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         Test for Auditory
Comprehension of Language
               By: Dr Kersting

l   Written by Elizabeth Carrow-Woolfolk
l   Developed in 1965
l   Last Revised in 1999
l   It provides an inventory of grammatical forms
    for observing a child’s auditory-
    comprehension and helps identify individuals
    having receptive language disorders.
l   The TACL-3 is used for identifying a subjects
    language problems, planning intervention,
    monitoring progress, and parent
l   It is also an excellent tool for use in research
l   It measures the literal meaning of words,
    grammatical morphemes, and syntactic
    constructions, within a specific linguistic
    environment and in contrast to related
    grammatical structures.
l   Test ages 3.0 to 9.11
l   Test contains 139 items
    l   grouped into three subtest
Description continued
l   Subtest include
    l   Vocabulary
    l   Grammatical morphemes
    l   Elaborated Phrase
l   Each item consist of three color drawings
    l   One picture illustrates the meaning of the word or
        phrase being tested
    l   The other two pictures illustrate a semantic or
        grammatical contrast to the stimulus
    l   Or in some cases, one picture illustrates a contrast
        to the stimulus and the other is a decoy
l   Norms based on 1102 normal developing
    children , ages 3.0 to 9.11, from 24 states.
l   When standardizing this test the following
    were considered:
    l   Geographic area
    l   Age
    l   Gender
    l   Race
    l   Ethnicity
    l   Disability status
    l   Education of Parents
l   Validity and Reliability was based on the
    results from 991 normal developing children,
    66 with speech and language disorders, and
    33 with learning disabilities.
l   Test-retest reliability and Inter-scorer
    reliability was used on TACL-3 and for all
    three subtest.
The TACL-3 has
l   Content-Description Validity
l   Construct-Identification Validity
l   The examiner reads the stimulus out loud.
    l    “Show me _____”
l   The subject is directed to point to which
    picture best represents the meaning.
l   No oral responses are required
l   Stimulus is given only once, except for
    children 5 years and younger.
    l   FOR CHILDREN 5 AND UNDER: If child does not
        respond in 10 seconds, give the stimulus a
        second time.
Administration continued
l   If subject does not correctly answer one of the
    three example items, then test should not be
l   Test begins after one example is answered
l   Subtest should be administered in order
l   Always begin with the first item of each subtest
    and test until ceiling is achieved or final item is
l   Ceiling is achieved when child misses three
    items in succession
Administration continued
l   Test should be administered in a non-
    distracting environment
    l   Quiet room, comfortable furniture, good lighting, ect.
l   Give Breaks when needed
l   The test is not timed, they can work at their
    own pace
l   Test does not have to be administered in one
    l   Stop test if client tires or seems disinterested, continue
        administration later
Administration continued
l   Be aware of fatigue, nervousness,
    attention, and the child’s attitude towards
    taking the test.
    l   Make a note of these on the score sheet, they
        could affect results
l   Examiner should consistently praise and
    encourage the examinee
l   Test administration takes 20-30 minutes
l   Give a 1 for correct, 0 for incorrect
l   Record the raw score for each subtest on the
    score sheet.
l   Use appendix A to find the percentiles ranks
    and standard scores for each subtest.
l   Use appendix C to convert scores into age
l   Use the sum of the standard scores from
    each subtest in appendix B to find the
    quotient score and overall percentile rank.
Scoring continued
l   Over all age equivalence can be calculated
    using the following formula

    AE= (age in months) (TACL-3 quotient)
Writing Goals
l   The client will increase the use of adjectives
    in daily conversation by 20%.
l   The client will increase the use of pronouns
    in conversation by 30%.
l   The client will begin to use different types of
    sentences (negative, interrogative, active and
    passive voice, etc.) 30% of the time
Why chose this test
l   It is quick and easy to administer
l   It is simple and easy to score
l   Subject is not required to make verbal
l   It allows the examiner to make diagnostic
l   The pictures are universal, rather than
    cultural bound depictions of the items and

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