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					SOKOINE UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE
Department of Wildlife Management Programme: BSC.Wildlfe Management 3rd year Semester 6 (March –June 2009) Course: WLM 308 Wildlife-Based Tourism and Ecotourism Instructor: Edwin Asubisye

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Lecture I Tourism planning
Background and phases Definition The need for tourism planning Purposes of tourism planning Tourism planning Scales/ levels of tourism planning Steps involved in tourism planning

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Background and phases
Tourism planning has evolved from its earlier approaches which reflected a generally simplistic view of tourism to a more sophisticated and integrated approach. This has been a result of the fact that the tourism industry is a combination of different businesses and organizations connected by the common factor of providing services to the tourists (Holden 2000).
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Background cont…….
The tourism industry has substantial and potentially long standing effects hence there is need to have relevant tourism planning frameworks and appropriate public policies so as to ensure achievement of the desired goals.

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Background cont…….
Traditionally tourism planning has mainly focused on site development, accommodation and building regulations of tourism development, presentation of cultural, historical and nature tourist features and provision of infrastructure

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Background cont…….
However, in recent years with increasing globalization, tourism planning has adopted and expanded to include boarder socio-cultural and environmental concerns. Hence there has been need to promote and develop integrated development economic strategies at all scales.
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Background cont…….
Internationally the focus and methods of tourism planning have evolved to meet the demands of the changing society. This has resulted in tourism plans evolving over time through four major distinctive phases.

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Phases of tourism planning
Phase I: Following the 2nd world war (1945-1955) the major emphasis of tourism planning was on dismantling and streamlining the policies, customs, currency and health regulations.

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Phases of tourism planning cont….
Phase II: during (1955-70) there was greater government involvement in tourism marketing in order to increase earning potential.

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Phases of tourism planning cont….
Phase III: 1970-1985, there was increased government in supply of tourism infrastructure and the use of tourism as a tool for regional development.

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Phases of tourism planning cont….
Phase IV: 1985-Present. There has been Continued use of tourism as a tool for regional development Increased focus on environmental issues

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Phase IV cont………….. Reduced direct government involvement in the supply of tourism infrastructure. Greater emphasis on the development of public-private partnership and industry self regulation. Development of tourism business networks to meet policy goals.

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Pioneers of tourism planning
Historically the pioneers of tourism planning were from Europe. In the 1960s France, Ireland, and UK were among the first countries to have deliberate tourism planning quickly spread and was adopted by several developing countries in Africa and Asia.

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Other countries
Today, countries like Australia and SA have heavily invested in tourism planning at national and regional levels.

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TOURISM PLANNING DEFINITION
The term planning is extremely ambiguous and difficult to explain /define (Hall 2000) Various definitions have been given which include the following:1. Planning is a process of preparing a set of decision for action in the future directed at achieving goals by preferable means. (Dorr 1973)

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Planning Definition cont……
2. Planning is a process of human thought in point of fact, fore thought, thought for the future nothing more or less than this is planning which is a very general human activity (Chadwick 1971).

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Planning Definition cont……
3. Planning is concerned with anticipating and regulating changes in a system to promote orderly development so as to achieve social, economic and environmental benefits of the development process. (Murphy 1985).

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Planning Definition cont……
4. Planning is a process of formulating goals and agreeing in the manner in which these are met. It is a process which agreement is reached on ways in which problems are debated and resolved (Cullingsworth 1977).

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Planning Definition cont……
5. Planning in a process of establishing a strategic
vision for an area which reflect the community’s goals and aspirations and implementing this through the identification of preferred patterns of land use and appropriate styles of development (Dredge 1999).

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Definition cont…..
Few from the above definitions of planning it is generally agreed that all planning involves, Selection from among the alternative courses of action Analysis for the future Selecting goals, objectives and strategies for the destination area.

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IMPORTANCE (NEED) FOR TOURISM PLANNING
According to (Gunn 1994) there are many good reasons for having tourism planning which includes the following: Tourism development has both positive and negative impact hence; they need to be managed by having a framework to the entire destination to cope with change.

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IMPORTANCE (NEED) FOR TOURISM PLANNING cont….

