Montana Model contains specific protocol for conducting social norms marketing in a variety of settings (Figure-1). The ideas inherent in the development of the Montana Model belong to a great many pioneers in the prevention field who have been generous with sharing and writing about their work. Although their work has been referenced on this website, the magnitude of their contributions are worthy of further note. These trail blazers include Wesley Perkins, Alan Berkowitz, Michael Haines, Koreen Johannessen, Pat Fabiano, Bill DeJong and Jeff Linkenbach. All of these folks embody the spirit of researchers who have a passion for sharing and encouraging sound science. It is upon their shoulders, and of others not mentioned here, that the field of social norms marketing owes its gratitude. The Montana Model is a science-based approach to prevention, and therefore will evolve as the science of social norms marketing brings us closer to meeting the behavior change needs of our target audiences. The Montana Model aims to reshape health behavior by marketing positive norms practiced by the majority of a target population, parting ways with more traditional methods that involve the use of scare tactics. In Montana, the 7-Step Model has been used to develop a statewide coordinated social norms campaign entitled, "MOST of Us™." This campaign includes a number of sub-campaigns directed towards 18-25 year old young adults, 12-17 year old youth, and parents of teenagers. In addition, the community of Bozeman, MT operates a campaign directed towards Jr. & Sr. high students in public school districts for reducing marijuana usage. These Montana projects are in various stages of implementation and you are encouraged to follow their progress through this web site. At the national level, the Montana Model is being pilot tested by the BACCHUS & GAMMA Peer Education Network at 13 college campuses for issues of tobacco & sexual responsibility, and with other state networks. In addition, the Montana Model has enjoyed international attention as health professionals from countries abroad gain a greater understanding of its application to their unique health issues. Think Local - Act Global When developing social norms campaigns, it becomes apparent that it is difficult to target one specific health issue (i.e., traffic safety, alcohol use, tobacco use, teen pregnancy) in a single statewide population without crossing boundaries into other areas. The complexity increases when we consider using statewide radio and television media messages that can be received by younger teens that will enter into the target population's age group within five years. Implementing a statewide media campaign based on the social norms approach requires a paradigm shift for many involved in the prevention field, whether they represent the head of a State agency, president of a local Association or Board, or a program manager focused on the outcomes of one particular project or issue area. For example, in order to be successful in targeting a campaign to reduce alcohol-related crashes in young adults, a global coordination is needed to amass sufficient state and local resources to insure campaign success, which means expanding efforts to include other health issues, agencies and target populations. In essence, because of the complexities involved in statewide implementation, the initial project scope requires an exponential expansion of resources and base of support in order to meet project objectives. Program and Resource Coordination The Montana Model recognizes the need for greater "systemic coordination" among inter-related health and social issues that intend to use media as a prevention strategy. Health issues such as teen pregnancy, alcohol use/abuse, and illicit drug use have traditionally been treated as singular issues. Each issue tends to have a separate Federal and/or State-funding source, and therefore promulgates the idea of singular and focused interventions. The Montana Model looks to break down some of these barriers that exist between certain health and social issues, while focusing on the common thread of target population. Social normative campaigns are not general awareness campaigns that rely upon the donation of advertising space to reach a population. They are carefully crafted and placed media campaigns that have the power to create long-term attitudinal and behavior shifts among specific populations. No one said coordinating a social norms campaign would be easy, but the potential rewards are just what public health advocates need as they head into the 21st century. A basic overview of each of the seven steps follows. Although the steps are outlined in a linear fashion for clarity, the actual implementation process is quite dynamic and involves operating in all spheres (Step areas) simultaneously. Information of greater depth may be obtained by contacting the Project Director, Dr. Jeff Linkenbach. STEP 1 - Planning and Environmental Advocacy Research and planning establish the overall scope and direction for the social norms campaign to promote and encourage a particular health behavior in a targeted population. Issues such as the current political climate, economic