Asunto 1 Nina Asunto Instructor: Gina Fournier Composition II 11 December 2007 Natural Disaster: Michigan‟s Parks at Risk I imagine lying in my tent and feel myself unwind, the tension of the day‟s events floating away. It‟s a foolproof relaxation technique I employ when I have trouble sleeping. Sometimes I listen to fictitious rain tapping above me on the tent roof. Other times, I conjure up a cold night and huddle in my imaginary sleeping bag, my dog snoring beside me in both fantasy and reality because she never has trouble voyaging to the land of dreams. Regardless of the make-believe weather conditions, my mind is always in the same real-life location: an out-of-theway campground on a bluff above Lake Superior in northern Michigan‟s Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore. One can‟t make reservations or happen upon this secluded haven while driving on the highway. Tucked way back in the woods and accessed only by backpacking or via a long and lonely drive along a bumpy dirt road through white birch trees, it‟s a place where I can truly get away from the stress of day-to-day life and feel completely reinvigorated. Last year while I was visiting my favorite place, I had a conversation with a fellow downstater who had just shown up and was looking for a place to set up camp. He had been trolling around in his white Subaru Outback looking for the perfect spot and I watched him weave in and out of the tall pines, tires crunching along the dirt pathway. I possessed valuable information about the despairingly full campground: The people a few sites away from me planned to pack up and leave after finishing their oatmeal and coffee. I hailed Subaru Guy in order to disclose this priceless bit of knowledge, the serenity of my surroundings making me unnaturally friendly. Asunto 2 During our brief exchange, he admitted that this is also his favorite place and he refuses to tell anyone other than his closest friends of its existence. People like he and I are torn between two priorities. We want to tell everyone about our favorite place so that the national lakeshore might benefit from more recognition and so that others can learn of the wonderful destinations in Michigan. At the same time, we want to tell no one so the natural landscape won‟t suffer too much intrusion and people like us can continue to enjoy it in peace. People like Subaru Guy and I are nervous over potential invasion of our sacred places by people who might not show them proper respect. Our reverence makes us worthy of these places and their hospitality, but we are suspicious of others and are hesitant to share the in spoils of our rustic camaraderie. The Old Milwaukee cans we find in the forest while searching for firewood were tossed there by people who lack our appreciation. In order to spare their children the chore of learning to enjoy their surroundings, they plug portable television sets into car cigarette lighters, drowning the sound of the waves as we‟re trying to snooze. Waking up from an irritatingly unsatisfying sleep, we unzip our doors to find that the world we are taking a break from has been brought right to our tents as these unworthy trespassers wander into our view of the beach, holding Blackberrys in the air trying to get a signal (luckily they can‟t). Gracious nature lovers like me and Mr. Subaru don‟t intend to exhibit woodland snobbery; we struggle to understand traveling to a quiet refuge to do these things when it‟s far more convenient to stay home where there is most likely cable TV and the luxury of a real toilet when you have to go. Although benefits such as peace and quiet tempt nature lovers to sequester themselves in their classified locations, this is no time for wilderness elitism. The fact is, America‟s natural areas are iconic symbols of pride that everyone in this country should experience while they are Asunto 3 still something to enjoy. Without everyone‟s concern there will be nothing left to appreciate in the very near future. In particular, Michiganders are at risk of losing their State and National Parks due to Michigan‟s financial dilemmas and immediate environmental issues, and residents must keep tabs on many factors to stay informed. Financial problems are impacting the park system statewide, and Michigan‟s four national parks feel the pinch of rising operational costs and lack of funding occurring across the U.S. Each year basic maintenance costs such as employee salaries, utilities, and park vehicles rise as they would in any business. Yet since 2001, National Park Service (NPS) funding has been flat. Rising operational costs with no increase in money means cuts to services. On top of that, in 2006, the Bush Administration mandated “Cost Operation Analyses” for all of the parks as tools to manage effectiveness and efficiency. The plan is to manage fixed costs such as those mentioned above at 80% of their budget to build a cushion for emergencies. The deficit caused by flat funding and only using 80% of the money available has caused the NPS to make drastic cuts, first and foremost to staff, its largest expense (Stearns). A