SUSTAINABLE CONSUMPTION AND PRODUCTION
Examples of best practice - national experiences DRAFT 1 [Please, note that this draft document is to be updated]
Belgium Denmark Finland France Germany Hungary Ireland Italy Malta Poland Spain Sweden United Kingdom
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1. INTRODUCTION 2. GENERAL POLICY STRATEGIES AND INSTRUMENTS 2.1. 2.2. General policy framework Thematic Strategy on Sustainable Use of Natural Resources
The Brussels Government adopted on the 27th of November 2003 the Brussels Region‟s Third Waste Plan „2003-2007‟1. This plan emphasises the promotion of more sustainable consumption, starting from the concept of ―dematerialisation‖2. The concept of dematerialisation endeavours to expand the sphere of activities peculiar to waste prevention in order to consider the entire product life cycle and in particular to take action against the wastage of resources. The Plan is directed towards households and offices. 2.3. 2.4. 2.5. Integrated Product Policy Consumer Policies Corporate Social and Environmental Responsibility
The federal government adopted in early 2004 an action plan aiming at reducing accidents at work, called PHARAON. This plan includes a set of measures, which have the objective of improving security at work. These measures will be taken in the following areas: simplification of the legislation on security at work, creation of a security barometer in order to follow more accurately the number and nature of accidents at work, reinforcement of inspection and prevention, increased responsibility of contractors, participation and awareness-raising and financial support for SMEs. 2.6. Public Procurement Policies
In 2003, the Belgian federal government established a “sustainable procurement guide”. The main feature of this approach is that it integrates the social and environmental aspects of products. The objective is to reduce the ecological impact of the consumption patterns of public authorities, to increase the demand for products that are more respectful of the environment and of social rights, and, in the long-term, to enhance the number of such products on the market. The guide details the environmentally-friendly criteria (based on the European eco-label, on national labels, …) of some 80 products that are in daily use in government administrations as well as criteria for respecting the standards laid down by the International Labour Organisation and by the Belgian social label3.
See http://www.ibgebim.be/francais/contenu/content.asp?ref=1533 Dematerialisation seeks to achieve the same level of economic development or consumer well-being with the consumption of fewer material and energy resources and consists of a combination of several approaches – waste prevention at source, measures relating to production, consumption and rational use, and closed-loop resource management. In this context, the Plan singles out two targets for its actions: households and offices. 3 To find out more: http://www.guidedesachatsdurables.be
General In Belgium, ecotaxes similar to excise duties are levied on certain products that are considered environmentally hazardous. Ecotaxes on disposable cameras and batteries have had a strong positive impact in terms of collection and recycling. - disposable cameras: the ecotax rate is 7.44 euros per unit but an exemption is granted if at least 80% of the weight of the cameras collected through photographic labs is reused and recycled. Batteries: unless they are used in some specified appliances, batteries are liable to an ecotax of 0.50 euro per battery. An exemption is granted to the seller who takes part in a collection scheme, provided at least 65% of the total weight of the batteries sold annually is collected and processed in a way that is both ecologically justified and economically feasible. Energy taxation State aid for environmental purposes Emissions trading system Preferential tariffs and trade policies
2.8. Information tools In order to change individual behaviour, the Brussels Region developed practical information tools, which are credible, specific, and adaptable to each person‘s experience in order to get over the phenomenon of resistance to change. In the context of the implementation of the Second Waste Plan, the Brussels Region launched a newspaper aimed at the general public entitled ―Minimum waste, we‘ll get there‖. At the beginning, the newspaper focused solely on the issue of waste. Recently, the scope of the newspaper was extended to cover sustainable consumption in general. The newspaper was renamed ―My city … our planet‖4. This newspaper – which is quarterly and free of charge – has some 11,000 subscribers. Concerning its impact, an enquiry showed that: 64% state that they have changed certain aspects of their behaviour after having read the paper 87% feel convinced that they can do something at their own level to improve the environment.
The Brussels Region organised a double exhibition, called ―Planet to live in or throw away‖. This exhibition focuses on the supermarket trolley, the symbol of our consumption patterns, in order to raise everyone‘s awareness of the consequences of our ways of life on the production of waste and on the wastage of natural resources. The first part of the exhibition attempts to highlight the problem of the hidden side of waste and explains the concept of ecological footprint5. The second part dwells more on our supermarket shelves. All along the visit of the ―At the useless and wastefulness department‖, the shopping trolley fills up. Products on
See http://www.ibgebim.be/francais/contenu/content.asp?ref=573 It was created by the Association of Cities and Regions for Recycling (ACRR) with the support of the European Commission.
display may prove thought provoking and give rise to suggest alternatives that would be both greener and cheaper6. Education, awareness raising and public information “Puzzle for waste prevention”: The project ―puzzle for waste prevention‖ is a pilot project conducted in the Walloon Region and in different EU countries. Prevention, witch is a complex issue hardly known by the public, is symbolised by a puzzle in which many actors take place: public authorities, producers, distributors, waste managers and households. Changes in the behaviour of each actor represent the pieces of the puzzle, which strengthen prevention. The ―puzzle‖ project will for 3 months follow 30 households that have accepted to modify their consumption behaviour. For the first time in the Walloon Region, households are guided in their daily waste management behaviour. The interest consists in each household‘s awareness of their own wastes production and in the adoption of good practices compatible with their way of life. The project is available on: http://www.espaceenvironnement.be/puzzle.htm In Flanders, the following actions have been developed: Education kit about energy, food and environmental friendly housekeeping for the sociocultural (non-formal) education centres. Target group: adults and members of sociocultural (non formal) education centres. The Eco-friendly Products Guide is an electronic environment-friendly purchase guide for schools, local authorities and administrative entities7. MOS (Milieuzorg Op School / Environmental Care at Schools) helps schools to develop their own environmental care system. All persons involved (pupils/students, teachers/lecturers, principal, parents, educational staff, clerical staff, maintenance staff, kitchen staff…) work together on a coherent number of environment-friendly measures and agreements. Themes are: waste prevention, water, energy, traffic, green space planning, kitchen & canteen and materials8. eco-label Social label. After several years of preparation and parliamentary discussions, the Belgian federal government adopted in 2002 a Law aiming at promoting socially responsible production. This Law establishes a social label for goods and services produced in the respect of the 8 ILO conventions on labour. This label aims at informing consumers on the labour conditions behind the product they buy9. consumer information Analytical tools
Indicators Reporting mechanisms 2.10. Research and development
Exhibition created by the IBGE with the CRIOC (the Research and Information Centre of the Consumer Organisations). 7 Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: http://www.milieukoopwijzer.be 8 Web: http://www.milieueducatie.be, http://www.milieuzorgopschool.be. 9 More information on : http://mineco.fgov.be/protection_consumer/social_label/home_fr.htm.
The development of a ―Sustainable Development‖ label At present, an integrated product policy oriented towards sustainable consumption and product patterns is too often approached from an environmental viewpoint. Attention to the social conditions in which a product is manufactured is also required. That is why the Belgian Research Policy Office finances a research project to develop a ‗sustainable development‘ label as a voluntary policy instrument. The research carried by the Centre for Sustainable Development (CDO) of the University of Ghent and ETHIBEL have developed procedures for investigating, testing, evaluating and monitoring products. They tested them on the product ‗coffee‘ in co-operation with the research centre ESPOL (Guayaquil - Ecuador). They also developed a legal basis for the allocation of the ‗sustainable development‘ label for products. This research project is part of the more general research programme about ―Sustainable Production and Consumption patterns‖ which tackles several issues in the field of SCP10. 3. SECTORS AND ISSUES 3.1. Industry/cleaner production
Regulatory framework IPPC “Integrated environmental review ”: Aware of the growing workload for industries associated with requests for environment about the state of their environment, the Walloon environmental administration (Directorate-General for Natural Resources and the Environment) has created for the industries concerned an integrated questionnaire (called ―unique form‖), which includes all requests and declarations concerning environmental issues. So far, these enquiries were carried out by different offices depending on their responsibilities, without coordination, causing redundancy for each undertaking. In January 2004, a first draft of this integrated environmental questionnaire for information about energy, air, water, industrial wastes and expenses, was sent to the industries involved. From January 2005, this integrated questionnaire will be available on line at the site of the Walloon region: http://mrw.wallonie.be/dgrne/. Environmental Technology Action Plan In Flanders, the following actions have been developed: Factor10, Flemish information point for eco-design: Providing information through a web site, helpdesk and digital newsletter, workshops and seminars. Target group: Designers, producing companies and students11. Milieuwinst.be: this Internet site fits into the larger framework of awareness-raising actions on cleaner production and eco-efficiency in Flanders. A mix of information instruments is used in order to get a more environmentally friendly or eco-efficient
For more information: http://www.belspo.be/belspo/fedra/pres_en.stm http://www.ethibel.org/subs_e/2_label/main.html http://cdonet.rug.ac.be/english/ 11 Web: www.factor10.be
industry. Target group: Environmental managers in industry, consultants, students, and persons who grant environmental permits can find valuable information12. PRESTI (Prevention Stimulating Program), aims to stimulating SME‘s to integrate environmental management and prevention into their policy. The available knowledge on prevention had to be upgraded and disseminated to SME‘s13. Product standards Voluntary initiatives and Codes of Conduct
« Agreement with socio-economic actors industry and SMEs »: Since 1996, the Walloon Region has entered into a partnership with socio-economic actors in the industrial and SME sectors. A framework agreement has been signed between the Walloon region on the one hand and trade unions and employer associations on the other. Those stakeholders are responsible for developing actions toward their partners (employers and workers), meaning that they have to raise awareness and educate and inform their target public about environmental management. Considering that coercive measures are not sufficient to improve environmental performances, this kind of partnership offers a general and coherent framework for this middle and long-term work of awareness raising. In Flanders, the Flemish Benchmarking Covenant was created in 2003 for large energyintensive industrial installations in all sectors. By voluntarily participating in this covenant, the companies commit themselves to bring or keep the energy efficiency of their process installations at the level of the best international standard in 2012. This world top standard improves over the years14. Biotechnology EMAS « Implementing E.M.A.S. in the Walloon administration»: The Directorate-General for Natural Resources and Environment is the first administrative unit in the Walloon Region to get into the process of environmental management with the aim of obtaining EMAS registration in 2004. The process began in 2000 with information meetings for employees, training sessions for coordinators and the elaboration of environmental good practices. Internal audits have also been organised. An audit of control by an accredited organisation will take place in March 2004. E.M.A.S polities of the Walloon government”: EMAS is imposed by the Walloon Government for some processes: sectoral landfill obligations impose EMAS certification to obtain permits; the Walloon Region imposes the Walloon water board to become EMAS-registered through a management agreement; waste water treatment plants have to be EMAS-registered (imposed by contract between the Walloon public body for waste water management and organizations involved in waste water treatment). Environmental Liability Housing and construction
Web: www.milieuwinst.be Web: www.presti.be 14 More information on http://www.benchmarking.be
3.2. 3.3. 3.4. 3.5.
Energy Agriculture and forestry Fisheries Transport
In Belgium (Flanders), the Flemish Mobility Plan (1) guarantees accessibility of the economical junctions, (2) offers everyone in Flanders the possibility to be mobile, (3) provides road safety in Flanders and (4) reduces the damage inflicted on nature and on the environment, even if mobility increases15. 3.6. 3.7. Tourism Waste
In Flanders, the following actions have been developed: MAMBO, Minder Afval Meer Bedrijfs Opbrengsten stands for ‗Less waste means more profit for the company‘. The MAMBO-package is a software application that helps companies to gain a correct insight into their waste costs. Target group: SME‘s16. STIP, Support and Information Centre on the Prevention of Waste. Objectives: Intermediary organisations have a greater knowledge of cleaner production and consumption patterns (with a focus on waste prevention) and promote those ways of production and consumption with their target groups (enterprises and consumers). Policy makers are informed about how target groups perceive and experience waste prevention policy17. Subsidy Scheme for Investments on Waste Prevention. Objectives: Removing financial obstacles for local authorities willing to invest in facilities and services for waste prevention and waste management and improving waste prevention and waste management on a local level18. Chemicals
Web: http://mobiliteit.vlaanderen.be Web: www.mambo.be 17 Web: www.stip.ovam.be 18 Web: http://www.ovam.be
1. DANISH EXPERIENCES WITH ENVIRONMENTAL TAXES
At present environmental taxes account for about 10 per cent of the total Danish tax revenue. This is a relatively high figure compared to other countries. Well over half of the revenue is derived from the energy sector and a third comes from transport. The rest is levied on waste and wastewater, various chemicals and other items. The lesson learned is that taxes that are designed with a clear-cut environmental objective have lead to significant environmental improvements. The strongest environmental effects have been seen where substitutes are available, or where new technology has assisted in curbing pollution. Examples are taxes on sulphur, on nickel-cadmium batteries and on chlorinated solvents. And it has been the case for the difference in taxes on leaded and unleaded petrol. A continuous evaluation and adjustment are necessary to enhance the environmental effectiveness of taxes, because new technology and new possibilities for substitution of products present new opportunities. Sharing information, experiences and best practices among countries improve the use of environmental taxes. 1.2 Water taxes and water consumption
Water consumption by households fell by more than one quarter in the period 1989-2001. At the same time the price of water rose by as much as 150%. The price of water is composed of a water supply tax (41%), VAT (20%), variable water taxes (12%), green taxes, (14%), variable taxes (9%) fixed wastewater charge (2%) and a state wastewater tax (2%). The clear relationship between increases in water prices and falls in water consumption by household supports and documents the effect of green taxes as an incentive to water-saving measures. 1.3 Tax on SO2
Danish SO2 emissions were reduced by 24% in the period 1995-1997. Within a few weeks of the implementation of the tax, the sulphur content of fuel gas oil and heavy fuel was reduced from 0.2% to 0.05% and by a third for coal. This response confirmed a Ministry of Taxation survey that found there were no price differentials between high and low sulphur fuels, prior to the tax, and therefore, the tax generated incentives for a rapid shift to low sulphur fuels and coal. The tax has had some dynamic efficiency effects through forcing the development of sulphur purification plants and technology. The tax has been more effective than foreseen when it was implemented. In 1996 the revenue was app. 40 million Euro and in 2002 the revenue has declined to app. 16 million Euro. 2. DANISH PRODUCT PANELS
As part of the Danish IPP scheme so-called Product Panels have been set up. A Product Panel is a group of stakeholders from the entire value chain of a specific product group e.g. textiles, electronics and foods. The objective of the panels is to establish concrete initiatives and propose projects that can increase the share of ―green‖ products on the market. The panels have been initiated by the Danish EPA, who has invited the participants and the chairpersons and financed secretarial assistance. An important component has been to invite 9
front-runners and enthusiastic individuals to the panel in addition to representatives from sector/branch organisations etc. The panel concept has shown to be a good way to promote dialogue in the value chain and get better stakeholder involvement in the gathering of knowledge and creation of tools to assist the market players in greening their products/demands. In addition to this, the textile panel has in particular been successful in actually getting more green products on the market. What is important for success in the model used in DK: A good knowledge-base to start from That the panels to a large extend consists of front-runners and that the participants have direct decision power That there is a good potential to use environment for competition advantages among the participants in the panel That there is funding available for secretariats and co-financing of initiatives in the initial phase 3. LCA CENTRE DENMARK
The Danish EPA has by January 2003 established a LCA-centre in Denmark. The purpose of the centre is to promote product-oriented environmental strategies in private companies by assisting them in implementing life cycle thinking. The centre is managed by a consortium consisting of a technology service institute (FORCE Technology), academia (Institute for Product Development) and a private consultancy (COWI A/S). The centre is working with information activities, network activities, courses, critical reviews of LCA‘s and will be supplier of a professional LCA software and data-packages sustaining the EDIP LCA-method. An important element for the centre is to focus the initiatives on SME‘s and to meet their needs e.g. different levels of detail in LCA work. The intention is that the centre shall be selfsustaining after the first 4-year period19. 4. THE GREEN TECHNOLOGY FORESIGHT
This project focuses on the environmental challenges from three technology platforms: nanotechnology, biotechnology and ICT (information and communication technologies). The project is scheduled to end in May 2005. A number of companies have agreed to contribute to the project with information and cases. The aim of the GTF project is: 5. To analyse the environmental potentials and risks related to the three technology platforms within the coming 15 - 20 years, especially in relation to chemicals To identify areas, where Denmark has competencies which might contribute to enhanced competitiveness of Danish companies and position Denmark within environmentally sound design of products and materials To analyse how environmentally promising innovation paths might be supported in Denmark and in the EU GREEN ACCOUNTS
In 1995 Denmark adopted a new piece of legislation on green accounts stipulating that 1,200 enterprises with activities important for the environment had to publish green accounts each year. Today a green account includes
1) basic information on the enterprise‘s environmental permits 2) the enterprise‘s statement of for example: environmental policy and objectives and of concrete results achieved 3) the most environmentally import inputs and outputs from the production process including energy, raw materials, hazardous substances and waste In the period 1999 – 2002 the first generations of green accounts were evaluated and the regulation was revised. For many enterprises making the green account has increased the awareness of environmental issues and the possibilities to save resources etc. For some enterprises it has also given a larger interest for environmental management systems. Furthermore, a part of the enterprises use their green accounts when marketing the enterprise and their products. Enterprises registered to EMAS are exempted from the obligation to make green accounts, as the EMAS statement covers the relevant information. 6. THE INFORMATION CENTRE FOR ENVIRONMENT AND HEALTH
The Information Centre for Environment & Health is an independent information centre on environment, health and consumption issues. The purpose of the centre is to provide consumers with tools to make their everyday life more environmentally friendly and healthy. The information centre is funded by the Danish Ministry of the Environment. The services of the centre have a national scope. It is open for private persons, associations, environmental and consumer organisations as well as private enterprises. The services of the centre are free. The Information centre for Environment & Health offers: Telephone consulting Advice on the environment and consumption about food, children, personal care, the home, the garden and electronics. Environmental news on the Web A chemical database, which contains environmental information on more than 500 chemicals used in cosmetics, toys, clothes etc. Fact sheets, different reports, press releases, facts about ecolabels ect. are published on the website http://www.miljoeogsundhed.dk
1 GENERAL POLICY STRATEGIES CONCERNING SCP 1.1. Government Program on Sustainable Development The Finnish Government Programme for Sustainable Development (Council of State Decision-in-principle on the Promotion of Ecological Sustainability, 4th June 1998) is designed to promote ecological, economical and social sustainability. In this framework policy the government states that it will e.g. promote changes in production and consumption patterns, minimize the exploitation of non-renewable resources, promote voluntary, market-driven instruments that improve the ecological sustainability of products and production methods and improve consumers' opportunities for selecting eco-friendly products, and promote more diverse commercial utilization of renewable resources. Eco-efficiency is considered an important goal, but more careful studies will be needed before detailed environmental policy goals can be set. In addition, the programme includes a separate chapter on products, production and consumption. The objectives are to improve Finland's overall eco-competitiveness, to steer production and consumption in the direction of products with a minimum environmental impact during their life cycle, and to improve prospects for production methods and consumer choices, which support sustainable development20. 1.2. National IPP-strategy In 1999, the Committee for Sustainable Development nominated representatives of Parliament, the authorities, industry and Ingo's to a working group, whose task was to prepare for Finland a national strategic view on integrated product policy (IPP). The working group fulfilled this task during the spring 2001. According to he national IPP-strategy (2001) the most important challenge is to develop an ecologically sustainable product culture, which is possible to establish on a large scale only if the actors along the production chain commit themselves to it and if the policy pursued provides preconditions for that. Creation of an encouraging and positive business environment requires a more detailed discussion about the contents of product policy and the distribution of responsibility between the most important actors, not forgetting the citizens. Consumers and other actors along the product chain need reliable and consumer-friendly information on the environmental impact of products and on how they through their own actions can reduce the damage caused by products. In product policy, special attention should be directed towards the flow of information along the product chain. Education in the environmental impact of products should be enhanced both in the basic education and at the post-graduate level. At present, the Finnish National Commission on Sustainable Development is establishing a subcommittee which deals with the issue of education for sustainable development.
Program is available at: http://www.ymparisto.fi/default.asp?node=9732&lan=en.
