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					.NET 2.0 Terms – http://ripalsoni.wordpress.com

.NET 2.0 Terms
access control list (ACL) A term most commonly used to refer to a discretionary access control list (DACL), which is an authorization restriction mechanism that identifies the users and groups that are assigned or denied access permissions on an object. Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) A synonym for Rijndael, which is a symmetric encryption algorithm that uses key sizes of 128 through 256 bits. application domain A logical container that allows multiple assemblies to run within a single process, while preventing them from directly accessing another assembly's memory. application setting A custom setting that the application reads, writes, or both. assembly evidence Evidence that an assembly presents that describes the assembly's identity, such as the hash, the publisher, or the strong name. asymmetric encryption A cryptography technique that uses separate private and public keys to encrypt and decrypt data. Also known as public-key encryption. Asynchronous Programming Model A pattern of working with specific types of .NET classes that use Begin/End method pairs to provide asynchronous execution of certain methods. attribute A specific class type in the .NET Framework that allows for declarative binding of code. authentication The process of identifying a user. authorization The process of verifying that a user is allowed to access a requested resource. BinaryFormatter Located in the System.Runtime.Serialization.Formatters.Binary namespace, this formatter is the most efficient way to serialize objects that will be read only by .NET Framework–based applications.

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boxing Converting from a value type to a reference type, which often occurs implicitly. CAS (code access security) A security system that enables administrators and developers to authorize applications, similar to the way they have always been able to authorize users. cast A conversion from one type to another CCW(COM Callable Wrapper) A proxy class that sits between a .NET assembly and a COM component and that allows the COM component to consume the .NET assembly. cipher text Encrypted text generated by an encryption algorithm that cannot be converted to plain text without a secret key. CLS-compliant exception Any exception object managed by the .NET Framework. All CLS-compliant exceptions derive from the System.Exception hierarchy. CLS stands for Common Language Specification. code access security (CAS) A security system that enables administrators and developers to authorize applications, similar to the way they have always been able to authorize users. code group Authorization device that associates assemblies with permission sets. code page A list of selected character codes (with characters represented as code points) in a certain order. Code pages are usually defined to support specific languages or groups of languages that share common writing systems. Windows code pages contain 256 code points and are zero-based. collection Any class that allows for gathering items into lists and for iterating through those items. COM(Component Object Model) Prior to .NET, COM was the fundamental development framework from Microsoft.

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COM Callable Wrapper (CCW) A proxy class that sits between a .NET assembly and a COM component and that allows the COM component to consume the .NET assembly. configuration management The practice of handling and managing how an application is set up and configured. connection string A specific value used by an application to connect to a given database. All ODBC- and OleDb-compliant databases (which means databases from all major vendors) use a connection string. For security, these should always be encrypted. constraint A condition on a type parameter that restricts the type argument you can supply for it. A constraint can require that the type argument implement a particular interface, be or inherit from a particular class, have an accessible parameterless constructor, or be a reference type or a value type. You can combine these constraints, but you can specify at most one class. contract See interface. current culture The culture that the application is currently configured to run under. current UI culture The culture used to display many visual interface elements. This might or might not be the same as the current culture. DACL(discretionary access control list) An authorization restriction mechanism that identifies the users and groups that are assigned or denied access permissions on an object. Data Encryption Standard (DES) A symmetric encryption algorithm that uses relatively short key lengths that are vulnerable to cracking attacks. declarative RBS demands Access restrictions that are declared as an attribute to a method and that instruct the runtime to perform an access check before running the method.

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defense-in-depth The security principle of providing multiple levels of protection so that your system is still protected in the event of a vulnerability. deflate An industry standard for compressing data that is efficient, commonly used, and patent free. DES(Data Encryption Standard) A symmetric encryption algorithm that uses relatively short key lengths that are vulnerable to cracking attacks. deserialization The process of converting a previously serialized sequence of bytes into an object. digital signature A value that can be appended to electronic data to prove that it was created by someone who possesses a specific private key. discretionary access control list (DACL) An authorization restriction mechanism that identifies the users and groups that are assigned or denied access permissions on an object. encryption key A value that can be used to encrypt and decrypt data. When used with symmetric encryption, this is also known as a shared secret. event log A mechanism that allows an application to record information about its state and persist it permanently. evidence The way an assembly is identified, such as the location where the assembly is stored, a hash of the assembly's code, or the assembly's signature. exception Unexpected events that interrupt normal execution of an assembly. file system The operating-system-provided mechanism for storing files in folders and drives. filtering exceptions The process of ordering Catch clauses so that specific exception types are caught before general exception types.

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fully trusted An assembly that is exempt from code access security (CAS) permission checks. garbage collection Recovery of memory in the heap through removal of dereferenced items. generic type A single programming element that adapts to perform the same functionality for a variety of data types. globalization The process of enabling an application to format numbers and dates for a particular culture. Located in the System.Drawing namespace, this class provides methods for drawing lines, shapes, and text. gzip An industry standard extension to the deflate compression agorithm that allows for a header to carry additional information. hash A value that summarizes a larger piece of data and can be used to verify that the data has not been modified since the hash was generated. heap Area of memory where reference types are stored. host evidence Evidence that an assembly's host presents describing the assembly's origin, such as the application directory, URL, or site. imperative role-based security (RBS) demands Access restrictions that are declared within your code and can be used to restrict access to portions of code on a very granular basis. inherited permission Permissions that propagate to an object from its parent object. initialization vector (IV) Data that symmetric encryption algorithms use to further obscure the first block of data being encrypted, which makes unauthorized decrypting more difficult.