Tourism is becoming more competitive than ever before hence, the need to have deliberate efforts to guide its development. Tourism is a more complicated phenomenon than it was previously thought to be i.e. it cuts across various boundaries which are administrative, social, economic, sectoral etc.

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IMPORTANCE (NEED) FOR TOURISM PLANNING cont….
Tourism despite being a vehicle for regional development it has damaged many natural and cultural resources hence, the need to have plans in place to avoid the undesirable changes and direct the regional development. Tourism affects every one in the community hence, need for all people to take concern and get involved in the tourism planning process.

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IMPORTANCE (NEED) FOR TOURISM PLANNING cont….

Tourism planning helps destinations to make better choices for the future each destination needs to carefully to chart out its future in relation to tourism

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PURPOSES OF TOURISM PLANNING
It is realized that there is need to have planning for every region or area involved in tourism. According to Mill and Morrison they summarize the purposes of tourism planning as follows:

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PURPOSES OF TOURISM PLANNING cont….
Identify alternative approaches-e.g. Adopting to the unexpected e.g. economic conditions Maintaining uniqueness e.g. natural features, local festivals, events and activities. Creating the desirable e.g. clear and positive image of the area as a tourism destination, directional signs. Avoiding the undesirable- hostile and unfriendly attitudes of the local residents towards the visitors, friction and unnecessary competition, loss of market share, loss of cultural identities, overcrowding, congestion and traffic problems, pollution, high seasonality
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Despite having the need and purposes of tourism planning, clearly spelt out and the advantages known, not all tourism development have been planned even in the developed countries

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The major reasons (barriers) to this include 1. Objection by principle : i.e.
Some countries especially the developed world are against tourism planning arguing on the principle that tourism has successfully existed in their countries for many years without any formal tourism planning. This view is held in parts of North America (USA), Europe and Asia Pacific.

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2. High Cost
Having effective tourism planning requires detailed resources analysis, market research, monitoring mechanisms etc. which make the process expensive.
Governments are generally supposed to fund tourism planning efforts for all areas but this has not always been the case especially in developing countries. The private sector on the other hand prefers to use the funds to enhance marketing and promotion of the destination.

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3. Complexity of tourism
Complexity of tourism: i.e. tourism is not a readily identifiable sector.

It cuts across many other industries with various people involved directly or indirectly, hence, it tends to become difficult to co-ordinate all the different sectors with different expectations which usually results in conflicts.

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4. Few very large businesses and many
small businesses
Tourism is often characterized with a few very large businesses and many small smaller businesses which are often difficult to plan for. Some operators/sectors do not even regard themselves /their businesses as being part of the tourism industry e.g. retail shops, Banks and some hotels

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5. Seasonality of tourism activities
Some destinations only receive tourists in a particular season hence, planning for them becomes difficult.

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6. High ownership turn over in tourism businesses
Despite the above barriers of tourism planning an increasing number of regions around the world are taking up planning. This is an indication that tourism planning is being given higher priority and more destinations are getting involved. However, it should be noted that tourism planning does not guarantee success in tourism. Destinations may have a tourism plan but may fail to get the best out of (it) tourism.

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APPROACHES TO TOURISM PLANNING
Four (4) broad traditions or approaches to tourism planning were provided by Getz 1987. He emphasizes that the four approaches are mutually exclusive nor are they necessary sequential (they do not have to follow each other). Each of the approaches differs from each other according to the perspective they hold on:

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Each of the approaches differs from each other according to the perspective they hold on:
The underlying assumptions about planning Problem definition Appropriate level of analysis Research methods used

The four approaches are: P.T.O

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1. Boosterism approach
This approach has a simplistic attitude that tourism development is inherently good and of automatic benefit to the hosts. The approach can generally be described as a form of non-planning where tourism development is left to the forces of demand and supply in a free economy.
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Little attention is given to the potential negative economic, social and environmental impacts of tourism instead cultural and natural resources are regarded as objects to be exploited for tourism development

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2. Economic approach
This approach of planning mainly considers how tourism can be as a tool by Governments to promote economic growth and development in specific regions In general this approach centers on How to use tourism as a growth pole Maximize income and employment multipliers Influence customer choice Provide economic values for externalities Provide economic value for conservation purposes NB: this approach does not claim that tourism provides all Thursday, July, 23, 2009 the solutions to economic problems in a region. It only

