SLOVENSKÁ LITERATÚRA Volume LIII. 2006 / No 3 – 4
Articles Marcela M i k u l o v á, A Game and (or) a Life, Misanthropy al la Slovak (Božena Slančíková- Timrava: Unkind People) 169 Jana K u z m í k o v á, The Crime of Non Living Things by Ivan Horváth in the Context of the Modernistic Virtuality 178 Vladimír B a r b o r í k, A Reminiscent Novel Revived through an Emotion (František Hečko: Červené víno, The Red Wine) 184 Zora P r u š k o v á, Hidden Identity of a „Builder´s“ Ballade (Alfonz Bednár: Sklený vrch, Glass Mount) 200 René B í l i k, ... Immediately It Becomes a Reminiscence (Dušan Dušek: Milosrdný čas, The Merciful Time) 208 Jana P á c a l o v á, From a Construction to a Function (A Contribution to a Poetics of Fairy Tales) 221
Views Jelena P a š t é k o v á, Living Authentically, Competently – Living at One Breath 243 Mária V a l e n t o v á, Nitra on the Journey of Peter Zajac 245 Adam B ž o c h, About Germanistic Activities of Peter Zajac 249 Pavel M a t e j o v i č, Some Personal Notes to Creativity of Literature 252 Ute R a ß l o f f, Overlapping Boudaries in the Research in Literary Scholarship of Peter Zajac 254 Fedor M a t e j o v, Greeting to P. Zajac 260 Michail L. G a s p a r o v, M. M. Bachtin in the 20th Century Russian Culture 262
Resources and Documents Peter Zajac. Selected Personal Bibliography (Viola F o r m á n k o v á, Veronika K u b i č k o v á) 265
Reviews 321 From Scholarly Life 326
A Game and (or) a Life, Misanthropy al la Slovak (Božena Slančíková-Timrava: Nemilí, Unkind People) Marcela M i k u l o v á, Ústav slovenskej literatúry SAV, Bratislava
The novelette Nemilí (Unkind People, 1899) confirms by its poetics and interpretation of reality that Timrava is an author of modern Slovak prose. This work can be characterised as a contribution to a decomposition of a fixture of realistic writing. Destabilised of up to that time integral world of prose happens on all levels of the texts, it influences mainly the semantic core. In that period up-to-date analogy of fate, life and cards became a base of the story. Timrava uses a card game as a tool of original interpretation of social relationships. From the game its primarily (relaxing) determination disappeared. The game became a stereotyped duty, which reveals “ontological vacuum“ of characters´ being. The story is focused on the “problem“ of the main character Saba, a daughter of a village pastor – whom she can marry, as she is “neither nice nor rich or even bright” Parallel to a card game a “love game” is being developed, also among other characters – while epilogue of the novelette stresses a victory of things happening by chance in the love relationships among characters. It is a part of the author´s strategy – “a game with a reader”. The first plan point, life and relationships only happen by chance like a game, has an opposite point in the deep structure of the text. It is a consciousness of an existential inevitability, inscribed into the “fate” of people of a certain social position. Banality, nihilism, illiberality, lukewarmness – it is never ending meaningless cycle of the village intelligence in Timrava´s story – her existentional misanthropy, with a hidden message about human being, seeking and not finding of a harmonic fulfilment of the life.
The Crime of Non Living Things by Ivan Horváth in the Context of the modernistic Virtuality Jana K u z m í k o v á, Ústav slovenskej literatúry SAV, Bratislava
The aim of the study is to clarify a phenomenon of modernistic virtuality and some of its expressions in the arts of 20-ties and 30-ties of the 20th century. The European and Slovak prose in that time reflected intuitivistic concepts of so called antirational thinking an imaterialism of vitalistic philosophy. Mainly Bergson´s conception of creative development with its virtual dimensions was an inspirational impact. Today more over it offers a base for the post-modern thinking in the history of literature, which intention is not to ignore historical enter of virtual reality in all kinds of spheres of human activity. This methodological base was applied in the short story written by Ivan Horváth Zločin neživých vecí (The Crime of Non Living Things, 1932). The analysis showed that he included Bergson´s virtuality into the plot of the short story. Due to it was possible to analyse a discursive construction of Horváth´s text, superior to epistemological happening of the story. Discursive style and its connection with the motives of truth and a woman pre-marked poststructuralist a Derrida like thinking about the same problems. Research in the history of literature regarding a discursive
composition of texts as well as the character of artistic virtuality and virtual reality innovate thinking about values of the epoch of Modernism. The cognitive element of such an approach offers new criteria for understanding of so called realism as a specific co-part of modernistic writing.
A Reminiscent Novel Revived through an Emotion (František Hečko: Červené víno, The Red Wine) Vladimír B a r b o r í k, Ústav slovenskej literatúry SAV, Bratislava
The study is a part of a collective project focused on interpretation of the key Slovak literary works of the 20th c. The aim of it is to read known and in the case of a novel of František Hečko Červené víno (The Red Wine) also classicised works in confrontation with the previously made interpretations. The starting point for the interpretation is textological, a comparison of several editions of Červené víno (The red Wine), while the decisive conceptive differences are mostly between the first and all other following editions. The next step of our work was a typological identification of the work. We used a typology coming from M. M. Bachtin. The significant changes of the text of the first edition made by the author himself (1948), which are followed in the all the editions up to now, can be explained predominantly by outside circumstances, that means establishment of the Communist regime in 1948 and a radically new cultural politics, which negated hard plural model of literature having been respected until that time. Hečko adapted to this situation. He responded as an embattled socialistic writer and that was why he reduced in the novel much of what belongs to main natural resources of Červené víno (The Red Wine): motives, in which folk Catholicism had appeared, biblical lexical layer, as well as oral and ethic bases characteristic for the Christian cultural model. He changed markedly the end of the novel and he put into a class aspect – required by the period and regime. His changes were in contradiction of the former structure of the novel, which was based on the principles of how Bachtin identifies idyllic chronotop. The interpretation is an attempt to reveal of former conceptual bases of Hečko´s writing and to point out the non – organic changes in his novel which were required by the historical situation. Hidden Identity of a „Builder´s“ Ballade (Alfonz Bednár: Sklený vrch, Glass Mount) Zora P r u š k o v á, Ústav slovenskej literatúry SAV, Bratislava
The study about the Bednár´s debut Sklený vrch (The Glass Mount) is focused on an analysis of the stylistic, generic and generally aesthetic fragmentation and ambivalence in ideologically motivated prose work written actually in the post war period. The base is a new reading of canonical texts from the Slovak literature in the light of new interpretations and knowledge and with applying of actual theoretic tools.