The main responsibility for the improvement of existing products and the development of new products lies with the companies manufacturing products. Society can support this development work by means of innovation policy. In Finland, the main focus in developing new environmental technology has been on the problems involved in the production stage. In the future, the importance of environmentally friendly products increases, for instance, in the allocation of public finance to research. 1.3. National Program on Sustainable Production and Consumption Finland is developing a national, crosscutting program on sustainable consumption and production. The aim of the program is to increase eco-efficiency of material and energy use throughout the whole lifecycle of products. The programme should define the additional goals and environmental policy measures that will have to be adopted for Finland to become a truly eco-efficient society. A broad variety of stakeholders are represented in the committee which is due to work out the national program by the end of May 2005. In its Program the Government (June 2003) is committed to promote ecologically, socially and economically sustainable production and consumption. The structure of taxation will be revised so as to promote sustainable development. Ecological tax reforms will reduce the use of non-renewable natural resources and prevent environmental damage. At the same time, the recycling and ecological efficiency of products, their consumption and energy use will be promoted21. 1.4. Consumer Policies A policy program favouring sustainable consumption patterns is one key objective of the Finnish consumer policy. Dissemination of information on environmental issues is not enough if we want to improve the state of our environment or prevent pollution, because consumption habits are determined by structural factors, such as existing transport and housing systems and systems for the distribution of energy as well as economic realities. Therefore, preconditions for making sustainable consumption choices must be improved. 2. ACTIVITIES AND INSTRUMENTS 2.2. IPPC The Environmental Protection Act, based on Integrated Pollution Prevention directive, came into force on 1.3. 2000. Under this act local authorities have new possibilities to control and limit the use of products causing harmful environmental impacts and to encourage energyefficiency. Extended producer responsibility tries to encourage prevention of harmful environmental impacts at the design stage of products by allowing consumers to bring back end-of-life products free of charge. In Finland, the extended producer responsible is one of the key concepts of product policy. The Government has based decisions on packaging waste, waste paper, tyres and construction waste on this principle. These decisions, however, only cover
More in the following address: http://www.vnk.fi/vn/liston/base.lsp?r=696&k=en
recycling and reclamation targets and regulations on supervision; operators are free to create their own recycling systems and to distribute the possible costs among themselves. In building sector Ministry of the Environment has set stricter thermal norms on indoor climate and ventilation to reduce energy consumption in new buildings. It is estimated that this decree will decrease the energy used for heating by 25-50 per cent compared with former decrees. Ministry of the Environment also allocates energy grants to reduce energy consumption in existing multi-storey buildings. 2.2. Public Procurement Policies The Ministry of Trade and Industry has made voluntary agreements with industry and public sector on energy conservation and has published recommendations for energy efficiency in public procurements22. The Ministry of the Environment has supported the development of an internet-based database, that submits information to public purchasers (especially municipals) about procurement methods, product-specific environmental characteristics of well over 60 products, and question-lists intended to be used as tender attachments23. The Ministry of the Environment has also committed to green its own purchasing and has challenged other administration to green their procurement. A green strategy on public procurement for the Ministry was finalised in 2003. In March 2004 the Ministry of the Environment will publish a guide for public purchasers on the environmental aspects of products and services. Several Finnish town and cities together with government institutions have made commitments to make their procurements more environmentally friendly and sustainable. Two cities, Pori and Jyväskylä, have launched a national green procurement network for Finnish municipalities. The network helps procurement officials to obtain information on best practises and environmentally sound procurement strategies and directions. 2.3. Economic Instruments Finland was the first country to introduce a CO2 tax in 1990. After a number of increases and a revision of energy taxation after the opening of the Nordic electricity market source fuels for heating and transport continued to be taxes. Energy, fuels and waste have constituted the most significant economic instrument and taxation target. Although it is neither straightforward to identify the true external costs of products and their impacts nor always easy to design adequate policy options, in practice energy tax can form a significant cornerstone to take into account external environmental costs of products. In Finland, environmentally linked and energy taxes already generate more than 10 per cent of the Government‘s budget total. The revenues of environmental energy taxes have more than doubled during last decade. It has been calculated that without this increase of energy taxation, emissions of carbon dioxide would have been 4 million tonnes,
http://www.motiva.fi/english/English/Energy%20Conservation%20Agreements?articles=yes See www.hymonet.com
i.e. a good 7 per cent higher than 57 million tonnes actually recorded. The decrease breaks down roughly equally between end use and production24. Waste tax The waste tax has been in force since 1996 in order to decrease the volume of municipal waste. There is no differentiation of the rate depending on the quality of waste. The tax is restricted to municipal landfills. Private landfills, such as industrial waste dumps, are excluded from the tax system. The rate is 23€ per tonne and will be raised to 30€ per tonne as from January 2005. Taxes and pledges on beverage bottles Production and consumption of beverage packages in Finland are guided by taxes and pledges. Exemption from the packaging tax or a lower tax can be obtained only if the package is a part of the pledge-based return system. The participation is approved by the Ministry of the Environment. The taxation system motivates the producers, importers and retailers to create and maintain return, refill and recycling systems. At the same time, more environment friendly consumer habits are promoted. The approval includes also a reporting duty: the amount of marketed beverage packages, return and refill rates, and use as raw material has to be reported. Despite the environmental benefits, the income from the beverage packaging is not especially significant for the state tax income. A pledge is one main condition for tax benefit. A pledge is essential because it gives a financial incentive for a consumer. The pledge is paid when the beverage with the packaging is bought, and returned, in full, for the consumer when the empty bottle is returned. The pledge needs to be high enough to provide the incentive. The minimum amount of the pledge is defined by the Ministry of the Environment. Taxes on one-way beverage containers and the deposit are one reason why Finland produces the lowest amount of package waste in Europe (82 kilos/inhabitant in 1998, compared with 109 kilos/inhabitant in Sweden and an average of 159 kilos/inhabitant in the EU). The bottle return rate was 97.5 per cent in 2001. Apart from reuse (in average 30 times) of beverage bottles, waste of glass bottles can be recycled to produce new bottles and plastic bottles to produce textiles, among other things. 2.4. Corporate Social and Environmental Responsibility Elinkaari ry (Environmental Communications Association), Taloussanomat (Financial daily), KHT-yhdistys ry (Finnish Institute of Authorised Public Accountants), Helsinki School of Economics and the Ministry of the Environment have organised an annual reporting award for social and environmental reports since 1996. The 2003 contest appraised the reporting of a total of 156 companies or public authorities. For example, all of the companies on the Main List of Helsinki Exchanges were appraised. Of these, 82 per cent reported on environmental and social responsibility issues in their annual report, 55 per cent on their website, and 17 per cent in separate reports. In February 2004 the Ministry of Trade and Industry adopted a new definition of policy concerning the promotion of corporate social responsibility. This definition of policy was prepared in broad co-operation with various stakeholders. The policy includes for example
For more information see http://www.ymparisto.fi/default.asp?node=11131&lan=en
favouring social responsibility by adopting OECD's guidelines on Global Compact Initiative, encouraging corporate governance in Finnish enterprises, disseminating best practices of companies innovating their business models to meet the challenges of sustainable development, promoting ethical investments as well as promoting social and environmental responsibility in SME's. 2.5. Information tools Eco-buyer‘s guide on web The Finnish Consumer Agency has a web-site for consumers25."The Eco-buyer‘s guide is intended for consumers wishing to choose the best the market can offer from the environmental perspective. Published only in electronic form, the Eco-buyer‘s guide informs the consumer of what the environmentally friendly alternatives are in shops, at home, in the car, and at the work place." Product Panel for textiles The Ministry of Environment and the Finnish Environment Institute initiated the foundation of a Product Panel for textiles. Twenty participants (representing manufacturers, trade, environmental and consumer administration, research, and environmental labelling) try to find ways to promote environmentally responsible textiles and clothes. To capture material flows The Ministry of the Environment and the Ministry of Trade and Industry are investigating the possibility to establish an organization to promote efficient use and saving of natural resources and raw materials and eco-efficiency. The working title of this organization is "Service Centre for Material Efficiency. It has been outlined that the organization/ centre might have following forms of operation: to coordinate information dissemination, services and training in the field of materialand eco-efficiency in cooperation with other relevant partners, for example different stakeholders in industrial production, enterprisers, consumer and waste advisers as well as authorities to give advice, to arrange seminars and to disseminate information on material- and eco-efficiency to organize campaigns for material- and eco-efficiency to further material- and eco-efficiency surveys and analyses to start demonstration projects
Eco-labels The Nordic environmental label, the Nordic Swan, and the EU environmental label are employed. The greatest number of licences (around 200) has been granted for the Nordic Swan label in product groups such as fine paper for copying and printing, processed fine paper products, car care products, detergents for textiles, all purpose cleaners, paper envelopes, automatic dishwashing detergents, copying machines and lawnmowers. According to a recent marketing study the Swan was ranked sixth among a hundred different brands, which shows that the Swan is one of the most appreciated logos. Also according to a recent marketing study the sales of Swan-labeled goods have increased by 50 per cent in the past five years.
Eco-buyer‘s guide: www.kuluttajavirasto.fi/ekok/
Above these the ―luomu‖ eco-labelling scheme applies to agricultural products produced organically under the supervision of Finnish authorities, according to conditions set in EU regulations on organic agricultural production. The Finnish Association for Nature Conservation (FANC) runs an energy eco-labelling scheme which is designed to inform consumers about the ways energy is produced. The right to use the scheme‘s ―norppa‖ (ringed seal) logo is granted to energy is produced according to the strict environmental requirements set by the FANC. 2.6. Analytical tools Indicators A national set of sustainable development indicators was published in 2000, and it includes indicators for consumption (e.g. holiday air travel, household consumer spending). The development process involved a large party of scientists, civil servants and NGOs. These indicators are updated on a regular basis by the Finnish Environment Institute. A follow-up study was made with Finnish policy makers to examine the potential of sustainable development indicators in their work. The study shows that although the indicators are regarded as a promising concept, their use is still marginal and more promotion is needed. 2.7. Voluntary tools EU‘s Eco-management and auditing Scheme was adopted by the first plants in spring 1996. Some 39 organisations had EMAS certification by November 2003. In Finland Ministry of the Environment has promoted EMAS actively for example in seminars and workshops, through advertising as well as trying to find ways to draw firms in through incentives. Incorporating energy-saving agreements in EMS and supporting the environmental work of small and medium sized enterprises have been a means to combine different processes into a natural part of daily operations, leading to environmental improvements26. In the national climate strategy and the associated energy conservation programme, voluntary energy conservation agreements play a central role in the implementation of energy efficiency. The objective is that a total of approximately a quarter of Finland‘s targeted greenhouse gas reduction in 2010 will be achieved by means of energy conservation measures. Various business sectors have made energy-saving agreements with the ministries and MOTIVA Oy, a special independent organisation set up to promote energy savings27. Voluntary agreement on energy conservation in residential buildings is implemented to gain reduced energy and water consumption and GHG´s (CO2). Agreements are made between and Housing and Construction Association (ASRA) and Ministry of the Environment and Ministry of Trade and Industry. Different NGOs have for several years had projects on waste prevention, sustainable resource use and responsible consumerism and highlighted the need for ecological efficiency and sufficiency in order to decrease the use of natural resources to the level considered
For more information see http://www.ymparisto.fi/default.asp?node=4032&lan=en For more information see http://www.motiva.fi/english/English/Energy%20Conservation%20Agreements?articles=yes 27 For more information: http://www.sll.fi/toiminta/kestava/ekotehokkuus/et_kulutus/et_engl/view. 27 For more information: http://www.sll.fi/toiminta/kestava/ekotehokkuus/et_kulutus/et_engl/view.
sustainable. For example the Finnish Association for Nature Conservation has co-operated with various stakeholders in order to make eco-efficiency ("more from less") accepted as both a business and a national strategy. The FANC has among other things produced brochures on eco-efficiency and arranged an eco-efficiency fair as well as a Factor X-project in cooperation with the Finnish industry etc)28. 2.8. Research and product development Technology Development Centre (TEKES) finances and organises projects for developing industrial products and production methods TEKES has also financed several projects on environmentally friendly energy as well as cross-disciplinary programmes in the field of sustainable development29. The Environmental Cluster Research Program The Environmental Cluster Research Program administrated by the Ministry of the Environment will also include a number of research projects on sustainable production and consumption patterns. Eco-efficiency was identified as the underlying theme, because it includes environmental impacts during the whole life cycle of products besides emissions control, as well as the efficient use of raw material and energy and is thus well suited for describing the basic ideas of the program. The first stage (1997-1999) of the projects has been concentrated on increasing the knowledge of the environmental impacts caused by Finnish industry and its main products by using as tools life-cycle analysis and assessment of material flows. The life-cycle approach will be applied to all important branches of industry, e.g., forestry, basic metal, building and electronics industries as well as to agriculture and water management. A separate material flow analysis has been carried out for the whole Finnish national economy. One of the key areas in the second stage (2000-2002) was sustainable development and the information society. The subjects covered are life styles and cultural changes, consumption patterns and consumer networking. Finnish ICT-industry has supported the approach taken. From the ICT-industry‘s point of view the interface between their products and the Finnish society is important, especially the relationship between people‘s way of life, consumer habits and ICT-products. Moreover, a national innovation system should produce such innovations as combine specific traditional strengths of Finnish industry, that is, a high level of environmental protection and a strong data technology expertise. The programme includes a variety of projects with a view to sustainable development and the information society. These projects deal with e.g. telecommuting, goods transports, products culture, agriculture, daily goods trade, inter-net based market for environmentally sound products and secondary material, virtual education, youth culture, practices in daily life, environmental awareness and public participation. Inter-net base market places for environmentally sound products and secondary building material were already created in the first phase of the Cluster programme.
For more information: http://www.tekes.fi/eng/interests/interests.asp?aihe=Ympäristö&eng=Environment
The third stage of the programme (2003-2005) concentrates on eco-efficient society. One of the priority areas is production and consumption and it covers eco-efficient production and consumer behaviour, lifestyles and social sustainability. The third phase covers around 22 different projects totalling around 3 million euro. Life-cycle assessment for different sectors The sectoral LCA studies can give an additional value compared with the traditional productspecific LCAs. For example, in 1998-2000 an extensive R&D project – LCA as a Tool for the Management of Environmental Issues in Finnish Metals Industry – was carried out as a collaborative study. The Finnish Environment Institute was in charge of the project, and all major Finnish metal manufacturing companies and the Association of Finnish Steel and Metal Producers took part in the work. In the study LCAs were made for nineteen metal products. The collaborative sectoral approach proved to be an applicable way to reduce costs for conducting LCAs and to improve data quality. It established a forum in which industryspecific problems related to LCAs could be discussed, and made a wider set of inventory data available. In addition, the company-specific environmental impact assessments carried out with the uniform methodology facilitated identification of improvement areas of environmental protection in the whole industry sector. The project was a valuable learning process for all participants. Sectoral LCA studies carried out in Finland include: chemical and mechanical forest industry metals industry (steel, stainless steel, copper, nickel, zinc and aluminium) water supply and wastewater treatment system in municipalities construction mining industry energy generation food industry (bread, milk, cheese, fish products)
1. 2. 2.1 INTRODUCTION GENERAL POLICY STRATEGIES AND INSTRUMENTS General policy framework
National Strategy for Sustainable Development One of the thematic programmes of actions of the National Strategy for Sustainable Development adopted in 2003 deals with economic activities, companies and consumers; It identifies goals and actions to encourage companies to commit themselves to voluntary agreements, including SME‘s, to integrate sustainibility into production and consumption and to encourage innovation and creation taking into account a life-cycle approach30. 2.2 2.3 Thematic Strategy on Sustainable Use of Natural Resources Integrated Product Policy
L'éco-conception en action : témoignages d'entreprises L'ADEME a dix fiches sur les retours d'expérience d'entreprises qui se sont lancées dans une démarche d'éco-conception de leurs produits. L'éco-conception est une démarche préventive qui permet de réduire les impacts négatifs des produits sur l'environnement sur l'ensemble de leur cycle de vie, tout en conservant leur qualité d'usage. L'éco-conception vise à intégrer l'environnement dans les phases de conception ou d'amélioration d'un produit, aux côtés des critères classiques que sont le coût, la qualité, la faisabilité technique, les attentes du marché, ... Téléchargement des 10 fiches d'opérations exemplaires31. 2.4 Consumer Policies
Création d‘un site grand public sur la consommation durable L‘Association Consodurable et le site qui lui sera associé visent à renseigner les consommateurs sur les produits ou services respectueux du développement durable, et de créer des synergies entre consom'acteurs et entreprises pour favoriser de nouveaux engagements volontaires en faveur du développement durable. Composée de 3 collèges, issus des pouvoirs publics, des fédérations professionnelles, et du monde citoyen représenté par les associations de défense des consommateurs et les associations de protection de l'environnement, l'Association Consodurable a vocation a fédérer ces acteurs économiques pour développer une consommation durable et responsable qui s'efforce d'inverser les modes de d'achat et de production écologiquement ou éthiquement non viables, pour privilégier ceux qui le sont32.
http://www.environnement.gouv.fr/actua/com2003/developpement_durable/sndd/06-SNDD-prog-actions.pdf http://www.ademe.fr/entreprises/Management-env/Approche-produit/ecoconception/Documents_2003/ecoact.pdf http://www.consodurable.org/
Corporate Social and Environmental Responsibility
Loi Nouvelles Régulations Economiques - Article 116 La Loi et son décret d‘application du 20 février 2002 oblige les entreprises cotées en bourse à faire une déclaration sur les actions des entreprises dans le domaine social et environnemental. Trois groupes d‘informations concernent des informations " sociales internes " (effectifs, formation, hygiène, sécurité, parité, handicapés etc.), un second portant sur l'impact territorial de l'activité (filiales, sous-traitants, lien au territoire, soit 8 rubriques) et un troisième portant sur l'environnement (28 rubriques). De plus, un arrêté complémentaire du 30 avril 2002 détaille les " rejets dans l'air, l'eau et le sol affectant gravement l'environnement " qui doivent être mentionnés ; on y retrouve notamment les gaz à effet de serre, les substances toxiques ou radioactives. Grâce à cette loi, plusieurs sociétés de notation ont pu se lancer sur ce nouveau marché33. Normalisation des stratégies « entreprises » de développement durable : SD 21000 L‘AFNOR (Association Française de Normalisation) a créé en 2000, un groupe de travail « Entreprises et développement durable » constitué de plus de 100 membres de façon à ce que l‘ensemble des intérêts de la société soit représenté dans les travaux et réflexions. Il s‘est donné comme premier objectif de dégager un consensus sur les enjeux et le type d‘approches volontaires pouvant favoriser l‘application et l‘intégration des principes de développement durable aux entreprises compte tenu des initiatives en cours. Ce groupe a ensuite proposé des lignes directrices pour aider les dirigeants d‘entreprises dans leur approche du développement durable : le guide SD 21 000. Ces travaux ont reçu le soutien des pouvoirs public, notamment de la stratégie nationale du développement durable. Des opérations collectives regroupant entre 10 et 20 PME dans chacune des régions françaises sont en cours. Elle permettront de mettre au point les outils d‘accompagnement du texte SD 21000 (outils de diagnostics et de positionnement stratégique par exemple) et de valider par le terrain les propositions faites par le groupe de travail. Ces travaux sont conjointement menés par l‘AFNOR et l‘Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Saint-Etienne34. La recommandation du BVP sur le développement durable. Le Bureau de Vérification de la Publicité a établi des règles d'autodiscipline en matière de publicité faisant référence au développement durable ou à la responsabilité sociale (ou sociétale) des entreprises (RSE). Cette recommandation s'applique dans trois cas : lorsqu'une publicité utilise le thème général de développement durable ; lorsqu'une publicité utilise une seule des composantes du développement durable mais renvoie au concept général ; lorsqu'une publicité ne fait pas référence au développement durable, mais risque de présenter des éléments peu compatibles avec les objectifs de celui-ci. La recommandation détaille notamment les principes de véracité, d‘objectivité et de loyauté qui devraient s‘imposer35. 2.6
Public Procurement Policies
Pour une description du dispositif : http://www.novethic.fr/novethic/site/article/index.jsp?id=74593 Pour en savoir plus www.sd21000.org. 34 Pour en savoir plus: http://www.bvp.org/bvp/documents/deonto/dev_durable/mn_devdurable.htm
Depuis plus de 3 ans, la Communauté Urbaine de Dunkerque teste des marchés intégrant soit des clauses environnementales soit des critères sociaux. Actuellement, les clauses environnementales concernent le papier, les peintures, les produits d‘entretien, les chariots, les poubelles, les sacs plastiques, les ordinateurs, les photocopieurs, l‘électroménager (réfrigérateurs), et en cours les véhicules. Le respect des Droits de l‘Homme au Travail fait l‘objet de certificat de respect intégré à tous les marchés récents (fournitures de bureau et informatique). Le commerce équitable est représenté par le café, le thé et le sucre. Progressivement, la démarche se généralise à tous les marchés La Communauté urbaine de Dunkerque a pris l‘initiative de mobiliser au sein d‘un réseau informel une quinzaine de collectivités territoriales en Nord Pas de Calais. Ces collectivités représentent la moitié de la population régionale. Durant cette même période, les méthodologies et les écritures des marchés pour l‘introduction des clauses d‘Insertion, d‘Environnement, de Droits humains au travail ont été finalisées et une étude commune en matière de Droits humains au travail est en cours. La Communauté urbaine joue un rôle moteur de pionnier mais aussi de pédagogue en proposant notamment aux collectivités des modules de formation aux achats "éco-responsables"36 Dans le cadre de la mise en œuvre de l‘Agenda 21 lillois, la Ville de Lille a engagé différentes démarches pour s‘inscrire dans une politique d‘achat plus respectueuse de l‘environnement et du développement durable. A cet effet, des travaux ont été engagés afin d'intégrer l‘environnement et l‘éthique dans les marchés publics, afin de : protéger les ressources naturelles (air, eau, énergie) et la biodiversité de la faune et de la flore, réduire les pollutions et limiter les déchets à la source, préserver les droits des générations futures, respecter les droits de l‟homme au travail et de l‟enfant, économiser et partager les ressources dans un souci de plus grande équité, participer à l‟évolution de l‟offre et de la demande de la « consommation durable ». C‘est ainsi que depuis 2002, la Ville de Lille a lancé une démarche interne, sur la thématique des achats durables. Pour ce faire la collectivité a opéré en trois phases : 1/ former les principaux acheteurs municipaux (phase 1), 2/ accompagner la collectivité dans la recherche de produits de substitution ayant un impact moindre sur l‘environnement, dans des tests et dans la rédaction des cahiers des charges (phase 2), 3/ établir un mode opératoire, généralisable à d‘autres produits (phase 3), à transmettre à chaque acheteur municipal. Aujourd‟hui les marchés suivants contiennent désormais des critères environnementaux mais aussi sociaux : bois (non-utilisation d‘essences protégées…), le centre social Mosaïque (critères pour l‘utilisation de peintures écologiques et des clauses d‘insertion), le marché de l‘éclairage public (marché prochainement signé, économie d‘énergie, énergie renouvelable, lutte contre la pollution lumineuse, utilisation des peintures écologiques, gestion des déchets), le marché fournitures de produits d‘entretien et d‘hygiène (marché signé 2003), le marché des enveloppes en papier recyclé (utilisation d‘enveloppes 100% recyclées), le marché papier pour utiliser du papier recyclé (marché prochainement signé). Dans le cadre de l‘habitat de nombreux projets intègre le principe de la Haute Qualité Environnementale : le Faubourg d‘Arras (projet de rénovation (ANRU), 500 logements privés et sociaux en HQE), les Rives de la Haute-Deûle (projet de 900 à 1000 logements HQE), le logement témoin en HQE.