host of issues spreads from the impact of these budget constraints and its effects are easy to imagine. Popular attractions such as the Dune Climb at Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore will become more difficult to maintain. Currently, Keweenaw National Historical Park operates with only 60% of the workforce it should have in order to tell the story of Michigan‟s iron and copper mining history to its full potential. Hikers and paddlers have a shorter window of opportunity to enjoy themselves and are, for better or worse, more alone now than ever at Isle Royale National Park as rangers patrol the backcountry less frequently and the park may have to close earlier in the season. Fewer ski trails are groomed, and visitor centers could close at Pictured Rocks National Asunto 4 Lakeshore, taking away from the opportunities visitors have to explore and educate themselves. (Meyerson). Michigan‟s 98 state parks struggle with a massive budget crisis due to the state‟s current rough economic times. Fund depletion severely jeopardizes the Department of Natural Resources‟ (DNR) ability to protect and manage the state‟s natural areas. The Natural Resources budget is down 11% from last year and there is also a $5 million deficit in the State Park and Campground budget. Currently proposed by Governor Granholm and awaiting approval, an increase in fees for hunting and fishing licenses and environmental permits would bring in vital revenue and help the state avoid major cutbacks (Hornbeck). The proposal attracts scorn from many who do not want to pay more for these services, especially at a time of strained household budgets due to the state‟s depressed economy. "I don't like it at all," said Casey Keysor, an avid deer hunter interviewed by the Detroit News. "I'd like to know exactly what it is they're going to do with the money. From what I've heard, (the benefits are) not going to impact me at all” (Lynch). However, with the number of hunters dropping 14% and anglers 22% over the last 20 years, the lost revenue has to be recouped somehow (“Important Facts Related to the Proposed Hunting and Fishing License Package”). Unlike other states, Michigan has not increased these fees since 1996. If the increase is not approved, programs will have to be cut and positions eliminated in an already understaffed system. The DNR is facing a deficit that is on track to reach $13 Million by 2009 resulting in the potential closure of 37 state parks (Sharp, “Cuts Will Hurt”). Michigan should have followed its neighboring states‟ lead in increasing these fees earlier to prevent festering of the problem and shock of sudden fee spikes. Michigan‟s DNR website boasts that residents are never more than half an hour from a state park, state forest campground, state recreation area or state trail system. If these closures Asunto 5 happen, the state‟s environmental champion will be forced to relinquish those bragging rights. Which parks will be least missed? Maybe Metro Detroit mountain bikers won‟t mind giving up Island Lake Recreation Area with possibly the best bike trail system around. Perhaps parents won‟t miss taking their kids swimming at Grand Haven State Park, or fishing at Maybury. History buffs could possibly deal with sacrificing Colonial Michilimackinac State Park and its history of Michigan‟s early settlements. Maybe hunters will be okay giving up Bald Mountain. Eliminating over one-third of Michigan‟s state parks would affect many, regardless of recreational preferences. Those affected may not realized what they had until it‟s taken away. In the fall of 2007, Michigan‟s government shut down when it failed to approve the state budget. All non-essential services were closed down including the state parks. DNR officials were blessed with the unpleasant task of booting people out of public places paid for in part by their tax dollars. Citizens enjoying themselves at parks across the state were asked to leave. Campers in the middle of vacations planned and paid for in advance were made to pack up and go home, their trips ruined in what amounted to a problem that resolved itself four and half hours later. A big chunk of park funding comes from daily entrance and camping fees. These essential fees had to be refunded and much-needed supporters of the parks were angered and left with bitter attitudes toward the DNR and the park system. Eric Sharp of the Detroit Free Press put it best, asking, “If a motel owner were squabbling with a linen supplier or a restaurant owner with the company that sold him meat, would he shut his business down and turn customers away until the dispute was resolved?” This unfortunate situation was not a step in the right direction toward encouraging people to pay more for park services (“State Stupidity”). Some help might come to U.S. National Parks if President Bush‟s Centennial Challenge, a 10-year program to enhance the parks system and encourage contributions from private Asunto 6 channels, is approved and carried out according to plan. Designed to ensure the National Parks are in good shape for their 100-year anniversary