3. Land Use/Physical/Spatial Approach
This approach refers to planning with a spatial geographical perspective in which the general objective is to provide systematic development of tourism activities or land uses in a given space Under this approach focus is mainly on: Maintaining sustainable physical carrying capacity Manipulate travel patterns and visitor flows Have visitor management structure Perceptions of natural environments and changes made. e.g. environmental impact assessment, limits of acceptable change.etc Thursday, July, 23, 2009 Use of zoning i.e. where environmental sensitive areas

4. Community Approach
Community oriented tourism planning approach mainly emphasizes the social and political context within which tourism occurs and it advocates for greater local control over the development process. This approach therefore mainly focuses on: How to encourage community control Understanding community attitudes towards tourism Understanding the impact of tourism on community Social impacts of tourism
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The approach is an attempt to formulate the bottom-up form of planning which emphasizes development in the community. Residents are therefore regarded as the focal point of tourism planning not the tourists.

The community is usually used as the basic planning unit through the local government hence, there partnership in the community’s control of tourism planning and development.

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Residents are therefore regarded as the focal point of tourism planning not the tourists. The community is usually used as the basic planning unit through the local government hence, there partnership in the community’s control of tourism planning and development.

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Blank 1989 in support of the community approach states that “communities are destination of the most travelers and it is in communities that tourism happens…..” hence tourism industry development and management must be brought to effectively bear the community’s development.

Under this approach the aim is to search for balanced development acceptable to all i.e. where the needs of both the local community and the tourists are satisfied as much as Thursday, July, 23, 2009 possible i.e. the win-win philosophy.

This approach therefore mainly focuses on: How to encourage community control Understanding community attitudes towards tourism Understanding the impact of tourism on community Social impacts of tourism

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This is an approach which takes time for people to understand-grooming/training is needed towards the local communities to be convinced. E.g. conflict land uses, construction of hotels near protected areas, factories, etc.

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However, substantial difficulties have been found to arise and hinder the implementation of the community planning, they include:
1. The public generally has difficult in comprehending complex and technical planning issues. 2.The public may not always be aware of or understand decision making processes. 3.most government authorities often interpret community control to mean loss of their power and control over the planning process
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4.Public participation prolongs the decision making process. This causes problems from business partners and discourages investment. 5.There’s difficult in coordinating and having decisions acceptable at all levels e.g. the local based community decision may not be allowed especially if it contradicts the regional or national tourism plan which was drawn by a superior level of government or vice versa ( tourism objective planning differs from one destination to another) e.g. construction of Five star hotel inside Serengeti national park Government vs. environmentalist/conservationists 6. The approach is costly in terms of staff, money and time whichJuly, 23, 2009 always be readily available. may not Thursday,

Despite the above obstacles, this approach provides the basis for the formulation of tourism policies to assist both residents and visitors in the long term. It could help to satisfy local desires to control the rate of change and meeting visitors’ interests in the maintaining of unique destination characteristics. However, it should be noted that the community approach is only a starting point (it Thursday, July, 23, 2009

5. Sustainable Tourism Planning Approach
In addition to the above four (4) approaches “Hall 1995” added another approach i.e. sustainable tourism planning approach. It should be noted that tourism planning is not static i. e. planning approaches keep evolving in relation to the demands made upon them by the various stakeholders, changing values of a society and broader socioeconomic and environmental context within which planning occurs.

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Sustainable tourism has not gained a universally accepted definition due to various interpretations by different stakeholders. The W.T.O 1997 describes sustainable tourism as “The ability of a destination to remain competitive against newer less explored destination, to attract first time visitors as well as repeaters, to remain culturally unique and to be in balance with the environment”.