Contact : Audrey Leclercq - email@example.com - http://www.communaute-urbaine-dunkerque.fr/
Lille s‘est engagée également comme ville pilote dans la campagne européenne PROCURA + initiée par le réseau ICLEI et qui porte sur les thèmes suivants : l‘électricité, les transports publics, l‘alimentation, les équipements Bureautique, les produits de services de nettoyage et la construction37. 2.7 Economic Instruments - General - Energy taxation - State aid for environmental purposes - Emissions trading system - Preferential tariffs and trade policies Information tools - Education, awareness raising and public information
Médiaterre : système mondial d‘information francophone pour le développement durable Ce système vise aussi à renforcer la capacité de communication de centres de ressources ou autre lieux de compétences, pour créer de véritables communautés de travail en langue française. Ce système a reçu le soutien de la francophonie et du Ministère de l‘Ecologie et du développement durable. Un portail est consacré aux modes de production et de consommation38. Administration écoresponsable L‘exemplarité de l‘Etat constitue l‘un de ses six axes de la Stratégie nationale du développement durable qui définit un plan d‘action à moye terme pour tous les domaines de l‘action publique. Afin qu‘une véritable dynamique puisse désormais s‘engager, l‘Etat doit montrer l‘exemple et intégrer les enjeux du développement durable dans ses politiques publiques, comme dans son fonctionnement au quotidien. Il convient notamment que les administrations, limitent les impacts sur l‘environnement de leurs activité, évoluent vers d‘autres modes de consommation, et réduisent les gaspillages de toute nature. Un site a été créé spécifiquement pour informer les administrations39 - eco-label - consumer information 2.9 Analytical tools
Evaluation des impacts environnementaux des sacs de caisse Carrefour ACV des sacs de caisse en plastique, papier et matériau biodégradable. Le groupe Carrefour a sollicité la société Ecobilan pour quantifier et comparer les impacts environnementaux de
Gaetan Cheppe, Chef de projet en environnement et développement durable, Tél: 03/20/49/57/65, Fax: 03/20/49/54/60, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
quatre types de sacs de caisse mis à la disposition de ses clients en suivant la méthodologie de l'analyse de cycle de vie conformément à la norme ISO 14040. L'étude concerne les sacs plastiques jetables classiques, un cabas polyéthylène réutilisable, un sac papier et un sac biodégradable à base d'amidon de maïs. A l'issue de cette étude, l'ADEME a pris en charge et mis en place une revue critique des résultats par un comité indépendant comprenant des représentants des ONG WWF et l'UFC Que-Choisir, et un expert ACV indépendant40 2.10. Research and development 3. 3.1 SECTORS AND ISSUES Industry/cleaner production
Promoting sustainable development through purchasing policy AGF (Finance and Insurance) In September 2000, in addition to the Group‘s Code of Ethics, the Purchasing Department has adopted its own Code of Ethics, which was especially addressed to the purchasers. The Purchasing Code of Conduct includes basic rules to respect confidentiality, conflicts of interests, respect of the suppliers and the gifts from the suppliers. Since December 2001, AGF‘s Purchasing Department has introduced a clause related to Sustainable Development in each supply contract signed by the Purchasing Department or by the other departments of the Group. It requires the supplier to commit himself: to ban the use of child or forced labour; to treat the personnel with no discrimination whatsoever in hiring nor managing; not to use any mental nor physical coercion; to enforce the local requirements in terms of working time; to enforce the French requirements in terms of environmental protection; to have its suppliers respect the above commitment. To develop transparency among the Group‘s suppliers, each call to tender includes a questionnaire asking about the potential suppliers‘ commitment to Sustainable Development. Each answer is analysed using a specific rating grid (based on the type of product and activity of the supplier). The weight of sustainable development criteria depends on the nature of the purchase itself. More than 300 of the Group‘s suppliers have signed the clause. They represent more than 70% of the total purchases of AGF. AGF has signed Global Compact41. Alcatel‘s commitment to environmental protection In 1995, Alcatel tackled product-related environmental issues through a charter. Environmental concerns are considered at an early stage of the design phase together with other important aspects like safety, technical performance, quality, and cost. This approach led Alcatel to favour the development of simple and appropriate tools to manage the necessary trade-offs between all these design parameters. Alcatel favours partnerships between stakeholders to develop relevant methodologies and tools. The design methodology has thus been defined and developed with industrial partners of the electric and electronic sector. Alcatel is committed to making its customers aware of the environmental characteristics of its products. Accordingly, Alcatel has adopted an ecodeclaration format which has been set up by
Links to relevant reports http://rapportannuel2002.agf.fr/va/index.htm
the international standardization body ECMA International*. Alcatel is committed to establishing an ecodeclaration for every new product by the year 2005. This goal is supported by appropriate purchasing policy. Since 2002 suppliers and subcontractors must provide an ecodeclaration as well, or to fill in an extensive questionnaire related to the environmental features of their products. Relevant information and training are provided internally to Alcatel purchasers and externally to its suppliers. To date, about 60% of purchased items (out of 100% targeted in 2005) are covered by such environmental information. ECMA International is an organisation devoted to the standardization in the fields of information and communication42. 3.2 Energy
Le Plancher Solaire Direct à Appoint Intégré Expérience réussie en Haute Savoie En 1994, le programme de diffusion de la technique du Plancher Solaire Direct à Appoint Intégré (PSDAI) co-financé par l‘Union Européenne (programme thermie), l‘ADEME et la Région Rhône-Alpes voyait le jour. Le projet , programmé sur quatre ans, a permis la création de 75 installations sur le territoire français dont 33 en Rhône-Alpes. Chaque maison a été équipée du matériel nécessaire à l‘obtention de bilans réels de fonctionnement. Un suivi de deux ans a été effectué par l‘ASDER. Pendant la période de suivi (mars 1997-décembre 1998), le rendement du capteur solaire a été de 46 %. L‘énergie solaire ainsi produite a couvert 39% des besoins pour le chauffage et l‘eau chaude sanitaire en 1997, et 33% en 1998. La comparaison avec un système fonctionnant uniquement au fioul est éloquente. L‘économie réalisée se chiffre à environ 7000 kWh/an, 1 400 litres de fioul durant la période de suivi. Ce sont ainsi 4,2 tonnes de CO2 dans l‘atmosphère qui ont été évitées en moins de 2 ans. L‘installation est pleinement optimisée, l‘énergie solaire produite l‘été étant utilisée pour chauffer l‘eau de la piscine43. Habitat Performant Dans une perspective de développement durable, la Communauté urbaine du Grand Lyon s‘est engagée au niveau européen à utiliser 15% d‘énergie renouvelable dans sa consommation à l‘horizon 2010. L‘habitat, et plus particulièrement la production de logements neufs est l‘un des axes retenus pour agir et modifier les habitudes de conception et d‘utilisations. Pour ce faire nous elle s‘est engagée dans un programme européen RESTART. Les objectifs ont été les suivants: promouvoir la production d‘un habitat performant, faible consommateur d‘énergie et respectueux de l‘environnement, renforcer le confort intérieur des logements et réduire significativement le niveau des charges, tout en maîtrisant les prix de revient : 30 % de gain de charges pour les occupants. Les moyens: utiliser les technologies liées aux énergies renouvelables et les techniques dites d‘architecture bioclimatique,
Links to reports http://www.alcatel.com/sustainable/environment/environment01.htm
agir sur la conception globale des bâtiments dès la définition architecturale par l‘intégration au site, le choix des technologies adaptées et des énergies, l‘économie du projet et l‘analyse globale des coûts.
Les résultats: 7 immeubles ont été réalisés sur ce mode de faire par 5 maîtres d‘ouvrage. Les solutions récurrentes sont les serres et vitrage peu émissif, les panneaux solaires, l‘isolation renforcée, l‘installation d‘équipements faiblement consommateurs d‘électricité, utilisation des matériaux respectueux de l‘environnement, maîtrise de la consommation d‘eau, etc. Les bilans de ces démarches sont positifs. La baisse de Co2 est effective, les économies d‘énergie sont réelles (environ de 45%), la baisse de charges varie entre 37% et 43%, et les surcoûts d‘investissement suivant les bâtiments vont de 3,0% à 9,8%. Contacts: Communauté urbaine du Grand Lyon – Mission habitat : 04 78 63 45 19, Agence Locale de l‘énergie : 04 37 48 22 42, http // : www.grandlyon.org 3.3 Agriculture and forestry
Quality charter "beekeeping in selected territories", Bernard Michaud From 2002, through the program ―Beekeeping in selected territories‖ Bernard Michaud company induced a certain number of its suppliers to sign a quality charter program ―beekeeping in selected territories‖ which main aims are: development of good practices in beekeeping, respectful of the product and environment guarantee the absence of contaminating residues in honey (antibiotics, chemical products) selection of native areas protected from harmful and polluting elements enhancement of the image and value of producer‘s know-how providing additional income to producers Promotion of honeys produced in underprivileged areas or countries.
For instance, we signed a quality charter program with producers in the Andean Cordillera (Chile/Argentine), Rio Grande valley (Brazil),… With this program, our company supports profitable activities in underprivileged areas. Such activities are profitable not only on an economical point of view but they are also profitable to environment as bees play a very important paper in plants pollination and therefore in biodiversity. Since the beginning of this program up to now, our company has bought 1072 Metric tons of honey produced under quality charter ―beekeeping in selected territories‖ and developed sales by introducing them in 95 % of French distribution network. The introduction of same product on other European markets is on the way44.
Reference Global Compact, Contact person Geneviève FRANZONI email email@example.com , http://www.unglobalcompact.org/
Séchage solaire des fourrages en grange Une solution alternative pour une agriculture durable, qui permet d‘éviter le recours à l‘ensilage, la méthode la plus répandue, avec son cortège de nuisances (jus, odeurs, bâches, vieux pneus). Le foin ventilé est une réponse à ces préoccupations: Il permet une récolte et un séchage dans de très bonnes conditions, Il limite les pertes de matière sèche, L‘absence de moisissures évite les maladies respiratoires chez l‘animal comme chez l‘homme, Par ailleurs, cette technique de conservation réduit de manière considérable les effets sur l‘environnement : nettement moins de déchets (ficelles, films et bâches plastiques) ; suppression de rejets polluants (jus d‘ensilage, odeurs nauséabondes) ; maintien de la biodiversité des prairies naturelles ; utilisation limitée des intrants (engrais, pesticides) atténuant les risques de pollution des eaux ; diminution des risques agronomiques (érosion, appauvrissement des sols, réduction de la vie microbienne) par l‘allongement des rotations. Le réchauffement de l‘air peut être obtenu grâce à différentes sources d‘énergie, dont l‘énergie solaire45.
Le programme Roquefort de Séchage solaire de fourrage Le programme Roquefort (1993-1996) a permis la création d‘une vitrine de 30 séchoirs solaires, dans le berceau du premier fromage « AOC » de France, le Roquefort. Il s‘agit alors d‘atteindre, sur un territoire limité, un seuil de développement suffisant et donner ainsi une lisibilité à la filière tout en permettant d‘évaluer ses incidences en termes: énergétique (substitution d‘énergies conventionnelles par une énergie renouvelable), économique et social (modernisation et pérennisation des exploitations), environnemental et paysager : à l‘inverse de l‘ensilage, qui privilégie le maïs ou le raygrass, le séchage valorise des prairies qui ne présentent pas de risques pour l‘environnement.
La réalisation des installations fait appel à des techniques classiques du bâtiment et peut être, tout ou partie, réalisée en auto-construction46. 3.4 3.5 3.6 Fisheries Transport Tourism
Gestion des activités touristiques et terroirs Le terme « terroir » est utilisé dans les pays de langue française et n‘a pas d‘équivalent en anglais. Il se réfère à une entité territoriale dont les valeurs patrimoniales sont les fruits des relations complexes et de longue durée entre les caractéristiques sociales, culturelles, écologiques et économiques. Les terroirs préservent la biodiversité, les diversités sociales et culturelles, en conformité avec les objectifs du développement durable. En France, les parcs naturels régionaux qui allient activité économique et protection du patrimoine en sont une belle illustration.
Contact : Arlette Pélissier - ADEME Auvergne http://www.ademe.fr/auvergne/telechargement/plaquette_sechage.pdf 46 http://www.solagro.org/site/090.html
Toute une série d‘appellations d‘origine contrôlée permettent en Europe de dynamiser ce type de production et de consommation, dans le domaine alimentaire en premier lieu, mais aussi de plus en plus dans l‘artisanat et dans la culture. Cette approche n'empêche pas l'évolution des savoir-faire techniques traditionnels au travers des connaissances ou des besoins nouveaux. Cette identité forte constitue un atout pour le développement des activités touristiques. La politique du Parc Naturel Régional prévoit de valoriser et différencier les prestations de qualité par l‘attribution de la Marque « Accueil du Parc naturel régional de Brière » dont les valeurs sont : l‘origine, l‘authenticité, la dimension humaine et la prise en compte de l‘environnement. Il s‘agit de favoriser le développement d‘un tourisme durable, respectueux du maintien de l‘équilibre entre fréquentation et préservation des milieux et des patrimoines et de faire découvrir au visiteur ses richesses. I s‘agit d‘améliorer les conditions de sécurité, l‘accueil et l‘authenticité des prestations des hoteliers, des restaurateurs et des autres prestataires, de canaliser le flux touristique pour mieux maîtriser la pression sur le milieu naturel. Pour les restaurateurs ce programme permet d‘améliorer les conditions d'accueil, d'encadrement et de confort de la prestation de restauration47. 3.7. 3.8. Waste Chemicals
This German contribution to the inventory on sustainable consumption and production (SCP) lists examples of relevant policies, activities and instruments on the national level in Germany. This is by far not a complete list of all relevant activities. There are numerous activities in Germany in the field of SCP on community, state and federal level as well as international partnerships. This list focuses mainly on examples at the federal level. This list does not cover all relevant sectors. The short time limit made it impossible to get information on projects for every sector. Therefore there are no examples from the transport sector. Furthermore it is to mention that the new national process following the decision of the WSSD on the 10-year framework of programmes on SCP which started in February 2004 will not cover all the sectors of Chapter III of the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation. It concentrates on production and product related instruments and policies. The work in the other sectors like energy, waste management, transport etc. continues but is not directly linked to the SCP-process. However, examples from these sectors are included in this list. 2. 2.1. GENERAL POLICY STRATEGIES AND INSTRUMENTS General policy framework
National Strategy for Sustainable Development In April 2002 the Federal Government published a national strategy for Sustainable Development under the title ―Perspectives for Germany‖ (Perspektiven für Deutschland). With its strategy for sustainability the Federal Government makes clear the direction in which our country should be developing and the course adjustments which are necessary to achieve this. It sets priorities for the coming years, sets out concrete aims and specifies the measures necessary to put the idea of Sustainable Development into practice. The strategy includes concrete goals. For example, by 2020 energy and resource productivity should be doubled and land use should be reduced from 130 hectares per day today to 30 hectares. With the help of the indicators the results of this process will be monitored and included in a biannual report48. National process on sustainable consumption and production (SCP) The Federal Government attaches high importance to the decision on sustainable consumption and production at the WSSD in Johannesburg and the result of the UN conference on SCP in Marrakech. To reflect and feed into the international activities the Federal Ministry for Environment (BMU) started a national process on sustainable consumption and production involving all relevant stakeholders. Starting point of this process was a national conference on sustainable consumption and production held in Berlin on 16/17 February 2004. More than 280 people from all relevant societal groups attended the conference which shows the big interest in this subject. The aim of this process is twofold: First, there will be new projects launched in a multistakeholder approach. BMU will organise workshops on special subjects (e.g. communal
activities, SME´s, information strategies, projects to promote ―quality consumption‖ and ―regional consumption) with the aim to start new activities. Preferably the activities should be driven by private stakeholders and not by the Federal Government. Second, there will be a better coordination and monitoring of existing projects by regular reports and stakeholder meetings49. German Action Programme on Environment and Health (APUG) Environmental impacts, such as pollution or noise, present a risk to human health and wellbeing. Therefore, in 1999 the German Action Programme on Environment and Health was developed in cooperation between the Federal Ministry for Health and the Federal Ministry for Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety. This has been supported since 2002 by the Federal Ministry of Consumer Protection, Food and Agriculture. The federal authorities involved are the Federal Office for Radiation Protection, the Federal Institute for Risk Assessment, the Robert Koch-Institute and the Federal Environmental Agency. The aim of the programme is to combine issues of environmental, health and consumer protection with special emphasis on children. The Action Programme on Environment and Health is part of the European process of environment and health of the WHO50. 2.2. 2.3. Thematic Strategy on Sustainable Use of Natural Resources Integrated Product Policy
2.4.1 Consumer Policies 2.5. 2.6. Corporate Social and Environmental Responsibility Public Procurement Policies
The Federal Ministry of Environment, Nature Protection and Nuclear Safety and the Federal Environment Agency have initiated several projects in the field of green public procurement, e.g. Handbook on green public procurement Information on environmental aspects on products and services and easy-to-use guidelines to incorporate environmental aspects into public procurement procedures are crucial for professional purchasers in public and private organisations. Therefore, the Federal Environmental Agency started back in 1991 the publication of the Handbook of green public procurement, which is now published in its fourth edition of 1999. On over 800 pages the handbook covers a broad range of general aspects of green public procurement policies and sector/product specific aspects that is relevant to public procurement. Furthermore, the handbook is a valuable source of information to easy incorporate the state-of-the-art of environmental product standards into daily public procurement procedures and operations51.
www.bmu.de www.apug.de 51 The handbook also forms the baseline for a web-based information portal www.beschaffung-info.de (German) and www.ecoprocurement.info (English).
Web-based information portal on green public procurement The Federal Ministry of Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety and the Federal Environment Agency actually support the build-up of a web-based information portal on green public procurement within the scope of the project ―Websites for Eco-Procurement‖, done by the Bundesverband für Umweltberatung e. V., Bremen. On www.beschaffung-info.de (German version) and www.ecoprocurement.info (English version, still under construction) public authorities and private organisations gets first hand information on a broad range of legislative/regulatory aspects and product specific aspects related to green public procurement, like cleaning and hygiene, office, horticulture and landscaping, canteens/food, general information to procurement laws on the national, EU-wide and international level, eco-labelling and so far. With this information source the professional purchaser has the opportunity to copy directly product or service related specifications into relevant procedures like call for tenders or management requirements. The project will be supported by the Government till summer 2004. Project for Evaluation and Development of Green Public Procurement The Federal Ministry of the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety and the Federal Environment Agency set up the above mentioned research project, which results are now finalized. One objective of the project is to quantify the environmental reduction potential which can be effected by systematic application of environmental criteria within purchasing decisions. As case study, a model scenario for IT-infrastructure and relevant purchasing requirements of an average public authority (400 employees) was set up, complemented by a sensitive analysis for de-centralised vs. centralized features of the ITinfrastructure. As one result out of this analysis a guideline on green public IT procurement was developed, which specify environmental related criteria and options to better integrate green public procurement into existing legal frameworks. The second objective of the project was the further development of the scientific legal contribution to the ongoing legal debate on public procurement at EU level. Green Energy for public authorities Since the beginning of 2004 all authorities and buildings under the direction of the Federal Ministry of the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety receive ―Green Energy‖. To widespread the share of green energy use within public authorities it is planned to develop guidelines for a ―model call for tender‖ and to organize a workshop for the relevant target groups to give practical information about the procedures and options to promote green energy use in public authorities. Handbook on Environmental Controlling in Public Authorities The handbook on environmental controlling in public authorities, published by the Federal Ministry of Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety and the Federal Environment Agency in 2001, gives an overview on various aspects and practical guidelines related to the establishment of an environmental controlling system within public authorities. 2.7. Economic Instruments
General Energy taxation Ecological Tax Reform (ETR) The ETR in Germany has imposed increasing energy tax rates for the years 1999-2003. In order to ensure revenue neutrality – whereby people would not have less income overall or the state more overall revenues – these increases have been offset by reducing contributions to pension funds. Overall about 2%of the revenues of total taxes and social security contributions were shifted from the production factor labour on to the production factor energy/environment. In addition, in some major areas of the economy reduced rates were introduced for competition reasons. Since its introduction in 1999, the ETR has helped Germany to achieve substantial reductions in GHG emissions and energy consumption. The tangible indications of this include: A reversal in trends in the transport sector where, for the first time in the history of Germany, a constant decline in CO2 emissions was achieved during the last four years. Fuel consumption fell by 1.5 % in 2001, having already shown a 1.1% year-on-year reduction in the year 2000. The downward trend in CO2 emissions continued in 2002 and 2003, amounting to an overall decline of more than 10% since 1998. For a growing number of consumers and automotive companies, a car‘s fuel efficiency has become a major selling point.