in 2016, the Centennial Challenge promises $1 billion over the next ten years to improve park infrastructure and the overall visiting experience, plus another $1 billion in funds set aside to match contributions made by Americans to the National Parks (U.S. Dept. of the Interior). The National Parks Conservation Association, normally critical of the Bush administration, calls it “a catalyzing initiative at a wonderful time for the parks” (Wolf). The U.S. government‟s pledge of $2 Billion over the course of the next decade is a substantial increase in funding. However, considering the NPS already suffers from a $5 billion backlog and the fact that this country spends approximately $2 billion per week on the war in Iraq alone (Leonhardt), improvements could still be made in funding to protect something so important to the nation‟s history and future. Although the feeble economy inflicts enough damage on Michigan‟s parks by itself, this negative influence also accepts assistance from another diabolical source: villainous environmental forces hell-bent on destroying the world. Planet Earth‟s nemesis, global warming, leads the charge and uses ruthless tactics as it advances across the state. Most people are aware of global warming and understand that it is the result of too many greenhouse gasses, like carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide, in the Earth‟s atmosphere. Most have an idea of its eventual worldwide consequences: The world‟s ice continues to melt until it floods the globe, destroying coastal cities, island nations, and eventually everything else. The human race perishes except for those who manage to sprout gills before they return to the sea from which life emerged. Or buildings become really tall and people find a way to drink salt water. What many people don’t realize is that events are unfolding right now in Michigan as a result of this conflict between nature and industry and Michigan‟s parks are casualties caught in the crossfire. Asunto 7 Michigan‟s 3,200 miles of shoreline – more than the entire east coast of the United States – makes it impossible to discuss the Great Lakes State without bringing up the lakes themselves. Currently the United States suffers from extreme drought and, due to its position at the center of one-fifth of the world‟s fresh water supply, Michigan sees tangible proof of this dilemma. Shortage of rain and snow paired with warmer winters means less water to feed the system, less ice, and more evaporation. The result is falling water levels in the Great Lakes. A recent article in the Detroit Free Press revealed that Lake Superior hit a record low in September this year and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers predicts this trend to continue through January at least. Not only does this mean pain for the shipping industry (the lower the water level, the lighter a cargo ship‟s load must be), it also means less business for parks and campgrounds near lakes and rivers around the state (Lam). With Michigan‟s abundance of water, recreation and travel by boat is big business and an essential component of the park system. Shallow water makes it difficult for boats to dock and larger boats face the risk of running aground. Docks become useless and lakeside parks with boat access lose business. “When people called, I told them, „Don‟t come in‟,” says Kim Bourgeois, Harbormaster at Big Bay Harbor in Michigan‟s Upper Peninsula. She has watched the bay‟s water level drop by two feet over the last ten years – one whole foot over the last year alone. “We were barely open,” she goes on to say. Normally 65-100 pleasure boats dock in the harbor over the summer. This summer there were only six (Lam). Isle Royale National Park, a wilderness island in Lake Superior, suffers on a few different levels as a result of global warming. Situated closer to Canada than the U.S., Isle Royale requires commitment and a serious desire to commune with nature from its visitors. Water transportation is only available from a few locations in northern Michigan and Minnesota and, depending on Asunto 8 which launch point one uses, the trip across Lake Superior takes between 2.5 to 4.5 hours. Travel by seaplane is a quicker option for those who can afford to travel by air (DuFresne). Already one of the nation‟s least-visited national parks due to its remote location, Isle Royale was forced to sacrifice essential park entry fees this past summer when around 1500 people were turned away by one of the boat companies that ferries visitors to the park from the mainland. The water is so shallow around Isle Royale that the usual large ferries that make these daily trips can‟t guide themselves in safely (Lam). Not just confined to the shore of Isle Royale, problems resulting from warmer weather creep inland and disturb habitat and affect animal behavior on the island. The home of a longrunning predator-prey study involving moose and wolves, Isle Royale reveals a disturbing trend. The moose population is struggling due to the elimination of the boreal forest, their main food source, and from parasites like