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The Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS) defines sustainable tourism as “the optimal use of natural and cultural resources for national development on an equitable and self sustaining basis to provide a unique visitor experience and an improved quality of life through partnership amongst government, private sector and communities.” Various forms have evolved out sustainable tourism such as alternative tourism, Valuesbased tourism, appropriate tourism, green tourism, ecotourism etc. all these have Thursday, July, 23, 2009 sometimes been used interchangeably with

Sustainable tourism planning is therefore an integrative form of tourism planning which seeks to provide lasting and securing livelihoods with minimal resource depletion, environmental degradation, cultural disruption and social instability. The approach therefore tends to integrate features of economic, land use (spatial) and community approaches. In sustainable tourism development (STD’s) equity in terms of both intragenerational and intergenerational equity is greatly emphasized. Not only should we be concerned with maintenance of “environmental capital” but also maintain and enhance social capital in terms of social networks and relationships that exist in places through appropriate policies and programmes of social equality and political participation
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To fulfill the sustainable goal of equity decision making processes need to be more inclusive of full range of values, opinions, and interests that surrounds tourism development and tourism’s overall contribution to development. The need to incorporate sustainable development principles in tourism emerged recently in the early 1970’s when there was a rapid growth of international tourism which resulted into environmental tourism which resulted into environmental and social negative impacts which necessitated changes in key management issues in tourism planning and Thursday, July, 23, 2009

Five key elements of sustainable tourism planning have been identified (Dutton and Hall 1989) as conditions which need to be fulfilled in order to achieve the goals of sustainable tourism. The five elements/mechanisms are: 1. Cooperative and integrated control systems.
There is need for integrative planning and management at all levels to bring about equal distribution of benefits and costs. Stakeholders should be fully consulted Need to select indicators of sustainability in order to make complex systems understandable. *theseJuly, 23,pre-requisite for sustainable tourism planning development Thursday, are 2009

2. Development of industry co-ordination mechanisms.
Government and public interest groups should encourage greater industrial co-ordination on planning issues by creating structures and processes needed. Support by industrial groups to have voluntary development codes, environmental codes or general codes of conduct.

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3. Raising consumer awareness
Developed tourist codes of behaviour in order to minimize negative effects e.g. visitor environmental codes Consumers need to be encouraged to demand for green or environmentally friendly products.

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4. Raising producer awareness Suppliers of tourism products also need codes of conduct e.g. environmental codes for tourism associations. Self regulation-Government needs to have regulations and planning legislations e.g. on environmental and social impacts.

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5. There’s need for strategic planning in tourism as an addition to the approaches

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STRATEGIC TOURISM PLANNING
A STRATEGEY is a means to achieve a desired end and strategic planning is a process by which an organization effectively adapts to its management over time by integrating planning and management in a single process hence, strategic planning looks at a rapidly changing future situation and how to cope with changes organizationally. Strategic tourism planning is therefore proactive, responsive to community needs and it perceives planning and implementation as part of a single process which is on going. Thursday, July, 23, 2009

Strategic tourism planning seeks to answer three (3) major questions:
Where are we now? Monitor and evaluate Where do we want to go? (Plans and objectives) How do we get there? Actions and strategies)proactive and reactive-preventing problems/solving problems

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Strategic tourism planning emphasizes the process of continuous improvement as a corner stone/major point of organizational activity in which strategic planning is linked to management and operation decision making.

This helps to formulate objectives, to have processes evaluated and identify a broad framework/structure within which strategies are generated.

In tourism various strategies are used like appropriate visitor management strategies, marketing strategies, and management and planning practices. Thursday, July, 23, 2009

In strategic planning, strategic analysis has to be carried out on these three different types: 1. Environmental analysis. This helps planners and managers to anticipate short and long term changes in the operational event. (Operational event analysis)-Adapt to new changes –strategic planning-attitude, technology, income etc. 2. Resource analysis This helps the tourism planners to evaluate the physical and human resource base. Money (capital qualified 2009 labourers /personnel. Thursday, July, 23,

3. Aspirations analysis
This helps to identify the aspirations, interests and expectations of the major stakeholders in tourism development.

This helps management to formulate strategic objectives based on desires and interests of all stakeholders. What do the people want?

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In general, strategic planning systems are meant to be able to adopt and change. They should also learn how to be effective in terms of setting appropriate goals and objectives. Having action indicators, institutional arrangements and practices.