Following a growing decline in the number of passengers using local public transport up until 1998, passenger numbers increased by 0.4 % for the first time in 1999. This was followed by a further increase of 0.8 % in 2000, 0.5% in both 2001 and 2002, and a stabilising increase in 2003 by 1.5%. State aid for environmental purposes Emissions trading system Preferential tariffs and trade policies 2.8. Information tools
Education, awareness raising and public information Contest “Schulträger 21”: New ideas for environmental education The contest ―Schulträger 21‖, organized by the German Foundation for Environmental Education (DGU) and sponsored by the BMU/UBA will distinguish municipalities and counties that involve their schools particularly intensively in the implementation of the local Agenda 21, thereby propelling local sustainable development. In order for sustainable development to become more than a matter of politics and administration, and instead a cause borne by the population, the involvement of schools is especially important. The DGU has developed a catalogue of criteria by which it assesses individual school supervisory boards‘ concepts. It focuses on concrete measures such as waste avoidance and plans for saving energy as well as so-called ―soft factors‖. Only if school supervisory boards and schools can communicate freely and involve parents and schoolchildren in this dialog environmental education and practical environmental work will harmonize. The ―Schulträger 21‖ project awards exemplary commitment and makes it known to a broad public. Results are discussed and redeveloped in talks with all participants.
Education for Sustainable Development in Environmental Centres Environmental Centres are important institutions of the informal educational sector. They play an important role within environmental education policies, which is now in the stage of transforming into a wider concept of education for sustainability. This conceptional transformation become highly relevant not only for the formal educational sector, but also for environmental centres, where new forms of learning are developed and practically implemented, like the participation within local Agenda 21-Initiatives or learning models along the supply chain of products. To support this institutional and conceptional modernisation process of this part of the German educational system the Federal Environmental Agency sponsored two projects of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Natur- und Umweltbildung (ANU). The objectives of the projects are to improve the organizational capabilities of the centres in a more professional manner to be an active partner and driving factor while promoting local initiatives towards sustainability. Here, environmental centres as intermediate institutions between different local groups and public institutions could stimulate the shift towards sustainable consumption patterns in a given local and cultural context52. Civil Society and Culture of Sustainability The Federal Ministry of Environment, Nature Protection and Nuclear Safety and the Federal Environment Agency sponsored several projects to better inter-link civil society movements with the sustainability agenda. It becomes clear that bringing the principles of sustainable development forward within German society, civil society initiatives play a vital (but still underestimated) role. Therefore, within the projects possibilities and practical ways were explored, how civil society initiatives (f. e. within churches and the peace movement) could form a baseline to establish a common ―culture of sustainability‖, trying to incorporate sustainability-orientated lifestyle-transformations into daily routines or to widespread the ethical dimension of sustainability through the promotion of the ―Earth-Charta‖ in Germany, while increasing its potential as common baseline for further international dialog on sustainable development and shared responsibility53. Environmentally friendly and healthy school start Environmentally friendly and healthy school start is a joint campaign of BUND (German branch of Friends of the Earth), Karstadt Warenhaus AG, and the Federal Environmental Agency (UBA). Simple clever action—that is the motto of Clemens Clever, the spiffy little environment mascot. This motto also applies for the upcoming school year. In a free brochure published by BUND, Karstadt, and the Federal Environmental Agency the little hedgehog shows children the way to an environmentally friendly, healthy and safe start to school. Its eight pages tell parents and children what they can do for the environment when buying school supplies. It also offers advice on getting to school safely, healthy snacks, and school bags. The brochure titled ―Here‘s what you can do for the environment! – Clever throughout all classes‖ marked the environmental association, department store, and environmental agency‘s launch of their joint campaign, which will be organized at the fifth time this summer. Since 2003 the joint campaign is complemented by a ―kids drawing contest‖. Within this successful contest over 600.000 drawing books were distributed and over 20.000 pictures
www.umweltbildung.de; http://www.umweltbildung.de/nachhaltigkeitsinitiativen/ www.ecunet.de; www.anders-besser-leben.de
from school kids were received, from which 100 drawings were prized and officially celebrated54. Eco-label German Ecolabel: Blue Angel The German ecolabel ―Blue Angel‖ has now successfully continued for more than 25 years. Confidence, transparency of processes, co-operation among all stakeholders and a wide range of application safeguards the high performance of this instrument within environmental and consumer protection policies. The Blue Angel could be seen as one of the driving factor to stimulate the shift towards more sustainable consumption and production over the last two decades in Germany. At present, about 3.800 products and services from approximately 710 label users in Germany and abroad are entitled to bear the Blue Angel. The Blue Angel offers industry, trade and crafts companies the opportunity to document their environmental competence in a simple and inexpensive way for all to see. By using the eco-label, they can significantly increase the competitive market potential for their products and services. The Blue Angel makes a difference. The Blue Angel can be used as a modern marketing instrument and communication tool and thus give the labelled products a competitive advantage. The benefits of the Blue Angel for consumers are clear: they are given practical guidance to help them considerably in their selection and their decisions on what to buy. The Blue Angel provides much of what consumers want. For example, the Blue Angel helps consumers to save money because they decide to buy products with an excellent quality and a long service life – or by simply saving energy. The Federal Environmental Agency and the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety have decided to run a broad communication campaign for the German eco-label in its 25-anniversary year in 2003, to strengthen the overall awareness of the Blue Angel as a ―brand‖. Lasting from January to June 2003 the campaign has been designed towards the needs of the consumers and their lifestyles. Apart from the brand perspective considerations concerning different consumption styles were another cornerstone of developing the communication strategy, because in order to maximise the probability of resonance of the Blue Angel‘s marketing communication in the target groups it is promising to address consumers‘ ‗Alltagswelten‘ (‗everyday life worlds‘). It was less the technical and environmental information about Blue Angel products, which shaped the campaign, but more the message that the labelled products fit well into the current and modern lifestyles of the campaign‘s target groups like young modern families, professionals in modern offices or flats or elder active people. To reach the consumers, the Federal Environmental Agency stimulated systematically the most different players in society to carry the campaign into the public operating through their own organisations. Key partners have been industry and retailers using the Blue Angel in their own marketing activities55. Project “ label online” To provide the consumer with relevant information on sustainable products and possibilities to identify such products, the Federal Environmental Agency sponsored a project by the German Verbraucher Initiative e. V. to build up a virtual platform on a broad range of labelling activities in Germany and Europe. Under www.label-online.de the consumers will find updated information on over 300 (eco)labels used by industry in various product categories and branches. Additionally, the consumer gets information on the institutional setting and the procedures, which stands behind every label.
Consumer information Eco-Fair Trade products The Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety and the Federal Environmental Agency sponsored a range of projects that promote fair trade of ecologically produced products from less developed countries. First, an exploration of nearly all national initiative in the field of eco-fair trade was sponsored. This resource of information was put together in a brochure and formed a baseline for an information platform in the web 56. Second, the launch of the new international TransFair label57 was supported through production of promotional materials and the organisation of events at the point-of-sale with various partners from civil society and companies. Third, an initiative organised by the Verbraucher Initiative e. V. was actually sponsored to develop a marketing strategy for the promotion of fair trade products in Germany, which is now actually implemented through financial contribution from the Federal Ministry of Consumer Protection, Food and Agriculture and the Federal Ministry of Development and Economic Cooperation. The objective of the marketing activities is to increase the market share of eco-fair trade products58. Project “Sustainable Shopping Basket “ The project ―Sustainable Shopping Basket― was launched in 2002 by the Institute for Market Environment - Society (called imug) on behalf of the German Council for Sustainable Development. In 2003 the Federal Ministry of Consumer Protection59, Food and Agriculture decided to accompany and further develop the project. The objective of the ―Sustainable Shopping Basket ― is to inform the consumers about the opportunities and benefits of sustainable consumption. It provides behavioural recommendations on eight relevant fields of consumption, ranging from food and household supplies to transport and financial services. The main emphasis is laid on improving consumer information. The ―Sustainable Shopping Basket ― does not intend to provide regulations and ready-made answers about ―right― or ―wrong― ways of consumption, but it aims at facilitating the search for sustainable alternatives by showing possible ways of behaviour. By means of an information campaign starting in mid-2004, which is based on the booklet ―The Sustainable Shopping Basket―, the Federal Ministry of Consumer Protection, Food and Agriculture intends to draw consumers‗ attention to questions of social and ecological production methods and to increase awareness of their own consumption behaviour. It is intended to raise awareness among the economy and trade sector accordingly and to involve them in carrying out activities. Fair Trade information campaign ―Fair feels good‖: Currently, the German Development Cooperation is financing a large scale public awareness campaign which aims to inform about principles, structures and backgrounds of Fair Trade (funding: 2003-2005 EUR 3.3 mio.). This support is part of the ―Program of Action 2015‖ which describes the German Government‗s contribution towards halving extreme poverty worldwide. The campaign is implemented by the ―Verbraucherinitative‖60 in cooperation with
www.eco-fair.de www.transfair.org 58 See www.fair-feels-good.de 59 www.verbraucherministerium.de 60 www.verbraucher.org
TransFair61 and Weltladendachverband62 (non governmental organisations). It includes numerous activities with media, commerce and industry. Development of an audit and certification system for medical plants Many medical products derive from medical plant species that have been collected from the wild. Risk assessments show that the harvesting of many of these species often is not sustainable. The development of criteria for a sustainable harvesting of medical plants is a first step towards the establishment of an auditing and certification scheme that raises the awareness of traders and producers and helps consumers to identify sustainable medical products63. 2.9. Analytical tools
Integrated Environmental Monitoring
The concept of integrated environmental monitoring was developed at the request of the Bavarian State Ministry for Regional Development and Environmental Affairs and the Federal Environmental Agency with additional participation by the Environmental Ministries of the federal states of Hesse and Thuringia. Integrated environmental monitoring
supplies instructions to the federal states about how to more effectively use their measurement networks and monitoring programmes, provides detailed approaches for better harmonisation of data collection, offers suggestions for integrating data analysis, makes it possible to more effectively use a limited financial budget and can be implemented by the federal states step by step.
In the future, the results of integrated environmental monitoring are to be used more effectively to make clear the need for action in the environmental field and to support performance reviews of measures of environmental policies64. Reporting mechanisms 2.10. Research and development New Research Programme in 4 areas The German government has stated in its national strategy on sustainability, that research and development inter alia should be used for developing innovative methods, concepts, processes and strategies for giving the concepts of sustainability a concrete form. Sustainability is considered to be a driver for innovation in economy, government and society. These issues are therefore also the objectives of BMBF‘s (Federal Ministry for Research and Education) new research program for applied sustainability concepts (planned for spring/summer 2004). Supporting an interdisciplinary approach and research networks, 4 main areas of action are covered: actions in society towards sustainability including e.g. o socio-ecological research for sustainable consumption patterns
www.fairtrade.org, www.transfair.org, www.oeko-fair.de www.weltlaeden.de 63 www.bmu.de 64 (http://www.umweltbundesamt.de/uba-info-daten-e/daten-e/oeub/index.htm)
sustainability concepts for industry and economy including e.g. research to o improve the economical use of resources in production patterns or to o analyse business models in a sustainable marked economy as well as to o address the sustainable agriculture and forestry production chains as main topics for research and technological development sustainability concepts for regions including e.g. o (further) development of innovative agricultural methods like Precision Agriculture o sustainable land use methods concepts for the sustainable use of natural resources including e.g. research for o sustainable use of water o concepts for monitoring biodiversity
These 4 areas of action have one horizontal aspect in common, the international encourage. Already existing bilateral and multilateral co-operation on European as well as international level will continue - from student exchange programmes (supporting the knowledge transfer) to research projects with international participants (encouraging networks of excellence)65. Survey on environmental awareness and behaviour in Germany The Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety and the Federal Environmental Agency initiated various social science research projects in the field of SCP. One of the main activities is a nation-wide survey on environmental awareness and behaviour in Germany every two years. The continuity makes time lines possible, which allow drawing conclusions on social trends and development. The results of the survey are part of the environmental reporting in Germany. Besides general attitudes of the German population towards environmental protection issues and policy measurements the survey examines the self-reported environmental behaviour in different fields, like mobility, household consumption of goods, energy, information, willing-to-pay and so far. The survey is also complemented by in-depth studies on several issues and socio-structural aspects, like engagement potential, justice or leisure mobility66. Research initiative „Challenges and Limitations of New Strategies of Use, Regional Approaches‟ The Federal Ministry for Education and Research (BMBF) is funding joint research projects in the field of new strategies of use within the research program of sustainable economy. New strategies of use are strategies which contribute to an increase of the productivity of resources and to a decrease of environmental pollution through technical, social, organizational and economical innovations (e.g. reuse of products, replacement of products by services, long-term use of products or joint use). In part A of this priority research area, the regional approach, 10 projects are funded with a high number of participants. One main objective of the joint research is to build up regional networks, network structures and new cooperations (e.g. between households and housing industry) in different regions and for different product groups or services to implement sustainable strategies of use. The networks, which were built up, for example reuse furniture or computer and should be stable after funding is going down. They will give examples of best practice on how regional networking supports avoiding waste. Agencies will be built up to bring together demand and supply of waste prevention activities by internet or by service centres67.
www.bmbf.de www.umweltbewusstsein.de http://www.nachhaltig.org/Startseiten/index1.html
Gender and Sustainability As empirical studies show, gender aspects are increasing important while promoting the shift towards sustainable consumption patterns. Therefore, an evaluation of existing empirical studies was launched to identify possibilities and new ways of a gender sensitive environmental policy strategy (see results UBA-Berichte 06/02). 3. 3.1. SECTORS AND ISSUES Industry/cleaner production
Regulatory framework IPPC - Emerging Techniques for Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control68 The project „Emerging Techniques for Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control‖ is funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research for evaluation of environmental aspects in different industrial sectors. More than 3600 projects have been reviewed by the Federal Environmental Agency as to weather they are relevant to the BREF. Emerging Techniques are often still under development, this often implies a high potential for further reduction of environmental pollution or resource efficiency. The tasks of the project group are: Evaluation of funded projects and establishing contact to the firms and project managers, Description of the projects for the information exchange under the IPPC-Directive, To inform the public, authorities, institutes and industrial associations about the IPPC process, Identification of industrial sectors where funding could bring the development of ambitious environmental standards forward. Environmental Technology Action Plan Technology Transfer/Environmental Action Plan/Cleaner Production Germany/Energy Germany ne important outcome of the UN Environment and Development conference in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 was the recognition by all participants that a more intensive exchange of technology is an essential precondition for sustainable global development. In Agenda 21 and the Rio Convention the industrial nations have committed themselves to greater technical cooperation, including the transfer of such technologies. Both developing and threshold countries and central and eastern European states rely particularly heavily on access to progressive environmental technology to solve their environmental problems and build up sustainable economic structures. In accordance with the Agenda 21requirement to promote access to environmentally sustainable technologies Germany has established an internet information system about German environmental technology ("Cleaner Production Germany"69) and about German energy-technologies70. This platform should improve access to commercial technical or organisational environmental solutions and also to German contacts. With a further extension of this "navigation systems‖ we want to boost international environmental and developmental co-operation and promote the transfer of environmental
technologies. This is one of Germany´s contribution to the Environmental Technology Action Plan (ETAP) of the European Commission (COM (2004)38). Product standards Voluntary initiatives and Codes of Conduct Voluntary commitments for reducing emissions of fluorinated greenhouse gases Within the framework of the national climate protection programme two voluntary commitments aiming at reducing emissions of fluorinated greenhouse gases are currently being elaborated by industry in close co-operation with the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety. 1) The German producer of sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) as well as operators and producers of electrical equipment containing this substance with a voltage exceeding 1000 V are developing further their 1997 voluntary commitment on the use of SF6 as extinguishing and insulating gas in electrical equipment. The commitment is intended to cover the whole life cycle of SF6 used in electrical equipment. Process optimising measures in the entire product chain from the production to the recycling and final disposal which aim at reducing SF6 emissions are at the core of the voluntary commitment. SF6 shall only be used if its use entails clear ecological, technical and economical advantages in comparison with alternative technologies. Compliance with the voluntary commitment shall be monitored on the basis of annual balances of SF6 emissions. 2) The "Memorandum of Agreement between member companies of the European Electronic Component Manufacturers Association (EECA), European Semiconductor Industry Association (ESIA)" of 2 February 2001 provides for the reduction of the absolute emissions of fluorinated greenhouse gases covered by this voluntary commitment in the EU by 10 per cent (referring to CO2 equivalents) until 2010 (reference year 1995). This reduction is to be seen against the background that the average annual growth of the global production of semiconductors amounts to approximately 15 per cent .Producers of semiconductors represented by the German central association of the electrical engineering and electronics industry (ZVEI) with production sites in Germany intend to commit themselves to a similar reduction target. To this end they intend to strive i.a. for a more efficient use of fluorinated gases, the uses of alternative gases and the recycling and re-use of fluorinated gases. Compliance with this voluntary commitment shall also be monitored on the basis of annual balances of emissions of the fluorinated gases covered. Both voluntary commitments are expected to be adopted by industry shortly71. Voluntary agreement to reduce poorly biodegradable chelates A voluntary agreement between the photo industry and the Federal Environment Ministry was made in1998 to reduce the specific release of weakly biodegradable chelating agents by 50%, such as EDTA and PDTA. Manufacturers of photo chemicals as well as users, i.e. photofinishers, were involved in this agreement. Sub-ordinate targets were:
Development and supply of new photo chemicals with 50% less content of poorly biodegradable chelates until 1999 Use of the new products within one year after their market introduction or taking equivalent measures Use of adequate disposal routes Providing relevant data to stakeholders
The aims of the voluntary agreement were achieved in 2002, i.e. 2 years later than targeted. This delay was due to the late supply to the market of low-chelate photo chemicals. This agreement has considerably contributed to water pollution prevention relating to poorly biodegradable chelates. With regard to possible EU-wide measures concerning the reduction of EDTA, it can be concluded that the German photo industry has achieved state-of-the-art progress. Round Table Codes of Conduct The Round Table Codes of Conduct in Germany, moderated by the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ), is a multi-stakeholder approach to codes of conduct, which is unique in Germany. It brings together representatives of the private-sector, trade unions, non-governmental organisations and government and provides a forum for an exchange of experience from a wide range of perspectives. The objective is to improve social standards in developing countries. This is to be achieved through voluntary corporate codes of conduct. Based on the exchange of experience, recommendations for the introduction, monitoring and verification of codes of conduct are being elaborated (activities: elaboration of a guidebook ―codes of conduct‖, different pilot projects)72. Common Code for the Coffee Community The “Common Code for the Coffee Community” is a public-private financed Multistakeholder-Initiative to develop a Code of Conduct for sustainability in the production, post-harvest processing and trading of green ―mainstream‖ green coffee. It therefore addresses the social, the environmental and the economic dimension of sustainability. In this global approach, representatives of the international coffee trade and industry, producing countries of all coffee regions, non governmental organizations and trade unions as well as multilateral institutions and organizations co-operate to develop the Code of Conduct in a transparent, participatory and innovative process. By implementing the Code, actors along the value chain are aiming to create a new definition of quality, including the quality of the product as well as the quality of a sustainable production. Pilot Projects test preliminary aspects of the Code and integrate their results into the formulation of the Code. The Common Code-Initiative will develop an implementation system and guidelines for independent verification and monitoring to ensure that the Code is suitable for binding agreements. The implementation of the Common Code will help to allow reasonable earnings over time for all in the coffee value chain, to protect the environment and to respect human rights as well as social standards73. AVE Sector Model Social Responsibility The AVE (―Außenhandelsvereinigung des Deutschen Einzelhandels e.v.‖) – Foreign Trade Association of the German Retail Trade – has elaborated within the framework of a three-year Public Private Partnership project the uniform AVE Sector Model Social Responsibility
which is a joint initiative of the German retail trade. The project in co-operation with the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development and the GTZ has the aim to improve the working conditions in companies supplying goods to retail business, in particular those based in newly industrialised and developing countries. Its main focus is on enterprises producing textiles, sports, apparel, shoes and toys. A system for auditing and qualification of suppliers is being set up in 15 countries, based on the international standards SA 8000. The project has four main criteria: multi-stakeholder-dialogue with the focus to be in dialogue with the society, to have independent audits which guarantee also transparency and credibility, the qualification of the local audit-firms and enterprises for improving their management-systems74. Biotechnology EMAS Analysis of the incentives and rewards regulations for EMAS-organisations at European level and assessment with respect to their feasibility at domestic level The research-and-development project aims at gathering, systemising and assessing the entirety as well as selected points concerning the promotion of participation to EMAS by the use of incentives and rewards regulations as practised in the member states of the European Union. It intends, furthermore, to make proposals for measures and regulations to improve the situation. This research centres on the impact of environment-policy or environmental- law instruments as regulating incentives and rewards. The survey involves three different, interlocking methodical approaches: the jurisprudential analysis and interpretation method, secondary analysis and empirical components in the form of polls. The concepts of ―incentive‖ and ―reward‖ are used as synonyms. Binding commitments, explicitly promising advantages to organisations applying EMAS are considered to be ―incentives and rewards regulations". Incentives and rewards regulations have – in part – already become an integral part of the EMAS Regulation in domestic Federal law, mainly in the shape of the EMASPrivilege Regulation (EMAS-PrivilegV). The interpretation of the incentive and rewards regulations in the member states reveals striking similarities: there, one concentrates mainly on environmental information, reduction of fees as well as promotional programmes as instrument categories. Compared to this, the categories of environmental obligations and official handling still experienced a clear, though weaker, preference. Planning instruments, official handling, environmental agreements and most of economic instruments are either not used, marginally used, or little used. As it turns out, the exemplary registration of the public sector, in particular, strongly needs to be upgraded. The instrument of ―official handling‖ still contains valuable potential for the promotion of EMAS. There is still plenty of room for improvement in the use of the EMAS logo, in spite of the very restrictive requirements concerning product labelling. Conclusions are drawn as theses from the results of the research-and-development project75. Environmental Liability PREMA (Profitable Environmental Management) Programme On behalf of the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) the Pilot Programme for the Promotion of Environmental Management in the Private Sector of
Report will be published in June 2004 under UBA-Texte 72/04 www.uba.de
Developing Countries (P3U) of GTZ developed the training and consulting programme PREMA (Profitable Environmental Management) for micro, small and medium-sized enterprises. The programme aims to identify and implement measures that help to 1) reduce production costs, 2) improve the environmental impact of enterprises and 3) promote the organisational development (triple win) simultaneously improving workplace safety. The PREMA programme is carried out with groups of enterprises and includes trainings, network meetings and company visits. It is characterised by the fact that it passes on content in an interactive, practical and implementation-oriented way and can therefore be adapted to the specific requirements of businesses and countries. PREMAplus provides the opportunity to analyse the gaps between PREMA and the standards in the fields of the environment, quality and workplace safety. PREMA programmes have been carried out in 30 different countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America as well as in South Eastern Europe and Germany. Together with the Convention Project Chemical Safety (see 3.8.) P3U has developed a Chemical Management Guide and a corresponding training programme in order to improve chemical management to gain cost savings, reduce hazards and improve safety in the enterprises. With the objective to raise the awareness of enterprises about the importance of social standards in order to improve productivity and competitiveness P3U has developed a training module together with the Programme Office for Social and Ecological Standards (see 3.1.1) and tested its pilot implementation. Fosterage of the involvement from the private sector in regions with weak economies in Latin America and the Caribbean The target of this measure is to support the preconditions for a stronger involvement of the private sector especially from the tourism industry in prioritised regions of Latin America and the Caribbean. A particularly strong focus is on the potentials of strategic alliances and ―Public-Private-Partnership‖ (PPP) Programmes for sustainable development and poverty alleviation in countries marked by weak economic activities. The expected results and activities of this measure can be summarised as follows: Potentials and obstacles for a stronger involvement of the private sector of weak economies in Latin America and the Caribbean have been screened. Resulting activities and strategies can be defined for joint initiatives between the private sector and GTZ. Relevant developmental impacts in these regions, such as poverty alleviation and environmental practices from key sectors e.g. Tourism have been evaluated.