conditions, current social norms and existing media campaigns are assessed and placed within context of the new campaign. Project goals are established and refined through input from key community leaders and stakeholders. The assets, liabilities, and training assistance needs of key stakeholders are identified. STEP 2 - Baseline Data Current and available data is analyzed to determine where additional data is needed to establish a baseline for health behaviors and perceived health norms. Quantitative data measures such as existing phone, mail and school surveys are used to triangulate data sources. Qualitative data gathering methods are established such as through the use of focus groups. Community personnel are trained to document the shifts in public perception. STEP 3 - Message Development Campaign messages are derived from the baseline data. Message development is a rigorous process, involving numerous drafts based upon feedback from structured focus groups. The scope of the message is determined by the target population's readiness for change, their current behavioral practices and normative perceptions. Messages are crafted to support the fact that the majority of the target population is either already practicing the desired behavior or is supportive of specific protective factors, which reduce harm. STEP 4 - Market Plan Marketing plans begin by seeing things through the eyes of the target population. Traditional and non-traditional media approaches are assessed for potential for reaching the target population. The marketing environment of competitive and complimentary messages is monitored. A project-specific plan is developed and modified as needed. These five "P's" (Siegel & Donner, 1998) of marketing health can assist with refining the plan: 1. Product - The specific health behavior to be marketed/measured. 2. Price - The cost of performing the behavior, i.e., such as peer non-acceptance. 3. Promotion - The strategies used to sell the normative message. 4. Place - Where you will place messages to reach the target population. 5. Partners - Those who will assist with campaign implementation. STEP 5 - Pilot Test and Refine Materials Developed messages are pilot tested with the target population for accuracy and to determine individual preferences. Specific products and messages may be developed to target secondary reinforcers, such as parents or teachers for a campaign targeting youth. Sub-population testing of materials is conducted to achieve a saturation of feedback. Local coalitions and stakeholders assist with the refinement through conducting mall intercepts, surveys, structured interviews and focus groups. STEP 6 - Implement Campaign The implementation and distribution of materials are conducted according to the marketing plan. Pilot testing of materials for "next generation" messages is conducted. Training of key stakeholders and secondary reinforcers commences to expand the campaign's reach and to gain valuable support of the campaign. All challenges are documented and viewed as opportunities for increased collaboration and message exposure in future campaigns. STEP 7 - Evaluation Evaluation and data ultimately drive the social norms marketing process, with the end goal being that of changed behavior in the target population. Qualitative and quantitative data are gathered, analyzed, and fed back into the model process loop. Internal and external teams direct the project evaluation, often utilizing multiple questionnaires. The model is a process of "praxis" (Brookfield, 1986) involving action, reflection on action, re-development, new action, then further reflection. Stakeholders are trained in campaign-related media monitoring techniques using newspaper clipping services to gather relevant articles, and affidavits provided by broadcast stations for assessing the message dosage levels among the target audience. Tips for Getting Started So, you want to create a social norms marketing campaign for use with your target population-and you want it now, right? Well, hold on to that enthusiasm, because there is a process to developing social norms campaigns, and it does take time and some special resources. In fact, developing the capacity to create and evaluate effective social norms campaigns can take 3 -5 years. Not a venture to be undertaken in short order. But, there is a way to help facilitate the implementation of campaigns in your community. Does this interest you? Please read on! A primary function of the Montana Social Norms Project is to assist communities with developing effective social norms messages and campaigns that support statewide and local health and safety messages. We accomplish this through a variety of means: * Providing introductory workshops on social norms marketing to communities throughout the state. * Providing individualized technical assistance to community groups and health professionals. * Developing radio/TV public service announcements and messages for statewide use. * Using the science-based 7-Step Montana Social Norms Marketing Model as a common framework. * Providing input to State and local government staff on the broad-based application of the 7-Step Montana Social Norms Marketing