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					Technologies and Perspectives of
Solar Cooling Systems


AHK Conference Sydney, Australia, 24th March 2014
www.efficiency-from-germany.info

Dr. Uli Jakob
Solem Consulting / Green Chiller Association for Sorption Cooling e.V.
Sydney, Australia, 24.03.2014
Global solar radiation




 kWh/m2/a




                                      Germany:                  Australia:
                                   1,000 kWh/m2/a            2,000 kWh/m2/a


                 Source: Meteonorm (data), Friedemann Jung
Opportunities – Solar thermal energy in Germany


  German technology leaders (selected examples):
  Concentrating solar players (CSP and process heat)
           •     Engineering and services:         11 companies
           •     Component suppliers:              28 companies
           •     Implementation:                   3 companies
           •     Research institutes:              3 institutes

  Solar Cooling players
           •     Engineering and services:         3 companies
           •     Component suppliers:              13 companies
           •     Implementation:                   3 companies
           •     Research institutes:              > 10 institutes
  Source: Prof. Dr. Kohlenbach, Solem Consulting
Technologies




www.efficiency-from-germany.info
World exhibition Paris – First solar ice block (1878)




           Source: Olynthus Verlag"
Solar cooling – Solar resource vs. Cooling demand

                                       Resource and demand are in phase




                                          Global radiation

                                          Cooling demand

                                          Heat demand

                                          Excess solar heat in summer


 Source: SolarNext
Comparison of closed cooling processes

                                                  Vapour
                                                                                         ABsorption                            ADsorption
                                                compression
                                                                                              Heat                                 Heat
         Driving energy                              Electricity
                                                                                         (65-200 degC)                         (45-95 degC)
                                           1.5 - 2 (small capacity)               0.6 – 0.8 (single effect)
                 COP
                                              3 - 5 (med/large                    1.1 – 1.3 (double effect)                          0.4 – 0.7
                                                   capacity)                       1.5 – 1.7 (triple effect)
     Specific reject heat
                                                     1.3 – 1.7                               1.6 – 2.7                               2.4 – 3.5
          (Qc/Qo)
                                                                                    50 W to 5 MW (NH3)
       Cooling capacity                          50 W to 5 MW                                                                 8 kW – 500 kW
                                                                                   10 kW – 11 MW (H2O)
                                                H-FCKW (R22)
                                              (ODP=0.055, GWP=1500)
                                          H-FKW (R134a, R410a)                         NH3 (R717), H2O
                                                                                                                                 H2O (R718)
            Refrigerant
                                             (ODP=0, GWP=1300-1725)                         (R718)                              (ODP=0, GWP=0)
                                                   NH3 (R717)                             (ODP=0, GWP=0)
                                                  (ODP=0, GWP=0)
                                                   CO2 (R744)
                                                  (ODP=0, GWP=1)
   ODP = Ozone depletion potential (normalised to R11 = 1), GWP (Global Warming Potential) in relation to 1kg CO2 (over 100 years)
General scheme of a solar cooling system


    collector
                                                 M
                                                                             Cooling water
      field
                                                                         M
                                                 M
                                       hot                                             cooling
                                     water                                              tower
                                    storage
                                      tank
                           heat
                        exchanger                heating
                                                 system                  M
                                                           absorption
                                                             chiller
                                                                                                 fan-coils

    Source: Solem Consulting

                                                                                        cold
                                                                                       water
                                                                                      storage
                                                                                        tank
                                                           compression
                                                              chiller




              Solar                  Hot water              Chiller(s)               Chilled water
Absorption chillers (small to medium-scale capacity)


EAW                                        AGO
Wegracal SE 15 - 200                       congelo 50 - 500
Water / Lithium bromide                    Ammonia / Water




                          Source: EAW       Source: AGO
Adsorption and absorption chillers (small-scale capacity)


 InvenSor                  SorTech              SolarNext         Pink
 LTC10 & HTC18             eCoo10               chillii® PSC19    PC19
 Water / Zeolite           Water / Silica gel   Ammonia / Water   Ammonia / Water




        Source: InvenSor     Source: SorTech     Source: Pink      Source: Pink
Integrated hydraulic unit for comfortable system integration




     Source: InvenSor           Source: SorTech
Commercial available standardised solar cooling kits