ticks, which flourish in the warmer weather. Anemia, hair loss and decline in appetite from hotter summers result in weaker moose come winter. As their population dies off, wolves also lose their main food source. Researchers predict the crash of both species on the island within the next 50 years (Spence). Without the excitement of wildlife viewing to spur hikers to the backcountry trails, not to mention the question of whether boat travel to the island will remain feasible, the allure of Isle Royale National Park could be lost. A shortage of precipitation affects more than the Great Lakes. Each year thousands of people travel to the northern part of the state to visit another captivating natural phenomenon. Situated throughout Michigan‟s picturesque environment, hundreds of waterfalls draw happy sighs and positive attention to state and national parks. Fewer inches of snow melting in the spring and less rain throughout the rest of the year result in sluggish rivers. Waterfalls that gushed and cascaded will eventually trickle and run out. Tahquamenon Falls State Park, home of Asunto 9 the 2nd largest waterfall east of the Mississippi and recipient of 500,000 visitors each year (Tahquamenon Falls Visitor), would no longer attract the attention it does today without its formidable namesake, forfeiting crucial tourism dollars in Michigan. Hikers in Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore trudging the extra few miles off the beaten path of the North Country Trail to see Spray Falls plummet 70 feet off a cliff into Lake Superior will be disappointed to find it no longer exists. Monetary implications aside, imagining Michigan without these arresting waterfall scenes is depressing to contemplate. The lack of winter precipitation feeding waterfalls is good news to those who do not enjoy the aggravation of Michigan‟s notorious lake-effect snow, but it is definitely bad news for Michigan as a whole. Decline in snowfall due to the warmer climate results in disturbances in the force that is winter tourism. Many of Michigan‟s northern parks experience their busy season in winter rather than summer and rely on a substantial amount of snow to draw people out in what would otherwise be considered the off-season. According to a recent article at Pure Michigan, the state‟s official economic development and travel website, winter tourism accounts for one third of the state‟s tourism industry. Cold weather attracts people who appreciate the snowy paradise of the northern woods by snowmobiling, skiing, and snowshoeing more than 6000 miles of trails found throughout the state forests (Borgstrom). Snowmobiling stands out as a powerful tourism force, generating over $1 billion a year in economic activity and attracting visitors from out of state. Over one-third of all snowmobile trip-related spending comes from non-residents who appreciate the ideal terrain and trail network Michigan offers (“Snowmobiling Major Revenue Generator For Local Economies: Annual Expenditure on Sport in North America More than $20 Billion”). Unreliable snowfall deals a heavy blow to Michigan‟s state parks and forests at a time when every tourist dollar is necessary to avoid potential closure. Asunto 10 On the opposite end of the weather spectrum, another hot issue scorches its way across the United States. Summer wildfires historically confined themselves to western states where dry seasons have always been prevalent. However, this trend changes as the world heats up and ideal fire conditions spread to the rest of the country. In a speech given in September of this year regarding the effect of climate change on the country‟s forests, Forest Service Chief Gail Kimbell addressed the issue: Fires are a natural part of forested landscapes, but each year the fire season comes earlier and lasts longer. Fires are burning hotter and bigger, as you have all probably seen on the nightly news. Fires have become more damaging to people and property. Insects are also a natural part of forested landscapes, but now the insects – both the natives and the invaders – are spreading more rapidly than ever. The winter cold isn‟t knocking them back. They are killing more trees and making the fire danger even worse. As Kimball explains, naturally occurring fires, like those that result from lightening strikes, are now more destructive due to the unnaturally long fire season and extra dry conditions of Michigan‟s forests. This past summer, Michigan‟s Upper Peninsula fell victim to such a fire when over 18,000 acres in Luce County were destroyed in a fire that raged for over a week. Costing an estimated $7.5 million to contain and burning dangerously close to Tahquamenon Falls State Park and Seney National Wildlife Refuge, this fire‟s carnage is a frightening example of the dangerous times in which Michigan‟s natural resources are struggling to survive (Kollmeyer). Possibly even more dangerous to Michigan‟s forests than escalating wildfires are the invading insects Forest Service Chief Kimbell touched on in her speech. As anyone who pays attention to Michigan news or has seen the bumper stickers