The results and the information gained from these activities are used to conceptualise recommendations and strategies for best practices and co-operation with relevant sectors76. Housing and construction Sustainable building and housing in Germany The research project ―Sustainable building and housing in Germany‖ resulted in two different scenarios that were created to show alternative ways for sustainable development in the building and housing sector in a long term perspective up to the year 2025: reference scenario and sustainable scenario. The scenarios where created by the computer model BASiS-2. In this computer model the material-flows of the building and housing sector can be analysed
together with the corresponding infrastructure of housing areas. The scopes for the analysis include material flows, airborne emissions, waste streams and land utilization. The detailed inputs of the scenarios were discussed intensively with experts and protagonists of the sector. The scenarios are suitable to simulate and quantify the effects of single assumptions and different trends on the environment. The results of the research project show important perspectives for sustainable development in the building and housing sector. Implementation of Environmental Declaration of Building Products in Germany The Type III AUB – EPD System An environmental declaration of building products (EPD) aims to gather and assess comprehensive and reliable information regarding environmental and health impacts of building products used in construction works. EPDs can be used in concepts for sustainable construction. They improve the knowledge about the products, assist in a selection of environmentally sound products and are the basis for an ecological optimisation of buildings. The heart piece of the EPD is a LCA of the product. Environmental declarations are based on international standards like the 14040 and 14020 series. There is an intensive standardisation work to specify the requirements of these standards for building products. The German Association of Producers of environmentally sound building products AUB organizes the process for implementing such schemes in Germany. The general requirements for AUB schemes are described in a guideline and must be specified for every product group by expert panels. The results of this work are so called product specific documents (PSX). The process and the documents are overviewed by a panel of independent experts from academia, science and German authorities. This group also assist in the supervision of the EPDs of concrete product. Until now the following product groups are preparing PSXs: bricks and tiles, aero-concrete, lightweight concrete and lightweight aggregates, particleboards, MDF and OSB, non-ferrous metals (copper and zinc sheets) and mineral wool77. 3.2. Energy
The Renewable Energy Sources Act The Renewable Energy Sources Act aims to double the share of renewable energies in electricity supply by 2010. By that year, renewable energies are to provide at least 12.5% of total electricity supply. The medium-term objective for 2020 is to increase the share to at least 20%. Thus, the framework for expanding renewable energies has been clearly set for all parties involved. The aim is to reduce the costs of energy supply for the national economy by integrating long-term external effects. The Renewable Energy Sources Act provides for the connection to the general power grid of plants producing electricity from renewable energies and from mine gas on the territory of the Federal Republic of Germany including its exclusive economic zone. The act also provides for the priority purchase, transmission and payment of the electricity by the system operators as well as for a nation-wide compensation scheme for the electricity purchased and paid for. The fees paid for electricity from renewable sources are the following:
Wind farms: 8,2 - 9,1 cents per kWh Biomass: 9,5 - 11,5 cents per kWh
Solar: 45,7 cents per kWh Geothermal power: 7,2 - 15 cents per kWh Hydropower 6,6 – 7,6 cents per kWh Landfill gas, sewage treatment plant gas and mine gas: 6,6 – 7,6 cents per kWh.
Energy Savings Ordinance The energy savings ordinance contains an obligation for house builders. Since February 2002 every new house built in Germany has to apply the low energy house standard. This standard not only relates to the building itself but also implies standards for the heating and the warm water supply systems. In addition to this ordinance there is a 360 Mio.€ support system for carbon dioxide saving measures. Support will be given for modernisation measures in heating systems, house electricity and in the building itself and for the use of renewable energy systems. Further support will be given for the building of so-called ―passive houses‖ which only use 15kW per square meter per year for heating. CaPP – Climate Protection Programme for Developing Countries After the Earth Summit in Rio (1992), the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) initiated the Climate Protection Programme for Developing Countries (CaPP), which was launched in 1993. Its primary goals are to support partner countries in fulfilling commitments made under Framework Convention on Climate Change and to ensure that the partners increasingly take climate change into account in their national development policies and projects. Priority areas are the reduction and avoidance of greenhouse gas emissions and adaptation to the inevitable impacts of climate change. Since 1998, capacity building for the ―Clean Development Mechanism‖ (CDM) is a key component of CaPP. Focus sectors are renewable energy and energy efficiency, fuel substitution, solid and liquid waste management, and transport. National experts, project developers, industry, financial institutions and NGOs can seek CaPP‘s support on all issues along the CDM project cycle. The politically important conferences of parties to the UNFCCC in Bonn (July 2001) and Marrakech (November 2001) have given new impetus to CaPP activities, not only because the entry into force of the Kyoto Protocol has become within reach but also because the issue of adaptation to the impacts of climate change has become more important on the national and international level. As developing countries are especially vulnerable to the impacts of climate change, CaPP now supports partner countries in the development of national adaptation plans and in the integration of adaptation concerns into national sustainable development programmes. CaPP also encourages scientific and stakeholder dialogue to improve projections of climate change impacts in key regions as well as the assessment of vulnerability of people and communities ―on the ground‖. PROKLIMA – Protecting the Ozone Layer On behalf of the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) the GTZ (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit GmbH) has developed PROKLIMA. Since 1996 PROKLIMA assists developing countries technically as well as financially in meeting their Montreal Protocol obligations and other international conventions for the phase-out of Ozone Depleting Substances (ODS). In most of the developing world a lack of know-how and personnel and institutional prerequisites prevents a rapid and – in terms of the environment and development - optimised substitution of ozone-depleting industrial fluids that are detrimental to the climate.
The goal of PROKLIMA is to support countries of the south in the search for pollution free alternatives to ozone-destructive technologies. Political consultation and the implementation of concrete projects go together and influence each other positively. The basis for success is the combination of political counselling and implementation authority. Until today PROKLIMA accomplished more than 110 projects in approximately 40 countries for over 22 million euro78. 3.3. Agriculture and forestry
Project `Rural Development´ In 2001 the Federal Republic of Germany launched a pilot and demonstration project aiming at promoting sustainable rural development called ―REGIONEN AKTIV - Land gestaltet Zukunft― (ACTIVE REGIONS – rural areas shape the future‖) within the framework of the National Sustainable Development Strategy. Against the backdrop of changing agricultural framework conditions and the associated reorientation of the European Agricultural and Structural Policy, new ways to develop rural areas are analyzed and shown. The underlying concept is that the regions themselves determine development targets, develop strategies to achieve them and decide on the implementation of the necessary measures. The targets include generating additional sources of income and increasing regional added value, promoting ecologically sound land management and reinforcing the consumer focus of production processes. Within the years 2002 to 2005, the 18 model regions will receive a total of some € 45.5 million in federal funds. In connection with the adoption of the new funding principle ―Integrated Rural Development― of the Joint Task for the Improvement of Agricultural Structures and Coastal Protection within the framework plan 2004 to 2007, these new approaches, which have also been tested under the Community initiative LEADER, will be integrated in the wider support. In future, regional management and rural development concepts will be eligible for support. This is based on the finding that every region has its own strengths and weaknesses und that supporting measures are most effective if they are matched with the regions‗ characteristics. By supporting the development of integrated rural development concepts, previously isolated individual measures can be better matched with each other and can be used specifically for developing rural regions. Through regional management, the targeted implementation of this strategy, which is drawn up by the regions, will be supported79. Federal Organic Farming Scheme To further improve the overall conditions for organic farming, a Federal Organic Farming Scheme (Bundesprogramm Ökolandbau) has been drawn up in 2002. It is to contribute to sustainable growth based on a well-balanced expansion of supply and demand. The Federal Scheme launches a medium- to long-term Action Program on Organic Farming that is to be developed within a social discourse and is to encompass all relevant policy fields and actors. Based on the identification of problems and development potential, the Scheme envisages support measures where growth can be efficiently boosted by closing gaps in support.
Bearing this aim in mind, the Federal Scheme incorporates various measures in line with a production chain concept in the following sectors: agricultural production, recording and processing, trade, marketing, consumers, development and transfer of technologies, accompanying measures such as research and development.
The Scheme focuses, on the one hand, on training, educational and general information measures. A further priority is the promotion of research and the development of new technologies as well as the practical implementation of the acquired insights80. Regional marketing In the course of the new orientation of its consumer and agricultural policy, the federal government aims to boost regional economic systems. The Federal Environmental Agency (FEA) is therefore sponsoring a joint project by the German Association for Land care (DVL) and German Association for Nature Conservation (NABU) to support regional initiatives and to distinguish the work of regional initiatives that act in an especially environment-friendly manner. Key element of the project was to build up a network of regional initiatives. This is to serve as exchange of contacts, expert forum and for representation of interests. There are over 400 regional initiatives at work throughout the country in the foodstuffs production, handicrafts, and tourism sectors, which strengthen regional economies. The objective of the project is to promote these initiatives through publicity and lobbying and to improve political conditions. Another main part of the project is the ―Natürlich regional‖ contest. It awards regional initiatives that unite the three areas of regionalism, conservation, and quality control in an exemplary fashion. It is more than just awarding four winners for all participants judged as regional and environmentally compatible by the jury may market themselves as ―naturally regional‖ for the next two years81. Organic Agriculture projects in developing countries Commissioned by BMZ the Programme Office for Social and Ecological Standards of GTZ (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit GmbH) promotes organic farming in developing countries. The GTZ supports the conversion of small-scale farmers and their cooperatives into sustained Organic Agriculture. This means that ecological, economical and social aspects are taken into consideration. The GTZ offers consultancy services in following topics: Advisory concepts on organic agriculture, internal quality control systems and support for growers‘ associations. Instruments are cultivation guides, training modules as well as the development of advisory systems developed by the GTZ. Development of local certification and accreditation structures: GTZ advises governments on the following topics: legal norms on organic agriculture and
www.verbraucherministerium.de http://www.reginet.de or http://www.regionalvermarktung.info.
implementation of an accreditation system. Local certification bodies can get advisory on following subjects: organization of a certification body, ISO Guide 65, application of other norms such as social and forestry standards Marketing strategies and concepts: seminars and workshops are organised on following topics: marketing strategies for national and international markets, seminars on cost accounting etc. Development of Public-Private-Partnerships: Projects with German companies interested in building up small-farmers groups in developing countries that deliver organic products to Europe.
GTZ´s main project activities concentrate currently mainly on Central America and the Andean region. From July 2004 the activities will focus more on Africa and Asia82. GTZ Programme Office for Social and Ecological Standards in the forestry sector Commissioned by BMZ83 the Programme Office for Social and Ecological Standards of GTZ (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit GmbH) promotes the introduction, implementation and monitoring of ecological and social standards as an instrument to foster sustainable production and consumption and sustainable development. Forest certification is one major pillar of the programme. The activities of the forest certification component mainly address: Consolidation of forest certification in developing countries through the support of participatory development and implementation of forest certification standards. Regional networks (CATIE, community forestry in Latin America) are supported for the exchange of experiences. Analysis of incentives and constraints for the application of forest certification as well as support of the development of incentive mechanisms through producers groups, buyers groups and group certification. Studies and investigations on the impacts of forest certification processes which go beyond the level of the individual enterprise. Public relations work and information management in order to develop and offer instruments of forest certification to developing countries and to raise awareness at the international level about the significance of the mechanism of forest certification for development policy. Fisheries
"Sustainable Marine and Aquaculture Technologies" (2003-2005) The action plan's objective is to develop environmental-sound and sustainable aquaculture technologies, which can be used in different climate zones, in particular in tropical transition countries. Following aspects have priority: Integrating different technologies like plant construction and -operation, process engineering and operation technologies Development of integrated systems Quality management: environment-friendly management and the economical use of resources
Reducing the use of fish meal and oil by introduction of omnivore and herbivore piscine species
Apart from the technology development an interdisciplinary approach as well as the education and vocational training of professionals are targeted84. 3.5. 3.6. Transport Tourism
Viabono – a label for environmentally sound tourist services The label Viabono85 is the result of a longstanding discussion on the introduction of a uniform environmental label for tourist service products. The first and foremost aim is to give consumers guidance in their search for environmentally sound offers in the tourist service sector. The Federal Government expects the label not only to give a boost to offers available in the field of sustainable tourism but that it will also trigger a rise in the demand for these offers. Anyone fulfilling the criteria developed for the segments local tourist communities, hotels, restaurants, apartments and bed and breakfast, camping sites and large protected areas can become a licensee. All catalogues of criteria cover the areas waste, energy, water noise, mobility, nature and landscape, architecture and settlement structure, information, wellbeing of tourists, regional economic cycles and environmental management. The catalogues provide a uniform basis for offers in major areas of the tourist service sector. 250 licenses under the label have already been granted. The body responsible for the label is made up of several tourist, local authority and environmental associations. Sustainability and Sports: Manual on "Sports and Environment" Conservation and intelligent use of natural resources as one prime goal of sustainability is also of major concern in sports-related environmental policies. Involving all actors from all parts of society, sports organizations, environmental action groups, consumer organizations, local administration, scientists, the federal Minister for Environment published a handbook-type guide towards environmentally friendly exercise of sports, how to handle conflicts between sport and ecology and how to sustainable use environmental resources both in indoor as well as in outdoor sports. 3.7. Waste
General The key to waste management policy in Germany is product responsibility / extended producer responsibility which provides for incentives to consider issues of waste avoidance and recovery already in the production stage86.
www.bmbf.de www.viabono.de 86 www.bmu.de
Packaging Ordinance The model example for extended producer responsibility is the Packaging Ordinance. The purpose of this regulation is to avoid or reduce the environmental impacts of waste arising from packaging. Packaging waste shall in the first instance be avoided; reuse of packaging, recycling and other forms of recovery shall otherwise take priority over the disposal of packaging waste. As a result of the ordinance manufacturers have changed their packaging habits and industry has set up a nationwide collection system (the „Green Dot System―) for throw-away packaging and has increased its recycling capacities significantly for all packaging material. The system organises the collection, sorting and recycling of packaging waste in Germany with the support of about 400 waste management partners. In order to obtain the right to print the Green Dot trade mark on their packaging, licensees must pay a licence fee based on the polluter-pays principle (depending on the number of packaging items, their weight and materials used). Today, around 19,000 companies (licensees) in Germany and abroad make use of the services provided by the German Green Dot scheme. The total quantity of packaging has decreased by some 14% as a result of material savings and packaging optimisation. 5.3 million tonnes of packaging manufactured from glass, paper/cardboard, plastics, tinplate, aluminium and composites are recycled every year. Compulsory deposit on one-way beverage containers In order to support waste avoidance in the field of drinks packaging a compulsory deposit on one-way beverage containers was implemented on 1 January 2003. A deposit of 25 cent is levied on mineral water, beer and carbonated beverages sold in one way packaging of glass, plastic or cans. This deposit is reimbursed on return of the empty container. The compulsory deposit strengthens environmentally friendly reusable systems. Voluntary Commitment on graphic paper A voluntary commitment of AGRAPA (Graphic Paper Alliance) which is a group of associations and organisations of the paper manufacturing industry, paper importers, paper wholesalers, the printing industry and publishers on the recycling of used graphic paper was agreed upon in 1994 and updated in 2001. In the update AGRAPA commits itself to keep the recycling quota at about 80 % in the future. In 2001 a recycling quota of nearly 84 % was achieved. This contributes to considerable environmental relief as was confirmed in an ecological balance set up by the German Federal Environmental Agency. Ordinance on the Disposal of Waste Wood On 01.03.03 the Ordinance on the Disposal of Waste Wood entered into force. It specifies concrete requirements for the material and energetic recovery from waste wood and for its disposal. This gives a sustainable boost to the environmentally sound recycling of waste wood and guarantees that pollutants no longer enter the economic cycle. Germany opened up new terrain with this Ordinance because so far there had been no uniform requirements for the disposal of waste wood neither in Germany nor on the European level. The Ordinance covers production residues from the processing of timber and timber-based materials and used products such as wooden packaging material, pallets, furniture or timber from demolitions. It covers all currently well established disposal practices for waste wood ranging from the processing of waste wood to produce timber-based materials, the production of activated carbon, industrial charcoal and synthetic gas to the energy recovery by combustion using waste wood as substitute fuel. If it is not possible to recycle waste wood it is to be disposed of by combustion. Land filling is not permitted. Viewed under ecological and economic considerations the ordinance is a further important element on the way to a tangible extension of closed loop cycles.