Actual view at Bednár´s debut enlighten also a wider context of his literary work, mostly of him as a scenarist; this author repetitively used methods of fantasy fiction represented by genre references and often quotations from the folk and literary ballade, fairy tale and tales. In the interpretational key of parallel interactive motives ideologically and moralistically planned novelistic project overlaps into a position of existentially motivated writing. His complicated composition, expressively individualised type of a female character and also a genre of memoirs from the three different life periods of the female narrator altogether model the novel of Bednár as an initiating attempt to socially critical epics with some features of popular and interesting reading. From the aspect of topical reflection a literary alliance between the contemporary order to make a heroic, war novel, or a novel about partisan resistance or even the novel about building up socialist society and the plot methods of psychological fiction, as well as parallel genre references to ballade about an unfulfilled love and a fatal predestination of human fate as a consequence, even punishment for a betray, falling, or guilt, which influence controversially so simple and linear story. Burger´s ballade Lenóra is in the debut of Bednár an allegoric semantic focal point of an epic narration. The contribution of a new reading of Bednár´s debut as a key title from the post war production of the 50- ties is more structured and more differentiated view at the literature which was not considered to be an original, critical and towards the historical period autocorrected and subversive writing.
... Immediately It Becomes a Reminiscence (Dušan Dušek: Milosrdný čas, The Merciful Time) René B í l i k, Ústav slovenskej literatúry SAV, Bratislava The aim of the study is to show that the collection of the short stories by Dušan Dušek Milosrdný čas (The Merciful Time) is possible to read as a compact reminiscent story. This reader’s approach is inspired especially by the forms of narrator in the stories, which signalised reminiscent strategy. At the interpretation we come out from the up to now having done readings of Dušek ´s proses (Kršáková, Zajac, Prušková), from the conception of a cultural memory by Jan Assman and also from theoretical works focused on the problem of authenticity in the literature (Mukařovský, Bachtin, Merhaut, P.de Man, Mikula, Zajac, etc.). Present interpretation showed that the world of Dušek´s proses is a stylized version of everyday, profane world, which in the contact of involved, very sensitive subject produces reminiscences of the past life in topical space. Dušek´s world functions as a place of memory sui generis. Anecdotes represent peculiar unit of the book. It is possible to identify their phraseological character. Dušek´s micro stories have form of literal realisation of phraselogism, the author negates their metonymic /metaphoric base. We consider frazeologism as a cultural text with a denoting function and a qualifying intention, then presented stories, as literally realised phraseologisms , are cultural characteristic of a world Dušek´s proses and a organic part of the whole collection of the short stories. The results of the study represents only the first reading of the book Milosrdný čas (The Merciful Time), which reveals the reminiscent strategy of the author and identifies stylistic methods resulted in a picture of trustworthy looks like human space of living.
From a Construction to a Function (A Contribution to a Poetics of Fairy Tales) Jana P á c a l o v á, Ústav slovenskej literatúry SAV, Bratislava The aim of my contribution is to show that introductory and final formula considered as one of the most phenomenal features of a fairy tale are in spite of their basic characteristic structural, expressional and semantic tradition – inwardly structured, while this fact makes a key influence on the poetic of fairy tales. These formula were analysed on the ethnographic material (so called Wolman’s catalogue of Slovak fairy tales), who for the needs of this contribution more objectively – in comparison with formula from literary fairy tales – reflects a typology of formula. We analysed them regard with their construction, way of development, stylisation, attitude of a narrator, measure of convention and a way of its contamination. Following a stylistically – narrative analysis of more than thousands introductory and final formula we identified several types of these skeleton forms: simple introductory and final formula characterised by lower degree of stylization and development of conventionalised form and content; stylised introductory formulas (magic), explicitly characterised fictional world fairy tales; stylised introductory formula (rhetoric) and final (formula with an involvement of a narrator into a plot) formula, expressing an attitude of a narrator to the told story. Further we found that in the folk environment differently from the literary one the occurrence of formula in the right sense of word is rarer – in more than one third of the texts the skeleton of formula is missed. From the analysis it is clear how some of the types of formula determine generic characteristic of texts in which they are their skeleton, how much they also depend on an interpret ´s narrative characteristics and what is their message value regarding with the skeleton text (from the aspect of a fairy tale as an oral genre– narrative strategies – and from the aspect of a fairy text as a fictional text). In the end of my contribution we defined functions of formula, which are revealed just on the background of typological modification of formula. The basic function of formula is to declare a fairy tale story as a fictional story – that is why we can consider formula as a type of metaleptic figures. The study is an inspirational contribution to the theory of fairy tales which has not specified in details formula and which represents a base to analysis of literary fairy tales. It was shown that making formula in the folk and literary fairy tales differ in the message value.