begging people not to move firewood knows, the Emerald Ash Borer has become an epidemic, laying waste to trees and spreading to Asunto 11 alarming distances in a few short years. A Michigan Public Radio Network investigation, “Emerald Ash Borer: Path of Death,” revealed frightening information about this six-legged enemy of the state. Originally from China and believed to have entered the U.S. near Detroit either by plane or cargo ship, the Emerald Ash Borer is a bright green beetle capable of killing an ash tree in one year. Nearly 100% of trees die once they are infected, and with ash trees making up almost four out of every ten trees in the state, the outlook is grim for Michigan‟s forests and consequently its parks. Michigan has banned the transporting of firewood across the state, but “Emerald Ash Borer: Path of Death” unveiled lax enforcement and inadequate fines for violations. Interviews conducted at Sleepy Hollow State Park near Lansing revealed that firewood wasn‟t being diligently checked by DNR workers, and there was no clear action plan for dealing with the problem of contraband wood. As economic and environmentally caused financial woes hit homes and businesses across Michigan, previously unthinkable ideas for generating revenue will become attractive. Many believe shady deals are already being struck behind closed doors and that local repercussions, such as the disappearance of the Great Lakes water, are the result of something even more nefarious than climate change. Retired U.P. resident Ted Sietsema expressed a suspicion held by many in his neck of the woods: “Don‟t give me that global warning stuff,” he grumbled during an interview with the Grand Rapids Press. From his seat in a Grand Marais pub he continued, “That water is going west. That big aquifer out there is empty but they can still water the desert. It‟s got to be coming from somewhere.” There are those like Sietsema who believe the mysterious influence behind the issue is political (Flesher). This theory may seem far-fetched, but consider how attractive these reservoirs must look to parched states to the south and west of Michigan and how nervous this crisis makes those who wish to protect the Great Lakes. Asunto 12 Over the years many plans have been proposed to profit from the Great Lakes water. Luckily, most were rejected by government officials residing in Great Lakes states. In his illuminating book, “The Living Great Lakes: Searching for the Heart of the Inland Seas”, Michigan writer Jerry Dennis uses history to warn fellow citizens of the constant specter of excessive exploitation. He discloses details of a 1981 proposal from a pipeline company in Montana who wanted to pump Lake Superior‟s pristine water, not for drinking, but to mix with crushed coal at their plants, creating a slurry for shipment to world markets. Dennis also reveals that in 1998, a Canadian company was granted a permit on the sly to export 156 million gallons a year from Superior for sale overseas. Once this deal was discovered, the resulting uproar was loud enough to revoke the permit (Dennis 92-93). Environmentally precarious actions such as drilling for oil under the Great Lakes and diverting their water for sale would earn money for Michigan, but not without the risk of disastrous consequences for the state‟s already suffering natural areas. An oil spill on the Great Lakes would be far more calamitous than on an ocean due to the closed nature of the lake system. It only takes one quart of oil to make a two-acre slick and contaminate a quarter of a million gallons of drinking water (Dennis 211-13). By the time these horrors become dismal reality however, it‟s possible the emerald ash borer will have decimated its way from Detroit to Copper Harbor leaving the surviving trees to go up in global-warming induced flames. Perpetual burning bans will cause campfires and smores to become the stuff of legend as the risk of forest fire reaches apocalyptic proportions. “Come Gape at the Desolate Wasteland!” might become Michigan‟s slogan instead of “Great Lakes, Great Times, Great Outdoors.” In an article written for the Great Lakes Fishery Trust, Great Lakes defender Dennis perfectly sums up the human animal‟s battle to live in harmony with nature, proclaiming, Asunto 13 Of all the contradictions in human behavior, our relationship with nature is the most contradictory. We love it and hate it to death. We abuse it heartlessly and defend it ferociously…We dump our wastes into waterways and clear-cut half the world‟s forest – while bestowing our highest honors on artists, writers, and composers who celebrate the beauty of nature. (“Some Thoughts”). Michigan‟s beauty needs celebration and protection today if it‟s going to last for future generations. Backpacker Magazine recently published its pick of America‟s top fifty campsites and Michigan won top honors in two of the most fun categories. Tahquamenon Falls State Park took first place in the “Access to Draft Beer” category for Tahquamenon Falls Brewery, highly recommended after a long day snowshoeing the Giant Pines Trail. Porcupine Mountains