SolarNext (Germany) "          Schüco (Germany) "
chillii® Cooling Kit WFC175"   LB15 System Package"




 Source: SolarNext"                                    Source: Schüco"
Solar collector technologies – Applications for solar cooling

                             Heat transfer     Collector    Application for
   Solar thermal collector
                               medium         temperature        cooling

 Air
                                   Air          40-60ºC       Air-conditioning       20ºC
 collector



 Flat plate                      Water,                     Air-conditioning, slab
                                                70-90ºC                              15ºC
 collector                    Water-Glycol                         cooling



 Evacuated
                                 Water,                     Air-conditioning, slab
 tube                                           90-120ºC                             0ºC
                              Water-Glycol                         cooling
 collector

 Parabolic
                                                               Refrigeration,
 trough /                      Thermal oil,                                          -20ºC
                                               120-250ºC    air-conditioning, slab
 Fresnel                         Water
 collector
                                                                   cooling
                                                                                             T
Applications




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Application (Bank, Portugal, 545 kW cooling)




     Source: SOLID



                                               Source: SolarNext
Application (Cosmetic industry, Greece, 700 kW cooling)




     Sources: Sarantis
Application (Winery, Tunisia, 12 kW cooling)




                                               Sources: ANME




     Source: Domaine Neferis
Application (Office building, Austria, 14 kW cooling)




      Source: Bachler Austria                           Source: Pink
Application (Residential building, China, 7.5 kW cooling)




      Sources: SolarNext
Funding schemes in Germany




www.efficiency-from-germany.info
Supporting activities in Germany

  •  MAP (market incentive program): BAFA offers 180 EUR/m2 for
     collector areas between 20 m2 and 100 m2 for solar thermal
     cooling, now for new buildings (MFH, commercial), too.

  •  MAP: KfW offers a subsidy equal to 50% of investment for solar
     cooling with collector areas between 40 m2 and 100 m2.

  •  BAFA has opened the program for promotion of efficient cooling
     systems in industry for sorption technology > 5 kW (25% of net
     investment or 35% if ammonia is used as refrigerant).
Perspectives




www.efficiency-from-germany.info
Development of Solar Cooling Market




       Source: TECSOL / Solem Consulting"
Documented Solar Cooling Installations (2009)




                                                                Source: Sparber, IEA-SHC Task 38




       •    135 large-scale installations (blue column)
       •    166 small/medium-scale installations (red column)
Market share of solar driven sorption chillers (2009)




              Sources: EURAC, Tecsol"
Cost development of solar cooling Kits (2007-2012)
                                                                                                   Source: Solem Consulting / Green Chiller"
                                            9000
     specific costs of solar cooling kits



                                            8000
                                            7000                            - 50%!
                                            6000
               [EUR/kW cold]




                                            5000
                                            4000
                                            3000
                                            2000
                                            1000
                                              0
                                                   2007           2008       2009          2010          2011                 2012
                                                                                    year
                                     small capacity up to 10 kW      medium capacity up to 50 kW      large capacity above 50 kW

                                              •  Cost reduction of 45-55% within last 5 years!
IEA Technology Roadmap SHC – Market potential by 2050


                                     Source: IEA Technology Roadmap Solar Heating and Cooling, 2012




     •  1.5 x 1018 J/a = 416.7 TWh/a Solar Cooling by 2050
     •  Systems could enter the market between 2015 and 2020
IEA Technology Roadmap SHC – Share of solar cooling by 2050


                                        Source: IEA Technology Roadmap Solar Heating and Cooling, 2012




      •  Solar Cooling nearly 17% of total energy use for cooling!
Conclusion

 •  Over 1,000 solar cooling systems installed worldwide (2013)

 •  Several new small and medium-scale Absorption and Adsorption
    chillers were developed in Europe

 •  Standardized Solar Cooling Kits available to bring down the costs

 •  Incentive schemes available, e.g. in Germany (KfW) up to 50%
    repayment bonus of net investment costs!

 •  Solar heat is particularly of interest if a solar thermal system is
    used for other heat needs, too (e.g. heating, DHW)
Thanks for your attention!



AHK Conference Sydney, Australia, 24th March 2014
www.efficiency-from-germany.info

Contact:   Dr. Uli Jakob
           Solem Consulting   uli.jakob@solem-consulting.com
           Green Chiller      uli.jakob@greenchiller.de

				
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