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Scales/Levels and Stakeholders in Tourism Planning
By nature of the tourism industry being cross-cutting it also follows that various sectors are involved hence, tourism planning to be effective. It must get in put and participation from a wide range of groups. There are a number of actors (stakeholders) who are involved in tourism planning and they include international organizations (WTO, UNESCO, World Bank etc), Governments, National Tourism Organizations e.g. TTB, TANAPA, KWS, UTB, Private sector (Airlines, Hotels, Thursday, July, 23, 2009 Tour Companies), NGOs and Donors and the local

All the above stakeholders involve in tourism planning at different levels/scales which are classified into:

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1. International Level
This level of planning mainly include international organizations like WTO, UNESCO, World Trade Organization, International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), IATA (International Air Transport Authority), International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), etc.

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At international level of planning. The planning is always weak in structure and lack enforcement. The organizations mostly provide guidelines in order to assist member states.

These organizations also usually funds tourism planning projects in specific regions or countries.

They have also played a big role in protecting tourism sites by giving them international status of protection e.g. Ngorongoro Conservation Area, including the Ngorongoro and Empakaai Craters and Olduvai Gorge, Ruins of Kilwa Kiswahili and Ruins of Songo Mnara, Serengeti National Park, Selous Game Reserve, The Stone Town of Zanzibar, Kondoa Rock Art Sites all these are World Heritage Sites.
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Kilombero Valley was declared as an international protected area under Ramsar Convention. (Advisory role through guidelines, funding etc. One of the important functions of the WTO is its technical cooperation activities. The organization has assisted many countries throughout the world in preparing planning, marketing, economic and other types of tourism studies, advising on all aspects of tourism development, and training local tourism-related personnel

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However, in general there are few international agreements and regulations which are directly concerned with managing tourism development activities e.g. tourism has received little attention from the international trade conventions like the General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs (GATT).

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Despite the above there is significant institutional framework for tourism planning at the international level which directly or indirectly takes into concern the interests of tourism.

There are a number of international laws and conventions on environment, heritage, trade, labour relations and transport e.g. the international wetlands convention, the world heritage convention, migratory species convention and Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES).
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2. Supranational Level
This is at the regional scale where countries combine into regional bodies e.g. The European Union, Organization of American States, The East African Community, The AU, and The Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN). These organizations play significant roles in funding tourism budget, marketing tourism and giving technical advice on policy and planning matters. There are also private oriented supranational organizations e.g. (ECPAT) End Child Prostitution in Asian Tourism.
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3. National Level (Macro Level)

Government is the major key player at this level with its function influencing tourism planning development at various degrees/intensity. Most governments have taken upon planning on realizing its potential benefits in enhancing regional development.
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Governments play a number of roles, but seven major ones can be identified. These are:

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1. Planning
Governments major role is carrying out public tourism planning which occurs in different forms (That is infrastructure, resource use, marketing etc). and involves various institutions (NGOs, Donors, Community Based Organizations (CBOs), all at different levels (National, Regional and Local). Government have mainly planned for tourism by producing National tourism development plans e. g. Tanzania Integrated Tourism Master Plan Thursday, July, 23, 2009 (2002).

2. Co-ordination
Government is in charge of coordinating different tourism activities. Government departments and even the private sector. There are a large number of private and public organizations interested in tourism which government has to bring together to work for common objectives. This helps to reduce duplication of resources.

To do this governments have set up National Tourism Organizations (NTOs) e.g. TTB, TANAPA.

Governments also encourage formation of private oriented coordinating organizations e.g. TATO,
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3. Legislation and Regulation
Government put in place various laws and regulations which either directly or influence tourism planning and policy e.g. environmental protection laws, Taxation laws, Labour relation laws, Passport and Visa related laws etc. Since other policies have substantial implications on the effectiveness of the decisions taken/undertaken in tourism government has to ensure that tourism policy needs are integrated in other policy areas and Thursday, July, 23, 2009

4. Government as an entrepreneur
Governments at all levels have had a long history in promoting tourism by directly getting involved e.g. through development of transport networks, provision of loans, especially to the private sector, carrying out marketing etc.

However in recent years most governments are changing with having less government intervention. The private sector is being encouraged to take over or the public-private partnership is being preferred with the government role being closely related to revalorization of capital that is the process by which the government subsidizes part of the cost of production e.g. by providing infrastructure, investing in tourism project where private sector capital may not be available, provision of cheap land etc.
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5. Stimulation:
This factor is closely related to the above and government can stimulate tourism in 3 (three) broadly ways Financial incentives e.g. low interest loans, tax holidays etc. Sponsoring research for the general benefit of the tourism industry rather than for specific individual organization. This helps to provide accurately, independent and timely statistics. Tourism marketing
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6. Tourism promotion:
Promotion and marketing of tourism is a role mainly spearhead by government through marketing campaigns and creating an enabling environment for the private sector and other organizations to do so as a result most governments have formed tourist commissions or boards to carry out promotion and marketing of tourism.