Model. There are a number of activities that communities can engage as they move towards the provision of support for social norms marketing campaigns and begin to use the 7-Step Montana Social Norms Marketing Model. Some of these activities include: 1. Assessing your community's level of readiness to embrace the social norms marketing approach to prevention 2. Beginning to build the important community linkages and supporting structure for your social norms campaign 3. Performing a community readiness and needs assessment exercise 4. Developing a common mindset among community partners as to how the community might support social normative messages in the community. We hope you find the following "Tip Sheets" helpful as you begin to consider the benefits of integrating the social norms approach into your prevention efforts. Getting Started: Communities Should Start Here In preparation for social norms marketing, communities need to develop the foundation upon which their future efforts will be built. The "Stages of Readiness" pyramid depicts how a community might begin moving towards developing local capacity to perform social norms marketing. The pyramid shows different community organizational levels for operating social norms marketing campaigns. Here is a summary of each of the five levels. No Action: The community has no intention of currently using the process of social norms marketing to educate and change behaviors in their locale. Minimal Resources: The community has no specific grant (or other) funds to support local efforts, but wishes to begin supporting and integrating with statewide campaign materials through in-kind resources. Local & Other Resources: The community has received grant funds (or has dedicated other monies) to support local social norms marketing in their locale. Building Local Capacity: The community has made the commitment to develop the resources and expertise necessary to support social norms marketing. Autonomy: The community has fully integrated a mix of resources/expertise into the community for the ongoing support and operation of effective social norms marketing campaigns. Regardless of which stage of readiness a community is at, they will need to access a variety of technical resources to achieve proficiency. Resources are being made available to communities to a varying degree, but they must be accessed and connected together in a logical sequence for the best chance of success. The Montana Social Norms Project recommends the following action steps for those communities considering the application of this new approach to prevention: SIX ACTION STEPS 1. Attend the introductory social norms marketing workshop and subsequent training offered by the Montana Social Norms Project. 2. Support the statewide social norms messages to be released in year 2000. 3. Conduct an informal readiness and needs assessment (format is available on the web site). 4. Develop a social norms team for work projects. 5. Cultivate and encourage local support. 6. Develop realistic and attainable goals. Successful Campaigns Require Shared Effort During the initial stages of your project, you should direct the energies of your group towards the formation of a "tight alliance" between the primary partners of your project. So, who are these primary partners? They should include, at a minimum, the target population, key stakeholders in your community and those community groups, agencies or businesses who have similar interests, goals or clients/customers. Since the focus of any social norms marketing campaign is the target population, you will be working with this group extensively throughout the project. In addition, since the target population are making their current behavioral choices within the context of the community (their environment), it will be necessary to gain the support of various factions of the community. You should start with people, organizations and businesses that you know the target population comes into regular contact with. Additionally, the support of a variety of leaders from across the community who have a vested interest in the target population and the community is needed to insure success. Get to Know the Key Players Target Population: The focus of any social norms marketing campaign is the target population. Background (formative) research is performed on the target group with the intent of developing messages that are both appropriate and effective at changing behavior. Social norms marketing will not work unless you place a high priority on the needs of the target group. The challenge is to balance the needs of the target group among those of campaign partners, funders, and the overall goals and priorities of the campaign. Community: The target group makes their current behavioral choices within the context of the community. Therefore, the target group's surrounding environment supports, or thwarts their decision to engage a specific behavior, whether positive or negative. The community becomes a natural and integral partner in the design, delivery and support of the developed messages. Key Stakeholders: These individuals are tied very closely to the community and can make or break your campaign. Key stakeholders are those in positions of influence, power or serve as gatekeepers to the target population and the resources needed to reach them. Community Readiness & Needs Assessment Exercise Directions: The following questions are designed to help you think about some of the key aspects of the process of developing and supporting a social norms campaign in your locale. Individual(s) who will be active in the implementation and operation of your social norms campaign should complete the questions. 