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interface Defines a common set of members that all classes that implement the interface must provide. Interop An abbreviation of the word Interoperation, which means managed and unmanaged code working together. isolated storage A protected place in a user's system to store data without requiring high-level rights to an application and that is scoped by user, assembly, or application. iteration The process of moving through a collection of items. IV(initialization vector) Data that symmetric encryption algorithms use to further obscure the first block of data being encrypted, which makes unauthorized decrypting more difficult. keyed hash algorithms Algorithms that protect against modification of the hash by encrypting it by using a secret key that both the sender and receiver must have. localization The process of enabling an application to format numbers and dates based on a specific locale. managed code Code that is managed by the .NET Framework runtime. marshaling Moving type data across different execution environments. MD5 The Message Digest hashing algorithm. The hash size for the MD5 algorithm is 128 bits. memory leak The problem of resource leakage related to memory that is not reclaimed. module A single container for types inside an assembly. An assembly can contain one or more modules. multifile assemblies An assembly that is broken up into several modules that can be loaded as independently as necessary.

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Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) A standard that enables binary data to be published and read on the Internet. The header of a file with binary data contains the MIME type of the data. This informs client programs (such as Web browsers and e-mail clients) that they cannot process the data as straight text. narrowing Converting a value from one type to another when the destination type can't accommodate all possible values from the source type. These conversions must be explicit in C# and in Visual Basic if Option Strict is on. .NET Framework 2.0 Configuration tool A tool provided by the .NET Framework that allows visual configuration and management of applications and assemblies nullable type A value type that can be set to Nothing/null. partially trusted code An assembly that must undergo code access security (CAS) permission checks each time it accesses a protected resource. performance counter A mechanism to measure performance of code that is executing. permission A code access security (CAS) access control entry (ACL). permission set A CAS ACL consisting of multiple permissions. Platform Invoke A mechanism used to call unmanaged code from managed code. principal policy The scheme that the .NET Framework uses to determine which default principal will be returned when the current principal is queried by an application. process An application that is currently running. Processes allow for resource isolation. RC2 A symmetric encryption standard designed to replace Data Encryption Standard (DES) that uses variable key sizes.

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RCW(Runtime Callable Wrapper) A proxy class that sits between a .COM component and a .NET assembly and that allows the .NET assembly to consume the component. regular expression A set of characters that can be compared to a string to determine whether the string meets specified format requirements so that it can be used to extract portions of the text or to replace text. Rijndael A symmetric encryption algorithm that uses key sizes of 128 through 256 bits. As a government encryption standard, this algorithm is also known as AES. role-based security (RBS) Authenticating users and then authorizing them based on the permissions assigned to their user accounts and group memberships. roll back An action taken in cases where an installation does not complete successfully. To roll back means to undo any changes made up until the point of failure so that the machine is returned to the state it was in prior to the installation attempt. Runtime Callable Wrapper (RCW) A proxy class that sits between a .COM component and a .NET assembly and that allows the .NET assembly to consume the component. satellite assemblies Assemblies that contain localization resources for different cultures and reside outside the main assembly. Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) A standard that uses public-key encryption to protect network communications. security access control list (SACL) serialization The process of serializing and deserializing objects so that they can be stored or transferred and then later re-created. service A process that runs in the background, without a user interface, in its own user session. SHA1 The Secure Hash Algorithm 1. The hash size for the SHA1 algorithm is 160 bits.

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shared secret A symmetric encryption key. signature The return type, parameter count, and parameter types of a member. Simple Message Transfer Protocol (SMTP) The standard clients use to transmit e-mail messages to mail servers and mail servers use to transmit messages between themselves. SoapFormatter Located in the System.Runtime.Serialization.Formatters.Soap namespace, this XML-based formatter is the most reliable way to serialize objects that will be transmitted across a network or read by non–.NET Framework applications. SoapFormatter is more likely to successfully traverse firewalls than BinaryFormatter. SSL(Secure Sockets Layer) A standard that uses public-key encryption to protect network communications. stack An area of memory where value types are stored. An ordered collection of one or more StackFrame objects. structure A user-defined value type made up of other types. symmetric encryption A cryptography technique that uses a single secret key to encrypt and decrypt data. Also known as secret-key encryption. thread A single synchronous line of execution of code. Triple DES A symmetric encryption standard that uses 156-bit keys. Essentially, Triple DES repeats the (Data Encryption Standard) DES algorithm three times. Type Library Exporter A tool used to export a .NET type to COM (Component Object Model). Type Library Importer A tool used to import a COM type into .NET.

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type safety Verification of a given type so that mismatches cannot occur. unboxing Converting back from a reference type to a value type after boxing has occurred. Unicode A massive code page with tens of thousands of characters that support most languages and scripts, including Latin, Greek, Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic, Chinese, and Japanese (and many other scripts). uninstall Getting rid of any remnants of an application so that the machine looks identical to how it would have had the application never been installed. widening Converting a value from one type to another when the destination type can accommodate all possible values from the source type. These conversions can be implicit. Windows kernel objects Operating-system-provided mechanisms that perform crossprocess synchronization. These include mutexes, semaphores, and events. Windows Management Instrumentation Atechnology that provides access to information about objects in a managed environment. XML(eXtensible Markup Language) Astandardized, text-based document format for storing application-readable information.

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