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7. Public interest protector:
The Government plays a major role of balancing various interests and values in order to meet national or regional public interests rather than sectoral or narrow private interests. Government through public tourism planning using the community and sustainable approaches (with equity as a major factor) serves as an arbiter between competing interests. To achieve this government must ensure a democratic nature of planning and policy making so that the decisions made reflect the true public views.
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Review Questions
What are the main roles of government in tourism planning and development? Discuss the extent to which these roles have been fulfilled in Tanzania both national and local levels.

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4. Regional Level (Sub-National Level/Meso Level (Between Macro and Micro).
This is where planning takes place at regional scale. e. g. At district level, state level or province level or any other regional level. Planning at this level is even more specific than at the national level and more comprehensive than at the destination level. There are more resource areas involved and greater number of political jurisdictions included. Planning at this level enhances better integration of a Thursday, July, 23, 2009 whole.

Different sites and destinations in the various zones easily relate and complement each other e.g. it is difficult for an isolated resort to succeed alone. It needs to benefit from related development and programmes. Regional planning efforts can be effective and beneficial by formulating a regional tourism plan. In Tanzania some region/districts have made tourism regional plans e.g. Mara, Manyara, Arusha, Dar-es-Salaam, Tanga , Mvomero, Kilosa, Monduli,, Rufiji, Bagamoyo etc.

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However, when regional plans are made they should not differ from the overall aims and objectives of the national plan. They should work in harmony as far as the local conditions are allowed. Planning at this level is gaining more prominence as more central governments give responsibility to the local levels i.e. decentralization in Tanzania’s case. NB: Tourism is not given priority in Africa as a sector of its own hence not involved in planning e.g. country, regional, districts levels etc.
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5. Destination Level (Micro Level)
A destination is the area tourists finally visit and it is where most of the consequences occur hence, it is an important area to plan for. Destination areas must be planned with sensitivity to social, environmental and economic impacts.

When individual sites have been properly planned and designed given visitors in large numbers will create minimal negative impacts.

Planning at the destination level involves the use of tools like environmental impact assessment, landscape designing, zoning, Thursday, July, 23, 2009 visitor impact management strategies, and transport and access

The planned approach to developing tourism at the national and regional levels is now widely adopted as a principle, although implementation of the policies and plans is still weak in some places. Many countries and regions of countries have had tourism plans prepared. Other places do not yet have plans, but should consider undertaking planning in the near future. In some countries, plans had previously been prepared but these are now outdated.

They need to be revised based on present day circumstances and likely future trends. Founded on accumulated experience, the approaches and techniques of tourism planning are now reasonably well understood. There is considerable assurance that, if implemented, planning will bring substantial benefits to an area.
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There are several important specific benefits of undertaking national and regional tourism planning. These advantages include:

1. Establishing the overall tourism development objectives and policies - what is tourism aiming to accomplish and how these aims can be achieved. 2.Developing tourism so that its natural and cultural resources are indefinitely maintained and conserved for future, as well as present, use. 3. Integrating tourism into the overall development policies and patterns of the country or region, and establishing dose linkages between tourism and other economic sectors.
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4.Providing a rational basis for decision-making by both the public and private sectors on tourism development.
5. Making possible the coordinated development of all the many elements of the tourism sector. This includes interrelating the tourist attractions, activities, facilities and services and the various and increasingly fragmented tourist markets.

6. Optimizing and balancing the economic, environmental and social benefits of tourism, with equitable distribution of these benefits to the society, while minimizing possible problems of tourism.
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7. Providing a physical structure which guides the location, types and extent of tourism development of attractions, facilities, services and infrastructure. 8. Establishing the guidelines and standards for preparing detailed plans of specific tourism development areas that are consistent with, and reinforce, one another, and for the appropriate design of tourist facilities.