Guidance for the use of environmentally sound substances This management guidance has been developed in the framework of the project no. 201 28 213 of the German Federal Environmental Research Programme. It addresses producers and users of chemical products relevant to water ecosystems. With the focus on the priority substances under the European Water Policy, the guidance outlines a systematic procedure for the environmental evaluation of chemical substances and the identification of appropriate risk reduction strategies87. Sustainable Washing Developing sustainable washing strategies requires the inclusion of a broad range of subjects: Sustainable consumption and production of washing and cleaning agents with a focus on energy and water consumption. The identification of substances which are or might be harmful to health and the environment to ensure a high level of environmental protection, especially of the aquatic environment. Reduction or, where appropriate, exclusion of poorly biodegradable, accumulating, eco-toxic or sensitising substances. At present UBA is interested especially in odorous substances and substances with biocidal properties. The standard of consumer information will be risen by extending the legal labelling requirements for the products ingredients and enhanced information on proper use and dosage88. The inclusion of life cycle considerations for the environmental assessment of ingredients is part of UBA´s participation in an OECD activity on Chemical Product Policy. Additionally UBA supports an initiative of the German producers of washing agents in co-operation with stakeholders on sustainable washing. Help for developing countries on the implementation of International Chemicals Related Conventions In 2004 both the Rotterdam Convention on Prior Informed Consent Procedure for Certain Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides in International Trade and the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants entered into force. The EU is party to the Rotterdam Convention and will soon be party to the Stockholm Convention. The German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) has commissioned to the GTZ a Chemicals Convention Project to support the implementation of these Conventions through development assistance projects and programmes in developing countries. Internationally accepted standards and tools for sustainable chemical safety are provided. Contacts are established between governmental authorities as well as the private sector in developing countries and EU Member States to facilitate exchange of information and to provide expertise and lessons learned in the process of chemicals convention implementation.
http://www.umweltbundesamt.de/umweltvertraegliche-stoffe-e/guidehome.htm Further details can be found on the UBA internet site, see http://umweltbundesamt.de/uba-infodaten/daten/wasch/index.htm
1. 2. 2.1 INTRODUCTION GENERAL POLICY STRATEGIES AND INSTRUMENTS General policy framework
The Hungarian Network for Sustainable Consumption and Production is a cross-sectoral partnership composed of a unique assemblage of stakeholder groups in Central and Eastern Europe. The partnership emerged from the initiative of the UNEP with strong support from the Regional Environmental Center for Central and Eastern Europe‘s (REC) Hungarian country office. The Network has been launched in November 2002. The main tasks of the network are to promote dialogue among stakeholders and to develop and implement the strategies and actions for sustainable consumption and production. The network was further extended during several cross- and intra-sector events. The efficiency of the network‘s actions is ensured by the participants covering all stakeholder groups (relevant governmental authorities, business, civil society, academia and media)89. 1. The Network of Environmental Consultants – Information and awareness-raising on sustainable lifestyle for citizens (to chapter 2.8 Information tools) The offices of the Network of Environmental Consultants are operated by environmental NGOs all over the country. The Network was initiated by the Association of Environmental Consultants in 1997, the establishment and to some extent also the operation was financed by the Ministry of Environment. The Network works in cooperation with the Information Office of the Ministry and provides information supporting the environment-aware lifestyle, distributes publications and organises awareness-raising campaigns and programs for the citizens90. 2. Cleaner production criteria for evaluation of project proposals (to chapter 3.1 Cleaner production). The Hungarian Cleaner Production Center – on the request of the Ministry of Environment – has prepared a set of cleaner production criteria which was used for evaluation of project proposals applied to the Environmental Fund in 2001 already. The projects of manufacturing industry (co-)financed from the Environmental Fund are obliged to audit the project in terms of environmental protection91.
web site: www.rec.hu/hftf web site: www.kothalo.hu Further information: Ministry of Environment and Water, Department of Environmental Technology
1. 2. INTRODUCTION GENERAL POLICY INSTRUMENT: CLEANER GREENER PRODUCTION PROGRAMME
2.3 Integrated Product Policy The ESP initiative was developed in response to the increasing drivers for industry to produce more sustainable products and services e.g. Integrated Product Policy and Producer Responsibility legislation. The aim of ESP is to promote and increase the development of sustainable products, services or Product Service Systems by Irish industry. Under ESP, a packaging of supports to include general and technical information and advice on designing more sustainable products and services as well as financial supports are available. Financial support of 50% of the cost of a project to reduce the environmental impact of a product and/or service up to a maximum of €32,000 is available to SMEs. To date, over forty Irish SMEs from a range of industry sectors have participated in ESP. Companies participating in ESP are from a range of manufacturing industry sectors (e.g. electronics, IT, construction, packaging, furniture and timber) and play different roles in the supply chain (e.g. raw material, component or sub component suppliers to OEMs). All use a life cycle thinking approach and a range of environmental improvement strategies to improve the environmental performance of new or existing products and/or services. The result for many projects has not only been more sustainable products, and Product Service Systems but also commercial and other business benefits92. ESP is one aspect of a larger programme of environmental supports from Enterprise Ireland designed to improve the environmental performance of Irish industry93. Best Practice Example: Race Against Waste Campaign 2.7 Economic Instrument ―Waste prevention is the first priority of the waste management hierarchy contained in Community legislation on waste. This includes both quantitative prevention (producing less waste) and qualitative prevention (reducing the hazardous character of waste)‖ 94. In Ireland, the Cleaner Greener Production Programme is focussed on the avoidance and prevention of waste and is funded by the EPA95. The programme seeks to promote environmentally friendly business through increased resource productivity, waste reduction, recovery of materials, improved efficiency in a product value-chain and a change of culture within organisations. The long-term goal is to ensure that cleaner greener production becomes the established norm in Ireland. Due to resource limitations, the EPA contracted a consultancy team to manage the programme. This team consisted of experts in cleaner production (the Clean Technology Centre, Cork), an engineering consultancy specialising in energy efficient and sustainable
Practical case examples from ESP participant companies which highlight the environmental, commercial and other business benefits achieved are at www.enterprise-ireland.com/esp Further information: Dorothy Maxwell, Environmental Policy Dept. Enterprise Ireland, email: firstname.lastname@example.org; Tel. + 353 1 808 2612, Fax + 353 1 808 2259 93 see www.envirocentre.ie 94 Ref: Sustainable Consumption and Production: Inventory of Relevant Policies, Activities and Instruments at the EC Level Draft 30 January 2004. 95 http://www.epa.ie/
actions (ENTRAC) and a public relations company (O‘Sullivan Public Relations Ltd). Twenty-nine successful projects were completed under Phase 1 of the programme (cleaner production / results)96. It is intended that Phase 2 will be launched in May 2004. This call for proposals will encompass a broader range of projects than Phase 1 and will include topical issues such as Integrated Product Policy and Environmental Technologies as well as others97. Economic Instruments: A budget of €3.8 million was made available to the EPA for the CGPP from the Department of Environment, Heritage and Local Government. This funding is provided under the National Development Plan 2000-2006. A total of €1.7 million was committed under Phase 1 of the programme. Grant aid was provided to successful applicants on the following basis: The country is divided into two areas for the purposes of state grant aid: the Border, Midlands and Western (BMW) region and the Southern and Eastern (SE) region. Companies located in the BMW region qualify for an additional 5% over companies in the SE region. Location is defined as the place where the project is being undertaken/implemented as opposed to the registered office or head office of the Participant company. The size of the Participant company also has a bearing on the grant aid percentages, with an additional 10% being made available for Small and Medium Enterprises (SME) as defined in the EU Commission Recommendation 96/280/EU of 3rd April 1986. The type or category of cost will also have a bearing on the grant aid percentage available. Project costs including staff, training, consumables, travel, external assistance, consultancy and promotion and publicity costs qualify for higher grant aid than capital or equipment costs. Maximum grant aid available is €100,000 per applicant.
The table below shows cost categories and percentage grant aid:
NON-SME SE PROJECT COSTS Staff Costs Training Consumables Costs Travel Costs Promotion and publicity External Assistance and Consultancy Other Costs EQUIPMENT COSTS Plant and Equipment 25% 25% 25% 25% 35% 35% 35% 35% 35% 35% 35% 40% 40% 40% 40% 40% 40% 40% 45% 45% 45% 45% 45% 45% 45% 50% 50% 50% 50% 50% 50% 50% BMW SME SE BMW
Details of the projects can be accessed at http://www.epa.ie/r_d/default.htm Further information: Ms Helen Walsh, CGPP, Environmental Protection Agency, Richview, Clonskeagh Road, Dublin 14, Ireland, e-mail: email@example.com Tel: + 353 1 268 0100, Fax: + 353 1 268 0199
Examples of projects completed under the CGPP Programme: (a) Improving environmental performance at the Furniture College: The aims of this project were to reduce energy and water usage as well as reducing the amount of waste produced within the College. Students and staff were involved from the outset. Current practices in the College were evaluated and areas where improvement could be made were identified. Emphasis was placed on continuous improvement in the areas of waste minimisation, material reuse, recycling and energy saving. The achievements associated with this programme are: Development of an environmental policy statement for the College Establishment of a materials management system. Introduction of lectures on the environmental evaluation of raw materials and designs. The enhanced level of environmental awareness by College staff, students, and other businesses within the College grounds.
An estimated 1.5 tonnes of waste have been diverted from landfill through the reduction of material use, segregation of materials for re-use, and the recycling of MDF and other Timber materials. As a result of the CGPP, the College is moving towards the use of smaller-scale student projects that retain the educational and skills learning element while saving raw materials. This will result in a more efficient use of materials within the college and reduce waste. Through energy management the College was able to reduce their emissions from 112 tonnes in January through June 2002, to 97 tonnes in the period of January through June 2003. The on-site management practices for materials and energy usage and waste will set an example to the many students attending the College. It is anticipated that in the future this will have knock-on benefits environmentally, and economically, within the furniture industry98. (b) Clean Technology Options at Sligo General Hospital: As a first step towards improving the environmental performance of the North Western Health Board (NWHB), Sligo General Hospital (SGH) developed a programme to reduce the volume of waste sent to landfill, reduce resource usage throughout the hospital, incorporate green procurement principles into the hospital‘s purchasing strategy, reduce discharges of wastewater to public sewer and raise environmental awareness amongst staff at all levels in the organisation. It is proposed to apply a similar programme to other sites within the NWHB. Some of the benefits of the programme are listed below99: 12% reduction in water usage and the initiation of a system of regular monitoring and reporting of leaks. Identification of a potential 5% reduction in electricity use and initiation of an on-going awareness campaign to achieve these savings. Identification of a potential 5% reduction in clinical waste disposal costs and initiation of an on-going awareness campaign to achieve these savings. Initiation of the recycling of 1.1 tonnes of cardboard per week rather than landfilling, potentially saving the hospital €17,000 per annum. Identification of areas where the quantity of organic waste discharged to the public sewer can be reduced and initiated further investigations on how this can be achieved
Further information: Mr. Finian Sheridan, Head of Department, The Furniture College, Letterfrack, Co. Galway, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Tel: + 353 95 41660, fax+ 353 95 41112 99 Further information: Mr Pat Carr, Technical Services Department, Waterfront House, Bridge Street, Sligo, email: email@example.com Tel: + 353 71 913 8032, fax: + 353 71 913 8036
Initiation of an assessment of the environmental aspects of purchases with a view to initiating a green procurement policy.
(c) Waste reduction at pre-cast company Oran Precast produces hollow core flooring by casting a continuous narrow slab of concrete which is then cut to the required length. Prior to implementation of this project, cutting positions were marked out manually and errors led to a large volume of waste. Installation of a bed plotter directly linked to the design office CAD system significantly reduced such errors. Since installation, there have been zero measuring defects. Plant capacity has improved by 20% due to the elimination of this waste100. Best Practice Example: Enterprise Ireland EnviroCentre Environmental Information Portal for Irish Industry 2.8 Information Tools (for Industry)
EnviroCentre.ie is a free online environmental support designed to provide education, awareness raising and information for Irish industry with a particular focus on SMEs. A holistic range of supports for sustainable production are available on the site backed up phone, email or site visits from in house environmental specialists. Supports are designed to be pragmatic and highlight the business case for sustainable production. The aim of the supports is to improve the environmental performance of industrial process, products and services as this is essential to good business and to assist Irish companies to increase profitability and competitiveness through improved environmental performance. Information, technical and advisory support is provided in key environmental areas to include legislation, licensing e.g. IPPC, Cleaner Production, Climate Change and Energy, resource efficiency, Environmental Management Systems, Waste Minimisation, Eco-Efficiency, Ecodesign, ambient air quality, effluent treatment, noise/vibration and water and air emissions monitoring. There is a special focus on meeting the needs of SME industry in terms of facilitating access to environmental information and provision of financial supports. Specific supports available include: Guides on environmental legislation and standards Cross sector and sector specific Best Practice guides Industry case examples Details of financial environmental supports News and events Databases, publications and links Free regional industrial environmental business clubs to provide a platform for information dissemination and good industry environmental practices Free on site visits and an eco-efficiency assessment designed to measure and benchmark environment performance. Activity on the Site has been monitored since its launch in April 2002, and to date the Site has attracted over 40,000 hits per month101.
Further information: Ms Michelle Melville, Oran Precast Ltd, Deerpark Industrial Estate, Oranmore, Co. Galway, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Tel: + 353 91 794 537 Fax: + 353 91 794 586
Web URL: www.enviroCentre.ie Further information: Dr. Vincent O‘Malley, Environment Policy Dept, Enterprise Ireland, email@example.com, Tel. + 353 01 808 2231, Fax + 353 1 808 2259
Best Practice Example: Enterprise Ireland Environmentally Superior Products (ESP) initiative Information Tool – Education, awareness-raising and public information The purpose of the Race Against Waste Campaign is to highlight actions which both householders and businesses can take to prevent and reduce waste, and address the many misconceptions people have about waste. The campaign is comprised of two separate but related elements: A Waste Awareness Media Campaign. This is a strong, creative, high quality multimedia campaign, designed to raise awareness of the need to address waste and to get people at home and at work to prevent, reduce, re-use, and, recycle or compost their waste and ultimately to reduce quantities for final disposal. A Waste Communications Strategy. This strategy will address general issues, public concerns, information needs, misunderstandings / misconceptions of waste and the measures required to deal with waste in an integrated way. The communications strategy will complement the extensive investment in waste infrastructure.
The campaign specifically targets consumption practices by encouraging people to favour products that use less packaging and to buy products that themselves can be reused or recycled. The recently launched Small Change campaign for SMEs provides information on how to prevent and reduce commercial waste and points out the reductions that can be achieved in operating costs through waste reduction and environmentally friendly disposal102. The total budget allocated by the Department for the ―Race Against Waste‖ campaign for the twelve-month period to June 2004 is €3.5m.
Further information for both householders and businesses on how to prevent, reduce, reuse and recycle waste can be found at www.raceagainstwaste.com and Paul Morrissey, Environmental Awareness Section, Department Of the Environment, Heritage and Local Government, firstname.lastname@example.org, Tel. + 353 01 888 2488 Fax + 353 1 888 2014
2. GENERAL POLICY STRATEGIES AND INSTRUMENTS The National Environmental Action Strategy for Sustainable Development, approved by the Inter-Ministerial Committee for Economic Planning (CIPE) on August 2002 contains specific indications on SCP, with a particular focus on certification, lifecycle approach, eco-efficiency, fiscal and economic measures, awareness-raising, renewables sources and waste. It also includes specific targets on public procurement. Multi-stakeholder consultations have been carried out for the preparation of the Strategy, involving more than 140 authorities and organizations. According to the CIPE‘s Decision the evaluation on the Strategy‘s implementation, on the basis of specific indicators singled out in the strategy itself, must be carried out each year by the end of April, by CIPE itself on the basis of a report of the Minister of the Environment. A public fund (―Fund to promote sustainable development‖) has been established in 2000 in order to contribute financially to some of the instruments envisaged to implement the Strategy (among the others application of EMAS to SMEs and technological innovation in the water protection field)103. Local Agenda 21 Voluntary LA21 processes are successfully spread throughout Italy, involving more than 500 local authorities in a network, and supported financially by the Ministry for the Environment by a periodical call for tender (public notices). In particular, the Public notices published by the Ministry in December 2000 and July 2002 envisage the co-financing of projects for the starting and strengthening of Local Agenda 21 processes (local sustainable development plans) promoted by Municipalities, Provinces, other local public authorities. The Ministry of Environment is also in charge of monitoring the implementation of the co-funded projects104. Structural Funds The Ministry of Environment ensures the integration of the environment into the regional policy, and in particular in interventions co-funded by the EU Structural Funds. As member of the ―Surveillance Committees‖ of the main strategic documents (Community Support Framework, National and Regional Operational Programmes, Single Programming Document) the Ministry contributes to the definition and implementation of the actions and interventions, in order to ensure their sustainability105. Voluntary Agreements with Industry and CSR A large number of agreements have been signed since 1996/7, involving the Ministry for the Environment (and in some cases local authorities) and industries, mainly large companies, but also industrial districts of SMEs, with the aim of reducing polluting emissions. Most of them in the field of electric energy, transports, mining, chemicals and fuels production. Some examples:
www.minambiente.it/SVS/svs/strategia_ambientale.htm www.minambiente.it/SVS/agenda21/agenda.htm 105 www.minambiente.it/SVS/fondi/fondi.htm
Agreement with FIAT and Fuel Producers Union; Agreement with 90 chemical producers (to reduce waste); Agreement with MONTEDISON; Agreement with ENEL and Ministry of Industry; Agreement with the association of Municipalities and scooter producers.
Presentation of ―environmental reports‖ by enterprises on a voluntary basis (measures and strategies to increase environmental performance), traditionally produced by large groups or companies (e.g. ―Highways ltd‖), has become recently popular also among SMEs and local providers of public services, as well as organisation of professional categories. The debate on CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility) has started in 2002, leaded by the Ministry of Social Affairs106. Draft criteria for the social certification have been produced by the University of Milan ―Bocconi‖ and are in course to be finalised. Operational details need then to be defined. Other successful initiatives to promote ethic/social responsibility are in place since a number of years ago, like for instance by the Q-RES project, started in 1998. A CSR Management Framework has been defined within this project, which can be adopted by any company or public organisation willing to manage fairly and efficiently its relationships with stakeholders. The projects aim at the development of quality management standard, certifiable by independent third parties107. 2.8 Information tools
Education, awareness raising and reporting A network of local “Environmental Education Centres” has been established (INFEA), coordinated by the Ministry for the Environment and Territory and the Regions. Mainly focused on promoting public awareness, it brings together the various actors involved in activities of environmental education. The centres (about 140, some of them located within natural protected areas) are managed by local public institutions in cooperation with various stakeholders, like environmental NGOs, private enterprises, universities, research centres. They address various categories of learners, of different ages. Some projects are carried out within or in collaboration with schools108. RSA In accordance with the Aarhus Convention, the Ministry for the Environment publishes every couple of years a national report on the state of environment (RSA). Many regional and local institutions also follow this example. In 2002 an ad hoc version for kids of the national report, named RSA Junior, has been produced for schools, aiming at promoting the environmentrelated knowledge in all its complexity109. 3. IPP, ECO-LABEL, EMAS, GREEN PUBLIC PROCUREMENT
A large number of Italian enterprises apply eco-label (second place in the EU after France), covering more than 200 types of products in 9 sectors (e.g. detergents, paper, tissues, shoes, paints).
www.welfare.gov.it http://www.qres.it. 108 www.minambiente.it/SVS/infea/infea.htm 109 www.minambiente.it/Sito/pubblicazioni/Collana_RSA/RSA_junior/RSAjunior_indice.asp
Many industrial sites have been registered to EMAS (mainly large enterprises operating in the North, in the field of chemicals, energy, waste) and to ISO 14001. EMAS has been recently applied to municipalities110. In order to facilitate the use of EMAS by Small and Medium Enterprises an agreement between the Ministry of Environment and the main business association (Confindustria) has been signed to promote the use of EMAS, and a public fund (“Fund to promote sustainable development”) Art. 109 of Budget Law 388/2000) contributes to cover the consultancy‘s costs. Furthermore, the possibility to apply to EMAS has been recently given to industrial “districts”, which include all SMEs operating in the same area and in the same industrial sector (or same chain), rather than only to individual sites. An example is the Pordenone area (North East), specialised in furniture production, where an agreement involving the Provincial government, the Region, the Ministry of Environment, and a committee of local forniture producers is going to define the basis for the experimental registration of the whole Organisation ―Pordenone Furniture District”. Efforts are under way to apply the voluntary schemes and IPP to services, and in particular to the tourist sector, based on specific criteria. A pilot case is under way to apply IPP to a touristic site: Jesolo (Venice area)111. The project is based on a 10 years-old initiative ‖hotels for the environment‖, promoted by the local hotel managers association and then extended to the Municipality, the Province and the Tourism Office, which had firstly led to the ISO certification for the company in charge of the touristic services and for the Municipality itself. The IPP project has been promoted by the Municipality, the Hotel managers associations, the Tourism Office and the National Agency for Environmental Protection (APAT), partially cofunded by the European Commission. It aims at reducing the environmental impact from touristic activities, improving the environmental quality of services, and, what is more, testing and producing a management model for IPP approach in the tourism sector that could be used also in other contexts. Another successful experience in the field of sustainable tourism is represented by Bibione, the first European tourist resort to be certified EMAS (June 2003) for its environmental policy and relating management choices enforced in the whole area, due not only to the measures taken by the Municipality, but also for all the economic/tourist operators of the area112. The Olympic Committee TOROC, in charge of the preparing the Winter Olympic Games Turin 2006, as well as 5 municipalities involved , have also started procedure to register EMAS. The planning of the activities related to the Olympic Games is also subject to Strategic Environmental Assessment113. 3.1 Green Public Procurement An agreement between CONSIP (a public consultancy providing support to the modernisation of the Public Administration) and Ministry for the Environment in course if definition in order to ―green‖ the public procurement of goods and services. It foresees that the Ministry for the
www.minambiente.it/Sito/ecolabel_ecoaudit/ecolabel_ecoaudit.htm http://ipp.jesolo.it 112 www.bibione.com 113 www.torino2006.org/ambiente/content.php?idm=100011
Environment is consulted on the draft ―calls for tender‖ of various administrations in order to ensure that environmental aspects are appropriately integrated. 3.2 Environmental liability Law 349/86, art.18, foresees the obligation, for everyone who by fault produces an environmental damage, to pay the State for the restoration of the damage. If the restoration is not possible, the judge quantifies the amount to be paid on the basis of the cost to restore the damage, the fault of the responsible person, the profit that it gained. Environmental NGOs are allowed to intervene in criminal proceedings to request for such restoration. Sectoral legislation on waste (d.lgs.22/97) and water (d.lgs.152/99) integrate law n.349 with some provisions on ―strict liability‖. 3.3 Research and development on hydrogen The Ministry of Environment is promoting and co-funding a broad programme for research and development on hydrogen/fuel cell technologies. The 7 projects focus on hydrogen vehicles, production of electric energy/heat from hydrogen and fuel cells, hydrogen buses for public transport, development of technologies, such as ―fused polycarbonate‖ or ―protons‘ exchange membrane‖, creation of a new centre for fuel cell certification. 3.4 Water re-use Italy faces quantity-related problems, due to scarcity, drought, inefficient use, infrastructural gap and leakages. A law (185/2003) has been recently adopted in order to promote wastewater re-use. It sets quality standards (different standards depending if the use is intended for industrial, civil, and agricultural purposes) and modalities for recycling of treated wastewater. 3.5 Economic measures Economic measures to promote sustainability are foreseen in various fields. Incentives include public contribution for covering the cost to install solar heat power or photovoltaic plants114. Concerning costs recovery of environmental services, actions are taken in the field of water and waste management to shift the charge from a tax-based system to a tariff-based system, which takes into account the amount of water used/waste produced, and related environmental degradation115.