1. What is/are the primary goal(s) of your social norms marketing campaign? 2. Who is the most appropriate group to target for change? What are its size, geographic location, and key demographics? 3. What behavior(s) do you wish to change in this target group? 4. How would you measure this change? Over what period of time? 5. Are there any behavior and perceptions data available which would be helpful in developing a social norms majority message? 6. If you were to make a guess, what would your media message say? 7. What credible data and information might back your message? 8. Have there been any local efforts that are similar to your planned social norms campaign? If so, what has/has not worked and why? 9. Are there any other campaigns or programs operating in your community that could positively or negatively impact your campaign? 10. Please make a list of local, regional and national resources that can assist your campaign. 11. Who are the key people that could assist with your campaign? This becomes your "campaign team." 12. Are there any groups/agencies/businesses that you should partner with in order to enhance the credibility of your campaign? 13. What resources do you have? 14. What resources do you need? 15. Where will the resources be obtained? 16. Who will acquire the resources? 17. What would be your vision of the campaign beyond the initial funding period? 18. How important is campaign sustainability to the community and to your organization? 19. What campaign challenges and difficulties do you foresee? 20. What campaign opportunities do you foresee? 21. What methods (market strategies) will you utilize to get the campaign message to the target population? 22. Would your market strategies ensure that your target group would receive enough exposure to your message to achieve your goals? 23. How long would your campaign need to run in order to achieve your behavior change goals? 24. How will you evaluate the success of your campaign? 25. Do you anticipate future technical assistance needs from the MSU Montana Social Norms marketing Project? Marketing Social Norms Messages The marketing of social norms messages requires a number of factors to be present in order to have success. Initially, it will be important for you to garner the support of many factions of your community to help integrate the message (and theme) into existing communication channels. Accessing some of these channels will require an investment of financial resources, while others may be attained at nominal cost through the leveraging of resources or the donation of space/advertising time. Below are a number of ideas to assist communities in formulating initial direction and strategy for the support of social normative messages. These ideas come from communities in Montana participating in the social norms marketing workshops offered by the Montana Social Norms Project. In Community Settings… 1. Ensure messages obtain adequate airtime on local TV/radio. 2. Have a charismatic person present a message to local service organizations. 3. Place messages in community newspaper(s). 4. Use as theme in Red Ribbon celebration activities. 5. Use developed PSA over radio during prom time. 6. Use developed PSA on radio at end of year graduation at high school. 7. Develop a message for local high school students based upon statewide data. 8. Develop a petition of support around the issue and message. 9. Develop a monthly ad campaign for use in newspaper, 12x/year. 10. Double-up with print media and offer message on prime time radio. 11. Promote as a "crawler" message on the Weather Channel. 12. Have the message placed on milk cartons-substitute "missing kids" with "MOST of Us™. 13. Coordinate fundraisers to raise dollars in support of media purchases. 14. Develop and place flyers in fast-food purchases for a month. 15. Develop posters with the message for strategic placement. 16. Produce stickers for use on videos and video games rented at local merchants. 17. Have a key chain produced with the message and distribute through creative channels. 18. Take message to 4-H club, boy scouts, etc. and see if they would support as a project. 19. Run the message as an advertisement before movies at the theatre. 20. Develop tray mats for use in fast-food restaurants. 21. Place message in variety of formats in health services offices. 22. Gain support from key stakeholders including law enforcement, school district and staff, substance abuse and mental health services, family services and school board. 23. Civic and church groups - get them to embrace the social norms message. 24. Involve parent programs such as the PTA. 25. Organize a letter-writing campaign to the editor of local paper. 