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9. Laying the foundation for effective implementation of the tourism development policy and plan and continuous management of the tourism sector, by providing the necessary organizational and other institutional framework. 10. Providing the framework for effective coordination of the public and private sector efforts and investment in developing tourism. 11. Offering a baseline for the continuous monitoring of the progress of tourism development and keeping it on track Thursday, July, 23, 2009

STEPS IN THE TOURISM PLANNING
Like in any planning tourism planning is goal oriented, striving to achieve certain objectives by matching available resources and programmes with the needs of the people or stakeholders. The integrated planning approach is favoured since it is comprehensive that is integrating economic, physical, social and cultural aspects.
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The planning process is best viewed as an integrated (well organized) and on going process with each step subject to modification and refinement at any stage of the planning process. Although planning as a dynamic concept can take the variety of forms and steps. A consistent structure can be applied to a planning process.

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STEPS IN THE TOURISM PLANNING

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1. Background Analysis
Since most regions /destinations already have some level of existing tourism activities, regulations and policy framework for tourism. The first step in planning is to make an analysis of what is on the ground i.e. situation analysis (or SWOT Analysis)

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Background analysis is done by looking at:
Existing government policies, goals, objectives and programmes. Existing destination mix-elements and components for example tourism attractions and events, facilities, infrastructure and hospitality resources e.g. attitude of the residents to tourism. Description of the existing demand Tourism strength,weaknesses,problems and Thursday, July, 23, 2009 issues/opportunities

2. Detailed Research and Analysis
Tourism plans that are prepared without research tend to reflect the subjective views of the plan authors and tend to perpetuate/continue existing conditions.

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Research analysis is carried out of the following:
1. Resource analysis: i.e. an inventory of all resources at the destination, their spatial distribution carrying capacities. 2. Activity analysis: That is all things a visitor can do in the destination area ranging from active outdoor to passive ones like scenery viewing and shopping. Potential activities not yet exploited can also be noted.
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Research analysis is carried out of the following: cont……..

3. Market analysis: Existing and potential markets for the destination areas, image of the destination, motivations for travel to the area, ratings of the attractions, facilities and services, visitor satisfaction, barriers to return/repeat visits etc. 4. Competitive analysis: there is need to identify competitive advantages of the area and future plans of competitors. The intervening opportunities for the visitors need to be identified e.g. July, 23, 2009 Thursday, tourism in Kenya is an intervening opportunity

3. Synthesis and visioning
In this step the conclusions from the two previous steps are formulated from which position statements and vision statements are prepared. Position statement -describes the existing situation i.e. addressing the “where are we now? Question” in relation to development, marketing, organization, community awareness and other supporting services and activities. Thursday, July, 23, 2009

3. Synthesis and visioning cont….
Vision statement: is where the desired future situation for tourism is determined i.e. “where would we like to be?” This is where tourism plans provide a bridge between the present situations; hence plans become a means to an end not an end itself. In vision statements critical success factors (CSF) need to be identified i.e. conditions that must be met in order for the tourism vision to be realized. Thursday, July, 23, 2009

4. Goal and objective setting and strategy selection. Clear and understandable goals and objectives that are to be achieved by tourism development and planning are formulated. A common mistake to tourism planning has been to lose sight of the reasons why tourism was selected as a development option.
SMART S-Specific M-Measurable A-Achievable R-Reliable Thursday, July, 23, 2009 T-Time Bound

4. Goal and objective setting and strategy selection cont….
It should be noted that tourism plans have a relatively short life span of about 3 to 5 years and the formulated goals should be achievable within time period. On the other hand, the objectives are also formulated and they are more short term and more measurable than the goals. Tourism goals and objectives may vary from region to region e.g. a new destination may adopt the economic oriented approach to attract more visitors, stimulate employment, and increase income but a destination already overcrowded may adopt a conservation oriented approach to achieve2009 goals and objectives. Thursday, July, 23, the

5. Plan Development
The plan itself is developed with details about the programmes and activities needed to achieve the goals and objectives and to implement the strategies. A tourism plan report is then written specifying: List of programmes and activities Description of roles of different stakeholders e. g. government, private sector etc. Funding requirements and sources. Specific development projects and marketing strategies Thursday, July, 23, 2009

5. Plan Development cont….
Tourism plan reports are often presented into parts that is the summary report and the detailed technical report which includes all research findings and conclusions. The plans are first produced in draft reports, later revised and finally published.