www.minambiente.it/Sito/settori_azione/iar/FontiRinnovabili/programmi/elenco_programmi.asp . www.minambiente.it/Sito/cvri/cvri.htm
This report outlines some examples of good practice from Malta in the field of Sustainable Consumption and Production. Since most of Malta‘s institutional attention is currently focused on implementing the EU Acquis, which is covered under the main part of the EU report, this report covers a small part of the work Malta is actually undertaking in this area. The report is organised along the lines of the European Community level inventory, starting with general policy, strategies and instruments, and then addressing particular sectors and issues where there is relevant good practice in Malta. Where choices exist with regard to where to place initiatives within this framework, a sectoral approach has been adopted. 2. 2.1 GENERAL POLICY STRATEGIES AND INSTRUMENTS Information tools
Education, awareness raising and public information A number of innovative actions have been carried out on this theme including a series of ―Eco-Breakfasts‖ as part of campaign to target key industry groups about the new legislation arising from the transposition of the EU environmental Acquis. An Agenda 21/Eco Schools project aims to empower school children to participate, act and be responsible for their school‘s environment in line with Local Agenda 21 principles. This aim also extends to encouraging environmental responsibility both at home and in the wider community. For more information on these two projects contact the Malta Environment and Planning Authority. The Malta Environment and Planning Authority website116 is considered a state of the art example of best practice by UNEP, and registered almost a quarter of a million hits between October 2002 and September 2003. Popular searches on the MEPA website are mainly those involving development applications. Considerable interest was also shown in the Enforcement Cases and Development Notification Order cases. Through the MEPA website, the public is becoming increasingly aware of the facility for keeping track of planning applications and development occurring on the Islands as well as staying in touch with aspects of the state of the environment. This not only enhances participation but directly contributes to accountability. For the past year MEPA's portal continued to be updated with new services. The site now contains integrated services from both Planning and Environmental data. The Environment section has been re-designed with the look-in feel of the organization's portal and now has up-to-date legislation, including Government and Legal notices, supplementary guidance and publications relating to the Environment. EcoExplore can also be found under the Environment section. This gives interesting information about plants, animals and habitats. Images and descriptions are included for a better explanation of the flora and fauna found on the Maltese islands. A search facility has also been included in this section to help the user locate the required information easily and quickly. One of the most successful environmental initiatives in this area has been the creation of the cartoon character Xummiemu to promote environmental education amongst children. During the early 1990s the Environment Protection Department used a hedgehog character called
Xummiemu (which means ‗spotlessly clean‘) to raise awareness, which proved extremely popular with school children. This initiative has been taken up in other countries in the Mediterranean. For more information one may contact MEPA (www.mepa.org.mt). 2.2 Analytical tools
The Sustainability Indicators – Malta Observatory (SI-MO) was established in November 2000 to meet the requirements of the MED-ERMIS (Malta) project. SI-MO is an organisation hosted by the Islands and Small States Institute within the Foundation for International Studies. The Observatory‘s main remit is to conduct research and development work, and to disseminate information on Sustainability Indicators for Malta. SI-MO engaged research assistants, consultants and secretarial staff in order to assist in the execution of this project. The final phase of the MED-ERMIS project involved the computation of the 127 indicators based on the Mediterranean Commission for Sustainable Development (MCSD) methodology (3 out of the 130 indicators were not applicable for Malta). This exercise was carried out in collaboration with the National Statistics Office. This work was disseminated as follows: a book was published with the data sheets for each of the 100 indicators, containing data and main trends over the 1995-2000 or 1995-2001 periods, and useful information about 27 indicators for which data could not be obtained. An interactive compact disc, with an accompanying manual, containing all the research output of SI-MO was produced and disseminated. A press conference was organised during which the press was briefed on the meaning and importance of these indicators. Another initiative that SI-MO took in order to increase public awareness on issues of sustainable development and sustainability indicators is the production of a fast paced 25minute video. This video was aimed at the general public and it explained the need for sustainable development and how sustainability indicators can be used to gauge a country‘s performance in this respect. The output of the SI-MO project included reports on air quality, fresh water and wastewater, biodiversity and terrestrial and marine ecosystems, solid waste, territories and human settlements and economic activities. Studies were also carried out on the feasibility of constructing sustainability indicators for Malta, using the MCSD methodology. SI-MO also prepared two studies on cross cutting issues, dealing with reporting requirements by the Maltese government in the field of the environment, and an assessment of environmental statistics collected by the National Office of Statistics. SI-MO also organised a national conference on sustainability indicators. The conference discussed developments in the computation of indicators for Malta covering areas such as: Population and Society; Sustainable Development: Actors and Policies; and Cooperation in the Mediterranean. This two-year project received high acclaim from the Maltese Government because it was the first project of its kind, where information on sustainability indictors was collected, analysed and published. Furthermore, SI-MO offered the opportunity for cooperation between the public sector, the University of Malta and individuals specialised in different fields. This cooperation has long-term implications as the National Office of Statistics has agreed to continue the work initiated by SI-MO117. 3. SECTORS AND ISSUES 3.1.
For more information see www.um.edu.mt/intoff/si-mo
Industrial use of land has a significant impact in Malta, with its high population density and small land area, so efficient use of industrial is an important priority. Malta Industrial Parks Ltd has been given the necessary means to be able to develop factory space for the future, readapt existing factories, monitor the needs for maintenance, and manage Government industrial property. Alternative financing methods are currently being explored, aimed at improving existing facilities and attracting local and foreign investment without any increase in outlay from the national budget. An updated policy of factory allocation and leasing will be put into place, and more efficient use will be made of existing factory space. New methods for the generation of funds for the maintenance and development of industrial property will be devised, whilst cutting down on the artificial demand for factory space due to the existing low leasing rates. Voluntary initiatives and Codes of Conduct 1) The Malta Building Industry Consultative Committee (BICC) has used a range of instruments aiming at resource conservation in the construction sector. One of these is the publication of guidelines on energy efficiency in buildings, and another relates to the numerous training courses on subjects such as restoration of buildings and random rubble walls in the countryside (soil conservation). BICC has also set up a Recycled Building Material Working Party in cooperation with environmental non-governmental organisations, to promote the recycling of construction and demolition waste118. 2) The Cleaner Technology Centre was established by the Government of Malta in 1993. The particular format of the Centre was chosen with the specific objective of making the best use of the limited intellectual and financial resources typically available within a small country. The aim is clearly to facilitate the emergence of joint initiatives between the Government, Industry and the University. It is felt that the ‗formula‘ developed in Malta is likely to be of relevance to other small countries. In February 1993, the Environment Secretariat in the Ministry for the Environment) published a National (Solid) Waste Management Strategy at the conclusion of a 2 year study under the auspices of METAP. This broad policy document emphasised the central importance of waste minimisation as an indispensable component of the overall strategy and it specifically advised the Government of Malta to set up a Cleaner Technology Centre to help local industry to introduce cleaner production processes which favours waste minimisation. The Environment Protection Department immediately acted upon the recommendation and entered into an agreement with the Department of Industry and Malta University Services Ltd to set up a Cleaner Technology Centre (CTC), to be based at the University of Malta. The CTC is a therefore joint venture between the Environment Protection Department (to emphasise environmental objectives), the Department of Industry, to highlight the relevance of clean technology to improved efficiency, industrial re-structuring and economic development, and, Malta University Services Limited which is a limited liability company set up within the University of Malta to facilitate the interaction between the University, Government and the private sector through the successful exploitation of the knowledge and expertise at the University. The objectives of the Cleaner Technology Centre are as follows: a. to encourage industry to apply the least polluting technologies; b. to transfer know-how to industry about the implementation of cleaner technology;
c. to offer assistance with the analyses of existing systems to find feasible solutions with regard to pollution prevention; d. to become involved in any initiative likely to lead to cleaner technology being taken up by local industry; e. to pursue any other objectives which both parties may consent to include. Some of the above points have been subsequently clarified and in part amplified further as follows: Technology refers to the widest possible definition of this term, which is not concerned only with techniques of production but also with the appropriate management practices. Industry does not relate only to manufacturing companies but to all sectors of economic activity. In fact, the search for cleaner technology must adopt an even wider horizon since one of the most relevant aspects is consumer preferences and behaviour. Public information, awareness building and education assume central relevance in this respect. Consideration needs to be given to all factors likely to bring about the introduction /diffusion of cleaner technology. In this respect, the assessment of economic instruments for the achievement of environmental policy objectives is assuming an ever increasing relevance. The CTC is run by a full-time director in consultation with a Management Board, chaired by the representative of the Environment Protection Department and made up of one representative from each of the other partners (i.e. the Dept of Industry and Malta University Services Ltd). To secure, as much as possible, a positive and proactive dialogue with the private sector and to ensure that the Centre effectively responds to the real problem facing the country - an Advisory Board has been set-up to define priorities and to provide the longerterm direction to the Management Board and hence to the Centre. The advisory board is chaired by the representative of the Malta Federation of Industry and includes members from such institutions as the Malta Chamber of Commerce, Council for Science and Technology, Department of Manufacturing Engineering at the University and the Chamber of Professional Engineers. The objectives of the centre remain that of cooperating with the Maltese Industrial Sector in capacity building and promoting industrial sustainable development. With the accession of Malta as a member of the European Union this becomes an imperative target to be achieved to enable industry to be compliant with the EU Environmental Legislation for Industry. To achieve the desired goals experience has shown that the contacts that the CTC has with centres in countries adherent to the Barcelona Convention is essential. The Cleaner Technology Centre helps in identifying the relevant counterparts within business, environment and sustainable development issues in each country as well as corporate organisations. This will open the door to companies and especially SMEs to gain access to pollution prevention and eco-efficiency materials and capacity building activities. Collaboration with these centres has resulted in instances of technology transfer and other forms of information exchange of profit to Maltese industry119. Housing and construction There are three groups of initiatives in this sector, relating to incentives to improve properties, the Housing Authority schemes, and evolving good practice on conservation of building materials. 1. Incentives for improvement of property. Refurbishing works on properties registered under the Voluntary Registration Schemes in the historic cities of Valletta, Floriana and the
The contact person at the CTC is Mr Anton Pizzuto Tel: (+356) 2131 3416/7 email@example.com
Cottonera area are eligible for a refund of VAT payment on cost of works requiring Full Development Permit from MEPA. 2. The Housing Authority120 has undertaken three main initiatives via which it addresses environment concerns: a) repair schemes for older properties: the Housing Authority has a number of repair schemes through which one can apply for a cash grant to upgrade and adapt older properties. This includes repairing dangerous ceilings, apertures, facades, and repairing/installing bathrooms. b) energy saving buildings: the Housing Authority has just completed a block of ten apartments which have been installed with energy saving measures. These include not only solar water panels which reduce water heating energy but also photovoltaic cells that reduce domestic consumption of electricity. There are also passive measures including louvers on windows, double glazing, size and positioning of windows, and insulation. c) building smaller housing units: following a board decision taken some 24 months ago, the Housing Authority is building only one and two-bedroom housing units for rent. The idea is to have a better ‗fit‘ for smaller families as well as to conserve land for building use. 3. Evolving good practice in the land use/construction sector: a) Hotel redevelopment: the demolition of the Golden Sands Hotel in Mellieha and the reconstruction of a new hotel involved the systematic stripping of all aluminium, pipework and furniture for eventual sale or re-use. The construction waste was retained to use as fill material for road structures. The new hotel is to be fitted with a sewage treatment plant and a reverse osmosis plant. It is the policy of the Island Hotel Group to shift furniture to other hotels, always discarding the most worn furniture and replacing the best. b) Use of specific permit conditions regarding development in Urban Conservation Areas with the aim of constraining developers to re-use existing stone in applications for additions and alterations. 3.3 Agriculture and forestry
The Building Industry Consultative Committee is running courses on how to rebuild rubble walls (see 3.1 (1)). Rubble walls are a major contributor to soil conservation on the islands, and their loss has other impacts on loss of biodiversity and countryside character. 3.6 Tourism
Malta has prioritized the tourism sector for sustainable development initiatives. Here four initiatives are described: the Eco-certification scheme; the 2000 Tourism Carrying Capacity Study; an earmarked fund to channel government‘s tourism-derived revenues into improving tourism infrastructure and the environment; and, the assistance to local authorities scheme called ‗Landscaping for a Greener Surroundings‘. 1) One of the initiatives undertaken by the Malta Tourism Authority to mark Eco-Tourism Year last year was a scheme encouraging hotels to reduce their impact on the environment. In 2002 consultants were contracted to assist the Malta Tourism Authority‘s (MTA) Product Planning and Development Directorate with the undertaking of this project. The consultants assisted the MTA to team up with Alcudia, a region in the East of Majorca that has similar tourism characteristics to Malta.
The Eco-Certification scheme has 130 criteria distributed in 10 areas of assessment of which 40 criteria are compulsory. Following the launch of the scheme in October 2002, training was given to the applicant hotel eco-coordinators and in March these hotels were audited. The Green Commission, a board set up to overview this scheme asked the hotels selected to present an improvement plan in order to comply with the compulsory criteria. The Commission took into account both the results of the audit as well as the commitment undertaken to comply with the criteria. The 16 hotels that this year showed the required commitment to reducing their impact on the environment have now received awards as part of the Eco-Certification scheme, and this now covers 14% of Malta‘s accommodation. The certification is conditional to the implementation of their plan of investment to satisfy the 40 compulsory criteria. These hotels are committed towards implementing environmental management systems that, amongst many others, will include environmental initiatives such as: training staff on environmental best practises, introducing waste management strategies including separation of waste developing green policies for product procurement creating environmental awareness amongst staff and guests promoting local culture reducing the usage of harmful chemicals such as pesticides and chlorine by introducing environmentally friendly alternatives.
Over 25 other hotels have already shown interest in joining the scheme in the next intake. These will shortly receive training in order to be eligible to take part in the Eco-Certification scheme in October 2003. More information online on the eco-label scheme in available on: http://www.mta.com.mt/index.pl/mta_news. 2) One of the main instruments for ensuring that Malta‘s tourism strategy becomes more sustainable has been the preparation in 2000 of the Tourism Carrying Capacity Assessment for the Maltese Islands. This contains a recommendation to go for controlled growth scenario in the tourism sector, which has been adopted within Malta‘s Strategic Plan. The tourism carrying capacity assessment for the Maltese Islands indicates that heavy demands are being placed on resources and this is even more evident during the peak summer months, and recommends that tourist flows be moved from the peak months to the shoulder and possibly winter months. 3) More focused management of finances is being proposed in the tourism sector, through the creation of an ‗ad hoc‘ account for tourism which will be credited with VAT receipts from hotels and restaurants as well as from revenues from heritage sites. Funds credited to this account will be allocated, amongst others, towards capital projects related to the development and enhancement of tourism products. 4) In terms of land resources, the MTA has also worked to improve the quality of Malta‘s existing urban areas- this helps to use land efficiently: it has launched a scheme called ‗Landscaping for a Greener Surroundings‟, which encourages landscaping projects in tourist areas (5 projects have already received assistance). It has also launched a scheme to assist local council projects of tourism relevance (9 local councils are already being assisted). The Authority has also contributed to the management of rural areas: projects include the upgrading of countryside areas and tourist areas.
The most important and best known legal act in the field of SCP is the so-called Biofuels Act of 2nd October 2003. It provides instruments for the promotion of use of biofuels which goes much farer than Community‘s initiatives. Due to its provisions biocomponents shall be added to all kinds of fuels. Gasoline will have to consist of up to 5% of bioethanol and up to 15% of oil ether and diesel fuel shall consist of up to 5% of esters. The act allows a higher share of biocomponents in fuels, which then have to be sold from separate distributors with the information about the amount of biocomponents. The minimal share of the biocomponents will be quantified in the governmental regulation by the 31st October of each year. One of the essential issues in the development of rural areas is the promotion of agri-tourism as a sustainable form of tourism. In Poland the key role in this field play Centers of Agricultural Advisory. They popularize agri-tourism among farmers and help them in organizing their activity. Another important propagators of countryside rest are the regional agri-touristic associations gathered in Polish Rural Tourism Federation. One of the most significant event promoting agri-tourism is Agri-touristic Meeting organized by Nationwide Touristic Society ―Gromada‖ which takes place in Warsaw annually. Links to Polish publications and WebPages dedicated to SCP: 1. www.biopaliwa.pl - web portal providing informations and publications on biofuels, biooils and ecological agriculture 2. www.agroturystyka.pl - website under the auspices of Polish Rural Tourism Federation created with the financial support of Ministry of Economy, Labor and Social Politics 3. www.agroturystyka-ggg.pl - website of Agri-toristic Association GGG, which main aims are promotion of agri-tourism, legal and financial advisory, helping in advertisement of agri-touristic services among city agglomerations inhabitants 4. Webpages dedicated to renewable sources of energy: www.ekologika.com www.zakelp.ps.pl/publikacje - publications and studies on wind powerhouses www.darmowa-energia.eko.org.pl - website promoting ecological methods of supplying energy 5. www.beids.tec-hh.net/beids_archive/polish/index.html Environmental Information Dissemination System 6. www.odpady.net.pl - informations about conferences, seminars and trainings in the field of waste 7. www.abrys.pl - webpage of publisher of specialistic magazines: Comunal Review, Recycling, Clean Energy webpage of Baltic
EXAMPLE INITIATIVES FOR CONSUMPTION IN POLAND Governmental initiatives
In October 2003 the Government adopted the „Strategy of changing production and consumption patterns to favour the implementation of sustainable development principles‖. The subsequent „Program of changing production and consumption patterns in the economy sector 2004 – 2012‖ is being developed at present. The implementation of the Strategy will be based on the tools provided for by governmental programmes and specific sectoral programmes which determine state‘s policy for sustainable development, mainly to meet international commitments (especially towards the EU) on environmental protection. Among those tools there is: National Environmental Policy 2003 – 2006 including prospects for 2007 - 2010 among its priorities considers also activities conducive to changing production and consumption patterns, such as: - reducing material-, water- and energy-consumption in the economy, - rational waste management, - air protection against pollution, - comprehensive implementation of best available techniques in industry, - scientific research and technical progress, access to information and environmental education. National Environmental Protection Strategy 2000-2006 (adopted by the Government‘s Committee for Regional and Sustainable Development Policy in 2000) and its executive programmes, combined with budgetary resources and funds supervised by the Ministry of Economy, pave the way to launch and support the initiatives aimed at changing production patterns, especially developing air and water protection infrastructure. National Ecological Development (adopted by the Government in 2002) – the programme is an integral part of the Government‘s Economic Strategy „Entrepreneurship–Development –Jobs‖, provides for heavy investment in environmental protection in various sectors of the economy. The investments will constitute an important part of total investments in the economy. The continued operation of state-of-the-art environmental protection equipment in the coal-based energy sector is expected to enable to preserve the role of coal in ensuring long-term national energy security, while modern sewage treatment plants will improve water purity, thus providing high-quality water for the population, industry, communal economy and agriculture. The orientation of governmental policy towards small and medium-seized enterprises 2003 - 2006 (adopted by the Government in 2003) focus on direct support to initiatives launched by entrepreneurs, associated with the application of new techniques and technologies, including information technology and aimed at obtaining quality certificates, which improve corporate organisational structure and quality of 68
services. They also enhance the emergence of new companies in high-tech sectors, including services and trade. National Environmental Education Strategy (adopted by the Government in 2001) implemented through the Executive Programme of the National Environmental Education Strategy determining actions designed, i.a. to provide adequate importance to environmental education, considered as a prerequisite of sustainable development, and to include environmental education in the system of comprehensive education of society. National Waste Management Plan (adopted by the Government in 2002), which implements the provisions of the Waste Act, determines the guidelines for low-level plans in the area of waste management. It provides for actions aimed at preventing and minimising waste output, implementing waste recovery, mainly recycling and neutralization, and waste disposal safe for human health and the environment. The National Waste Management Plan specifies supraregional priorities, necessary to develop and maintain an integrated and sufficient waste-neutralising network of installations and units throughout the country. Programme of removing asbestos and products containing asbestos used on Polish territory (adopted by the Government in 2002) designed, i.a. to eliminate products containing asbestos which have been used for many years as well as their detrimental health impact, and to gradually remove asbestos environmental impact. Guidelines of the National Energy Policy until 2020 (updated by the Government in 2002) place emphasis, i.a. on integrated energy and environmental management, as well as energy efficiency enhancement - related actions. An important element will be the promotion of cogenerated electrical power and heat, introduction of permit trade for pollutant emissions, growth of the role and importance of renewable energy use in future national energy balances. Programme of the introduction of a competitive electrical power market in Poland (updated by the Government in 2003) provides for enhancing efficiency and reducing the costs of the electrical power engineering sector‘s operations, and maximising benefits for power customers, by accelerating market processes consisting, i.a. in restructuring long-term power supply contracts, consolidating and privatising energy companies. Strategy for Development of the Renewable Energy Sector (adopted by the Government in 2000) providing for its 7.5 % share in the country‘s fuel-energy balance in 2010. In order to implement this Strategy, a comprehensive executive programme including common guidelines and optimising criteria for all types of renewable energy sources will be created. Particular fragments reflecting specific characteristics of each of the renewable energy „subsectors‖ will be linked to the above guidelines, and the plans to support their development will include the economic-budgetary conditions.