26. Sponsor ads of support with signatures of community members. 27. Gain media time/space on billboards. 28. Provide public speaking messages at every opportunity. 29. Get the United Way/YWCA/Salvation Army involved. 30. Involve the "Alliance for Youth". 31. Place posters at Mini Mart, Town Pump and other gas/convenience stores. 32. Develop a local proclamation (government persons/agencies). 33. Gain sponsorship of the Athletic Association. 34. Gain the commitment and support of different groups working w/target population. 35. Provide town meetings around the concept/message. 36. Present to civic groups and churches. 37. Develop on-line surveys with registration and positive messages/product incentives. 38. Collect needs assessment survey data and integrate with baseline data. 39. Utilize expertise of community coalitions and their resources. 40. Involve the Boys and Girls Club. 41. Involve public housing projects. 42. Involve the Sheriff, youth probation services. 43. Develop banners for use in public (on buildings and over roadways downtown, etc.). 44. Utilize signage available on public transportation. 45. Involve community groups such as Kiwanis, Lions. 46. Place posters in local banks and other businesses. 47. Place posters and materials in Dr's offices and health clinics. 48. Perform interviews on morning and noon TV shows. 49. Newspaper - print ads and health sections of paper. 50. Build into mentoring programs. 51. Serve as a community or organizational advocate for the message. 52. Educate key leaders/stakeholders within the community regarding the message. 53. Develop a formal plan to promote/sustain the message. 54. Perform grant-writing and fundraising to develop resources to support. 55. Develop unique promotional products and distribute. 56. Network on a personal level with parents prior to the campaign to further support. 57. Develop flyer/stamp for the inside of box top of pizza delivery boxes. 58. Develop a videotape and game case insert for video rental stores. 59. Work with local bottling companies to put message on beverage containers. 60. Work with bottled water companies. 61. Provide information to career center's media services. 62. Place the message on grocery bags. 63. Place the message in Laundromats. 64. Place the message in coffee shops. 65. Use placemats and table tents in cafeteria settings. 66. Place messages in bars to deliver to college students and young adults. 67. Place messages in locker rooms at health/fitness centers. 68. Place messages in lounge areas where people gather. 69. Place posters in group rooms/hallways of mental healthchemical dependency centers. 70. Place message on bulletin boards in restaurants. 71. Place in the "Tidbits" informational newspaper. 72. Include message in websites. 73. Talk to all radio stations and tell of the excitement of a positive message. 74. Use data in agency staff meetings and workshops provided to clients/community. 75. Distribute posters in substance abuse centers. 76. Show at local health professional meetings and discuss with community stakeholders. 77. Use professional position to advocate acceptance. 78. Place articles and ads in professional and agency newsletters. In School Settings… 79. Have students research actual and perceived norms and present data. 80. Integrate into health class, government class, etc…and discuss. 81. Integrate the message with school or substance abuse counselor curricula. 82. Distribute posters in health classes. 83. Incorporate into ACT and MIP classes and ANY communityhosted education classes. 84. Attach to school curriculums in creative ways. 85. Discuss with young adults and ask them to write personal responses to the message. 86. Show/play/display in school lunchroom and before sporting events. 87. Develop a school assembly around the theme of the message. 88. Teach social norms theory in school. 89. Provide a school in-service, addressing faculty to teach how to talk about norms. 90. Incorporate message into Driver's Education classes. 91. Have youth distribute or wear social norm slogan on clothes, bumper stickers, or other objects. 92. Place articles in school newspapers and other communications. 93. Involve college campuses. 94. Involve middle schools. 95. Integrate message and topic into health education classes. 96. Provide information as part of freshmen orientation. 97. Provide a student forum on the topic/message. 98. Obtain cooperation and agreement with school principals. 99. Pursue greater student involvement in media design/production (such as web sites, screensavers, etc.). 100. Provide information to teachers in their mailboxes. 101. Develop articles for placement in campus newsletters. 102. Develop posters for placement in schools. 103. Provide announcements over the PA system in schools. 104. Coordinate a poster contest with middle school and high school students. 105. Coordinate a contest to create audio and video PSA's with students. 106. Promote throughout the University system. 107. Meet with school district officials and discuss ways to integrate throughout schools. 108. Place PSA's in high schools (part of regular announcements). 109. Place messages in guidance counselor offices at schools.