Thursday, July, 23, 2009

6. Plan Implementation and Monitoring:
Implementation of the designed plans is one of the difficult parts of the planning cycle. Many well designed plans have never been implemented. In tourism the over all plan responsibility of coordinating implementation is usually given to government which must ensure that objectives have been allocated to specific stakeholders. It also ensure that funds are available to carry out the activities and programmes in the plan.
Thursday, July, 23, 2009

6. Plan Implementation and Monitoring: cont…..

As the plan is being implemented the coordinating unit continuously check that progress is being made as originally planned. Monitoring should be done for each goal and objective. Modification to plan may be required if inadequate progress is made towards achieving certain goals and objectives.
Thursday, July, 23, 2009

7. Plan Evaluation
Evaluation is done after the period of the tourism has expired. The aim is to determine if the goals and objectives of the plan have been achieved. If they were not, an analysis is conducted to determine the reasons for nonperformance. In general evaluation looks at
Actual performance related to each goal and objective Reasons for non-performance
Thursday, July, 23, 2009

7. Plan Evaluation cont….
It should be noted that the final outcome of this evaluation step becomes the major input into the next round of tourism planning. At this step the tourism planning process comes to full cycle. NOTE: tourism planning has sometimes been unsuccessful or inappropriate as a result of a number of factors but mostly the failures arise Thursday, July, 23, the design state and implementation from 2009

a. At the designing stage planning fails when:

There is lack of analytical detail Goals and objectives are unclear not specific and conflicting Making evaluation only from the financial point (profit and loss), excluding social and environmental aspects.
Thursday, July, 23, 2009

b. At the implementation stage failures arise from:

Failure to coordinate all stakeholders resulting in poor tourism product, minimal economic benefits, low visitor satisfaction etc. Poor infrastructure and communication Failure to have the required planning legislation or the ability to enforce such legislation.

Thursday, July, 23, 2009

Review questions
Discuss the factors that would influence one national tourism plan to be different from that of other countries? What is the role of the private sector in the creation and implementation of regional torism planning and how can it be more effective? Discuss how national tourism planning can maintain better competitiveness? Discuss why even the best destination plan needs updating from time to time?

Thursday, July, 23, 2009

Review questions cont…
Why does implementation of destination planning encounter so many difficulties? Discuss the value of SWOT analysis at the start of destination tourism planning? What role can tourist businesses play in determining visitor capacities at natural and cultural attraction complexes? Discuss the consequences of developing too many destinations? If public-private cooperation is so essential, what are the barriers and how can they be overcome?
Thursday, July, 23, 2009

Review questions cont….
What should be the role of government in tourism research and education regarding tourism planning? From a contemporary and global perspective, what topics should be included in a national tourism plan? Discuss ways in which integration of regional and destination tourism plans can be accomplished? What are the major consequences of too many visitors? How can planners (professionals, political, etc..) stimulate the creation of solutions to exessive numbers of visitors and in what way? Because any Thursday, July, 23, 2009 development anywhere utilizes land resources, how can the ideal of sustainability be accomplished?

Review questions cont….
Why should communities and local residents be involved in tourism planning? What role can national goverments play in tourism planning? Discuss whether tourism can be planned and by whom? Why is long-term planning so difficult as compared to short-term planning? What are the barriers to reaching planning goals other than economic and how can they be overcome? Thursday, July, 23, 2009

Read the following references
Gunn.C.A (1994). Tourism planning: Basics, Concepts, Cases Gunn.C.A (1988). Tourism planning Inskeep.E (1991). Tourism Planning: An Integrated and Sustainable Development Approach Jenkins.M.J and Dredge.D (2007). Tourism Planning and Policy Hall.M.C (1999). Tourism Planning: Policies, Processes and Relationships Clare A. Gunn.A.C (2004). Western Tourism: Can Paradise Be Reclaimed? Marcouiller.W.D (1995). Tourism Planning Inskeep.E (1994). National and Regional Tourism Planning: Methodologies and Case Studies

Thursday, July, 23, 2009


				
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Description: Wildlife-Based Tourism and Ecotourism