Wilderness State Park received the trophy for “Best Skinny-Dipping” due to the attraction of Lake Superior‟s amazingly clear water (Bastone). However, unless hypothermia sounds exciting, Sand Point Beach on Munising Bay in Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore offers a less bonechilling alternative. From there, a trek through the woods on an old logging road eventually leads to Twelvemile Beach, the aforementioned “favorite place.” Unless the park has already been forced to cut the program, park rangers can be seen from time to time giving interpretive lessons of the area‟s landscape, ensuring visitors leave with some knowledge to go with their pretty photos and pilfered beach rocks. Michigan‟s State and National Parks are fun and offer something for everyone. Get out and explore, surfers of the couch! Share the love, hoarders of nature! It‟s despairing to think of Michigan without many of the places that make it special. These irreplaceable natural areas offer a light in dark times and should be experienced by everyone before its too late. Asunto 14 Works Cited Bastone, Kelly. “America‟s Best Campsites.” Backpacker October 2007: 58-66. Borgstrom, Kirsten. “Michigan‟s Winter Weather Returns.” Pure Michigan. 16. Jan. 2007. 26 Nov. 2007 <http://www.michigan.org/travel/press/pressreleases/ combo.asp?ContentId=DB5D8E91-AE8C-4CB0-8878-94AC0F80BEB5>. Dennis, Jerry. “Some Thoughts on the Next Generation of Stewards.” Great Lakes Fishery Trust 5 Oct. 2007 < http://www.glft.org/StewardshipInitiative/>. Dennis, Jerry. The Living Great Lakes: Searching for the Heart of the Inland Seas. New York: Dunne-St. Martin‟s, 2003. DuFresne, Jim. Isle Royale National Park: Foot Trails and Water Routes. 3rd. Ed. Seattle: The Mountain Books, 2006. “Emerald Ash Borer: Path of Death.” Michigan Public Radio Network. Michigan at Risk. 14 September 2004. 15 November 2007 < http://www.mprn.org/michiganatrisk/ program.php?num=1601>. Flesher, John. “Lake Superior is Losing Water, Warming up Record Low Expected this Fall Scientists Unsure of Causes.” Grand Rapids Press 7 August 2007. Infotrac. Oakland Community College Lib. 6 Nov. 2007. Hornbeck, Mark, and Heinlein, Gary. “Budget Breakdown – Here‟s How 2007-08 Spending Plan is Shaping Up.” Detroit News 31 Oct. 2007. 15 Nov. 2007 <http://www.detnews.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20071031/POLITICS/710310426/ 1022/rss10>. “Important Facts Related to the Proposed Hunting and Fishing License Package.” Asunto 15 Michigan Dept. of Natural Resources. 16 Aug. 2007. 6 Nov. 2007 <http://www.michigan.gov/dnr> . Kimbell, Gail. “Climate Change, Kids, and Forests: What‟s the Connection?” USDA Forest Service. 7 Sept. 2007. 13 Nov. 2007 <http://www.fs.fed.us/news/2007/speeches/09/ climate.shtml> . Krollmeyer, Paul. “2007 Wildfire Season Statistics Released by DNR; 395 Fires Burned 20,881 Acres Across State.” Michigan Dept. of Natural Resources. 14 Nov. 2007. 21 Nov. 2007 <http://mich.gov/som/0,1607,7-192--180193--,00.html> . Lam, Tina. “Falling Superior Puts Damper on Business, Tourism.” Detroit Free Press 10 Oct 2007. Infotrac. Oakland Community College Lib. 6 Nov. 2007. Leonhardt, David. “What $1.2 Trillion Can Buy.” New York Times 17 Jan. 2007. 21 Nov. 2007 <http://www.nytimes.com/2007/01/17/business/ 17leonhardt.html?_r=1&ei=5090&oref=slogin>. Lynch, Jim. “Hunting Fees in the Crosshairs.” Detroit News 14 Nov 2007. 30 Nov. 2007 <http://www.detnews.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20071114/METRO/711140353>. Meyerson, Howard. “At Michigan‟s Sites, Somethings‟ Got to Give; Tight Finances Could Squeeze Attractions‟ Services, Staffing.” Grand Rapids Press 30 July 2006. Infotrac. Oakland Community College Lib. 6 Nov. 2007. Sharp, Eric. “Cuts Will Hurt More Than Fee Hikes – Michigan Residents Need State Parks.” Detroit News 28 Oct. 2007. 15 Nov. 2007 <http://www.freep.com/apps/pbcs.dll/ article?AID=/20071028/SPORTS10/710280660/1058>. Sharp, Eric. “State Stupidity an Insult to Campers, State Park Goers.” Detroit Free Press 4 Oct. 2007. Infotrac. Oakland Community College Lib. 6 Nov. 2007. Asunto 16 “Snowmobiling Major Revenue Generator For Local Economies: Annual Expenditure on Sport in North America More than $20 Billion.” International Snowmobile Manufacturers Association. 26 Nov. 2007 <http://www.snowmobile.org/ features_revenue.asp>. Spence, Evelyn. “National Parks Report Card.” Backpacker September 2007: 77-90. Stearns, Matt. “Parks Feel ‟80 Percent‟ Squeeze.” Washington Post 17 April 2006. 16 Nov. 2007 <http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/04/16/ AR2006041600612.html>. Tahquamenon Falls Visitor. Michigan Dept. of Natural Resources. 2006. U.S. Dept. of the Interior. Fact Sheet: The National Parks Centennial Initiative. 7 Feb. 2007. 16 Nov. 2007 <http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/> .2007/02/20070207.html>. Wolf, Richard. “President Pushes Boost in Funding for National Parks.” USA Today 5 Feb. 2007. 16 Nov. 2007 <http://www.usatoday.com/news/washington/2007-02-04-budgetparks_x.htm>.
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