Other sectoral strategies have been developed on the basis of the Guidelines on the principles and scope of inclusion of environmental protection issues in sectoral programmes (adopted by the Government in 2002). The guidelines covering the objectives associated with sustainability prospects in specific sectors provide for actions conducive to changes of production and consumption patterns. They will be verified within the framework of the assessment procedure of the environmental impact of the implementation of plans and programmes.
Since 1992 the Quality Promotion Programme has been carried out in order to promote and disseminate modern management systems in activities determining quality (ISO 9000), the environment (ISO 14000) and work safety and health (PN-N-18000), as well as management strategies based on quality, such as TQM and EFQM Excellence Model. The above objective is implemented by: a. spreading information on benefits resulting from implementation of management systems in accordance with the requirements of international standards, b. giving access to information facilitating development and implementation of management systems as well as their certification, c. initiating and supporting activities which facilitate enterprise adaptation to the new requirements, d. disseminating information on acreditation and certification systems, e. promoting entities with implemented and certified management systems. At present there are 434 enterprises possessing ISO 14001 certificate and 914 entities with ISO 9001:2000. Among the initiatives promoting sustainable production and consumption there is also a competition named the "Leader of the Polish Ecology", organized annually since 1996 by the Minister of the Environment. The awards are granted to participants in three categories: company, product, and municipality/union of municipalities. The Competition, while awarding effective ecological, economic, technical, technological and organisational solutions, accounts for philosophy of sustainable development. In 2003 edition, 129 projects participated, including 32 companies, 115 products, and 82 municipalities/unions of municipalities. In the period of 1996-2003, the applications on 801 projects were submitted. 45 of them were granted the "Leader of the Polish Ecology" title and 42 received special awards. Poland has also been a signatory to the International Declaration on Cleaner Production since 1999. In December 2003 a Group for Environmental Education was formed as an assistance body of the Prime Minister. One of its main tasks is to update and coordinate the implementation of the Executive Programme of the National Environmental Education Strategy. The group is multisectoral in nature, as its members are designated, i.a. by ministers for economy, infrastructure, agriculture and the environment. In April 2004 the Polish Council on Corporate Social Responsibility will start operating under the auspices of the Minister of Economy, Labour and Social Policy. The Council will gather representatives of the government administration, NGOs and business sector and its main task will be to elaborate a national strategy regarding the principles of responsible business in 70
Poland. The Responsible Business Forum, which will coordinate the strategy development, is going to invite all key stakeholders to cooperation. The announcement of the Strategy is planned for May 2005. Based on legal regulations determining requirements in the field of energy efficiency, Poland has implemented a system of energy efficiency labels for household devices. This applies to products such as: coolers, freezers, washing machines, dish washers and bulbs. The Thermomodernisation Act called into being the Thermomodernisation Fund, which is an institution financing projects aimed at the improvement of building envelope, internal technical systems, local sources and distribution networks. The State help is offered in form of a thermomodernisation bonus which may amount up to 25% of credit raised for the investment. GOOD PRACTICES Cleaner Production (CP) There are two centres coordinating the implementation of Cleaner Production programmes in Poland – the National Centre for Implementation of Cleaner Production at the Central Mining Institute121 and the Polish Cleaner Production Centre122. The CP implementation methodology consists of five levels of active environmental education. They are meant to lead to measurable environmental and economic benefits on local and regional scale through implementation of CP projects and environmental management systems based on ISO 140001 or EMAS. First level Education of the society – education and promotion of the CP idea addressed to all social groups carried out in the Internet and through lectures for university and high school students, in which more than 570 listeners have participated so far. Second level Education of managers and decision-makers – process preparation for CP programme implementation in enterprises, local governments and administration. So far more than 1500 representatives of enterprises, local communities and offices have participated in workshops, seminars and conferences organized within this level. Third level Implementation of cleaner technologies – the participants of CP Schools master the procedure of environmental management based on CP principles and then elaborate and implement concrete projects in their organizations, achieving measurable environmental and economic effects, such as: reducing consumption of materials, fuels, raw materials and energy, as well as reducing environmental charges to pay as a result of lower waste generation, sewage discharge and gas emission. Fourth level ISO 14001 implementation within the CP Programme – the National Centre assists pilot enterprises to implement ISO 14001.
Fifth level Implementation of regional sustainable development strategies – initiating Regional Environmental management Systems (REMAS) in the regions. In the period of 1996-2001 the National Centre for Implementation of Cleaner Production carried out the following initiatives: development and implementation of 25 CP projects 25 which bring concrete environmental and economic effects, organization of 5 regional CP and Environmental management Schools with 73 projects developed and 139 certificates of CP and Environmental management Expert granted, carrying out monitoring of the implementation effects of CP school projects which bring measurable environmental and economic effects expressed in minimizing energy consumption by 55% and reduction of waste generation: o solid waste by ca. 23 %, o liquid waste by ca. 16 %, o dust and gas waste by ca. 22 %. The project named „Implementation of environmental management in plastics industry in Poland‖ was carried out from 2001 to 2002. Its aim was to implement environmental management system in accordance with the requirements of ISO 140001 and EMAS in plastics industry. It was composed of several units combining trainings and practise with application of learned skills into firm functioning in order to implement environmental management system afterwards. As a result of the project, five participating organizations have implemented the integrated management system (ISO 9001 and ISO 14001). Additionally, the Responsible Care Programme has been implemented since 1992 (www.rc.com.pl). At the national level it is supervised by the Polish Chamber of Chemical Industry (Employers‘ Organization). At present there are 35 significant associated enterprises (producers and distributors) focused in environmental protection, technical security and health prevention. Companies implementing Responsible Care Programme are committed to: take over a conscious responsibility for human safety and environmental quality completely voluntarily, without any constraint exercised by law regulations and legislation, adopt the following as a priority: searching for funds to be allocated for progressive company modernization, leading in consequence to energy saving and decreasing of wastes and effluents volumes and reduction of emissions, interact between companies and local communities to promote cooperation and a mutual responsibility system for safety and environmental health, promote the Programme and its principles outside the Chamber. 2.5 Corporate social and environmental responsibility
Since 2000 there has been the Responsible Business Forum playing an important role in disseminating the idea of corporate social responsibility in economic and political circles, as well as in society123. Forum activities generally concentrate in:
promotion of responsible business (through organization of annual conference ―Responsible business – a new development strategy‖, Internet presence, publication of RESPO Magazine), education (through Responsible Business Academy Programme for companies, workshops for representatives of local governments and a student competition for the best essay on responsible business issues), preparation of reports on responsible business in Poland (so far 2 such publications have been issued presenting the initiatives carried out in 2002 and 2003), participation in international events devoted to corporate responsibility.
Forum participates also in the „Green Office‖ Programme, which is a partner initiative of the Environmental Partnership Foundation and two companies: Ricoh Poland and NBS Public Relations124. The Programme aims at stimulating environmentally friendly attitudes at workplace. It is a practical application of sustainable development principles into firm and institution functioning. The objective is to organize office work in a way that would contribute to lower environmental impact, better office functioning and reduction of operating costs. ―Green Office‖ is addressed to companies, local governments, governmental institutions, schools and NGOs. Responsible Business Forum, as one of the founder members of Green Office Club, wishes not only to actively participate in the implementation of ―Green Office‖ principles, but also to shape and develop the programme itself. The programme participants may apply for a ―Green Office‖ Certificate, which recognizes the firm‘s environmentally friendly performance. The certificate is granted after the certification audit, which is valid for two years and takes the following into account: electrical and thermal power management and measures taken to save it, paper management, water supply and measures taken to save it and sewage discharge, waste management, environmentally friendly purchasing policy, environmental education for employees and customers.
Among the initiatives respecting responsible business principles and carried out in 2003 there are the following: two Polish companies (Power Station Laziska and Thompson Zyrardow) received a certificate of social responsibility management system compliance with the international standard SA8000. first Polish ethical audit according to AA1000 principles was granted to the British American Tobacco Poland, launching an Internet portal named „Philanthropist‘s Manual‖ in order to popularize corporate social involvement by the Academy for the Development of Philanthropy in Poland125, inaugurating the first Polish utilisation programme for used mobile phones, batteries and other accessories of cellular telephony by Nokia Poland, carrying out the collection and recycling programme for laser printer refills by Hewlett Packard.
Education, awareness raising and public information In the period of 10.09.2003 – 31.08.2005 the National Energy Conservation Agency (Polish KAPE126, together with German partners is running a nationwide informative-educational campaign named ―Energy Bus‖127. The bus serves as a mobile informative-educational centre and is planned to visit at least 100-150 local communities during 11 regional campaigns. In the three past campaigns KAPE experts answered most frequently asked questions related to: a) water-, electricity- and gas saving methods, b) operating basics and installation costs of heat pumps, solar collectors, fuel cells, photovoltaic cells, gas and biomass pots, c) thermo modernization of buildings and opportunities to get financial aid for this purpose, d) ventilation systems in habitable buildings, e) energy audits, f) use of wind energy, g) biomass production, h) financing opportunities for energy saving investments, including use of UE funds. The experts also share their knowledge on example initiatives already implemented and bringing concrete energy efficiency effects for local governments and individual households. An interesting initiative for sustainable consumption - „Buy responsibly‖ Campaign is run by the Polish Green Network (PGN) – a group of environmental organisations taking nationwide actions128. PGN provides consumers with information on what responsible shopping means, on consumer boycots and rights, as well as on eco-labels129. Among PGN partners there is „The Third World and We‖ Fair Trade Association founded in 2003 and devoted to promotion of the ethical style in consumption and economic activity130. Since 1998 tens of products, mainly artificial and organic fertilizers, as well as some textile and paper materials have been granted an „Eco-sign‖ label. These products can be of Polish or foreign origin and should not have a negative environmental impact (in comparison with the acceptable levels established before) and must meet standards of health protection, the environment and economic use of natural resources along their life cycle. The „Eco-sign‖ certification is based on the environment and health requirements set by the „Eco-sign‖ Committee. This body is formed by representatives of governmental institutions, non governmental entities working in the environmental protection field, as well as producers, consumers and banks. „Green Certificate – environmentally friendly kindergarden/school‖ is a nationwide programme developed and run by the Foundation of the ECO-EYE Environmental Education Centre since 2000 under the auspices of the Ministry of National Education and Sports, the Ministry of Finance and the National Environmental Protection and Water Management Fund. This non governmental educational initiative, carried out in cooperation with the National
www.kape.gov.pl www.autobus-energetyczny.pl 128 www.zielonasiec.pl 129 www.ekokonsument.pl 130 www.sprawiedliwyhandel.org
Teachers‘ Development Centre, effectively supports the Polish education system in developing attitudes and raising environmental awareness of children, youth and entire communities within school neighbourhood. The educational entities participating in the programme (35 so far) decide to undertake various initiatives, depending on local conditions. One of them carried out a total thermo modernization of the school building (changing central heating installation, windows, introducing regulatory devices), which lead to reduction of energy costs by approximately 50%. Another school built a sewage treatment plant and a wind power station together with the local convent. In recognition of their efforts for sustainable development, the best participants are granted a Green Certificate for the period of two years with the possibility (and encouragement) to prolong it. So far 23 participants have received such certificates. Sustainable consumption and production issues are also included in the school curricula of extra voluntary classes. They are to develop attitudes and social involvement and at the same time teach practical skills, including consumer behaviour. Another educational initiative encouraging local communities to good practices – waste selective collection and recycling is a nationwide annual „Clean up the world‖ action launched in 1994131. Litter collection, segregation and partial recycling is accompanied, i.a. by poster and leaflet awareness raising actions concerning segregation methods, meaning of packaging signs, as well as promotion of conscious and economical consumption. In recent years some 1,5mln people, mostly children and youngsters, participated in each Action. 3.6 Tourism
Greenways132 are green trails of natural and historic heritage running along „green corridors‖ – rivers, traditional, historic trade routs, natural ecological corridors etc. They join regions, tourist attractions and local initiatives, stimulate sustainable tourism and recreation development and promote a healthy lifestyle and alternative means of transport. They bring opportunity to improve living standards and environmental quality, stimulate local economies, foster entrepreneurship in local communities and preservation of unique values of nature, landscapes and cultures. This project is a partner initiative, based on cooperation of NGOs, local governments, governmental institutions and entrepreneurs working together for the natural and cultural heritage conservation. Within the project there are several new cycling trails developed, i.a. 700 km long „Green Bicycle‖, which forms part of an international network called „East Carpathians Greenway‖ and is carried out by the „Green Bieszczady‖ Partner Group. The Group gathers local governments, NGOs, schools, local entrepreneurs and administrators of protected areas. And in the Polish North „ Northern Necklace Greenway‖ was created. This cycling trail is 870 km long and was launched in 2000, when the Northern Necklace Social Agreement was signed. It aims at integrating activities for sustainable development of the Central Pomerania region and one of its main tasks is to develop environmentally friendly tourism. Among the projects for sustainable tourism, coorganised or cofinanced by the Tourism Department of the Ministry of Economy, Labour and Social Policy in the last two years, there is one interesting example investment carried out in Bielsko Biala. It consisted in installing
solar collectors to warm water in washing rooms, showers and swimming pools at the local camping site. 3.2 Energy
The use of landfill gas to cogenerate electricity and heat at the Torun municipal landfill is a good example of sustainable energy production133. It is the first, state-of-the-art installation of this type in Poland. Collection and combustion of the landfill gas, reducing methane emission, brings significant environmental benefits and its use for energy purposes has got economic importance at the same time. To produce the energy equivalent with traditional installations, 2600 tons of coal would have to be burned annually, which would be accompanied by emission of 41,6 tons of carbon dioxide, 117 tons of carbon monoxide, 3,3 tons of nitrogen oxides and 58,5 tons of dust into the atmosphere. 3.3 Agriculture
There are several labeling systems for agricultural produce obtained with ecological methods in Poland. Among them, the most known and recognized on the national market, and the one associated with healthy food, is a logo of the „Ekoland‖ Ecological Food Producers Association. The right to use this sign on products is restricted to producers, processing entities and sellers who meet the requirements set in the Act on ecological agriculture, posses a certificate granted by an entitled body and at the same time are members of the „Ekoland‖. The credibility of producers and products from ecological farming is provided by controls performed by a certificating body. Thorough controls in farms and processing plants are run once a year and there are also additional inspections. Not only all buildings on the farm, but also the documents, such as, i.a. general ledge, purchase receipts, labels and publicity materials are subject to control. Based on the control protocol, a certifying body assesses whether the criteria are met and then issues a certificate, which entitles to trade with ecologically produced goods. 3.5 Transport In the face of a rapid car transport development in Poland, taking care to preserve alternative means of transport, especially collective ones, is of special importance. In 2002, when the monopoly of the Polish State Railways for passenger and goods transport was officially abolished, the rebirth of narrow railways began. They started to revive in the form of independent and autonomous small and medium-seized enterprises. At present, the Local Railway Transportation Association is the main carrier operating on five local narrow railways134. Since 2002 also the Gdansk Bicycle Investment-Promotion Project has been underway. It stipulates the development of 30 km of cycling paths and 70 km of lower traffic streets and a campaign aimed at breaking cultural barriers for sustainable transport in Poland. Another positive example of alternative local transport is a rickshaw undertaking launched in the city of Lodz in 2003 by a company that provides yearly bicycle rickshaw transport and advertisement services135.
www.biogaz.torun.pl firstname.lastname@example.org 135 www.riksza.com.pl
In 1998 a packaging return system for specified hazardous substances was introduced in Poland. It aims at collecting scattered used packagings which are polluted with hazardous substances. The system is regulated by the Act of 11 May 2001 on packaging and packaging waste, which defines the mechanisms for establishing, bonding and return of a deposit for the above mentioned packagings. Producers and importers of hazardous substances are obliged to establish a deposit for separate packaging at 10 to 30% of the included substance price. Only packagings introduced on the market in order to be used in scientific research or for instructive purposes are not subject to this obligation. Then sellers of hazardous substances must ask its users to pay the deposit. Having used the product, users should return the packaging and packaging waste, receiving the deposit in return. Afterwards, producers and importers of hazardous substances should retake the packaging from sellers at their own expense. In case of closing down the selling business, producers and importers are obliged to receive the packagings and packaging waste and pay the deposit back.
1. INTRODUCTION Both horizontal aspects and key economic sectors related to this issue are currently regulated by specific regulations, standards, policies and strategies, all of which are in line with the guidelines established by the European Union. Below, we have elaborated a list of best practises that are currently being developed, or which have recently been developed in Spain at both a nationwide and a local scale, following the structure of the European Commission‘s inventory. Remarks on the draft version of the Inventory of Sustainable Consumption and Production: Relevant Policies, Activities and Instruments at the European Community level, of the 30th January 2004. There are two issues we would like to point out that did not appear under the heading 2.7 on preferential tariffs and trade policies: The question of tariff advantages and of access in general to industrial goods makes no mention of the specific treatment of environmental goods and services. Although significant difficulties remain in this issue, starting with the differences in opinion with regard to how to define and clarify them, their importance in fostering environmental sustainability is self evident. And, given the interest that the European Union and some of the member states have been showing in them in a range of forums like the OECD, they should not be left out of this inventory. We also believe that there is a need to mention the efforts made by the European Union in the matter of co-existence and compatibility between International Agreements on the Environment and the World Trade Organisation (WTO), to prevent the former from being subordinated to the latter. This matter appears in paragraph 31. i) of the Doha Declaration, with a substantial long term impact on the relationship between Trade and Sustainable Development. The EU has made material contributions in this matter too, such as, for example, the contribution put to the Committee on Trade and Environment in its special session of 2002. GENERAL POLICY STRATEGIES AN INSTRUMENTS
Local Agenda 21 In recent years, the concept of local sustainability has spread in Spain, and the Aalborg Charter has been promoted as a symbol of this movement among cities and of the commitment of local authorities to working on the development of Local A21 processes. At this time, there are over 600 Spanish municipalities that have made the commitment to joining the movement and many others are currently in the process of doing so. The Ministry of the Environment is developing a framework to foster institutional cooperation for drafting Local Agendas 21 in the municipalities that have not yet done so
and to provide support for the work in course in the municipalities that have already started the process. There are two lines of action: Elaboration of an Agreement between the Ministry of the Environment and the Federation of Municipalities and Provinces (FEMP) Design and creation of instruments to facilitate the implementation of Local Agendas 21 in Spanish municipalities.
In 1997, the city of Calviá, and in 1999, the municipality of Barcelona have received the European Sustainable Cities Award, granted by the Council of European Municipalities and Regions (CEMR). Public Procurement Policies The Ministry of the Environment, in its Order of the 14th October 1997 (Official State Gazette – BOE – of the 29th October 1997) rates companies that meet the EMAS or ISO 14,001 Standards in public procurements. Economic instruments
General/ Energy taxation The measures that involve the introduction of new taxes, or an increase in existing ones and, therefore, an increase in the tax burden, run contrary to the over-arching policies of the Government136. Environmental fiscal policy in Spain should consist of providing tax incentives to improve the environment, rather than raising taxes that could affect business competitiveness. The tariff measures adopted are as follows: a) Concerning CORPORATION TAX, article 35 bis of the Corporation Tax Act 43/1995, passed on 27th December (Official Government Gazette of the 28th), hereinafter LIS, establishes tax incentives for investments in tangible assets for the protection of the environment. In principle, the incentive is established for investments in installations preventing air pollution originating in industrial facilities; the pollution of surface, subterranean and marine waters and for the reduction, recovery or treatment of industrial waste. They take the form of a 10% deduction from the full tax rate of the investment made. This deduction is also applicable to the acquisition of industrial or commercial road transport vehicles, but only for the part of the investment that is determined by the regulations as effectively contributing to reduce air pollution. 10 percent of the investments in new tangible assets to be used to take advantage of renewable energy sources can also be written off against taxes. In order to be eligible for deduction, the investments must consist of facilities or equipment for any of the following purposes: the use of solar energy to transform it into heat or electricity; the use of solid domestic waste or biomass from agricultural or forestry waste and energy crops to transform it into heat or electricity; the treatment of biodegradable waste from livestock farms, waste water treatment plants, industrial effluents or effluents from solid domestic waste to transform it into biogas;
Before the general elections of the 14th March 2004.
and the treatment of agricultural or forestry products and used oil to transform it into biofuel (bio-ethanol or bio-diesel). This deduction forms part of the measures established in the ―Plan to Foster Renewable Energies‖. Finally, it should be pointed out that the research and development activities, and technological innovation activities in general and also, therefore, when they are dealing with renewable energy sources, provided that the requisites established in the LIS are met, are also eligible for the tax incentives established for expenditure and investments relating to said activities (article 33 of the LIS). b) With regard to the TAX ON HYDROCARBONS, concerning its possible use as a stimulus for renewable energies, article 6 of the Tax, Administrative and Social Measures Act 53/200, of the 30th December 2002 (Official Government Gazette of the 31st December), provides that, generally and without the need of linking it to a pilot project, a special rate of 0 euros per 1,000 litres will be applied to bio-fuels. c) Concerning the SPECIAL TAX ON CERTAIN TRANSPORT MEANS, Additional Provision 35 of Act 62/2003 on Tax, Administrative and Social Measures, passed on 30th December 2002 (Official Government Gazette of the 31st December) establishes a tax relief for renewal of the vehicles equipped with engines not suited for the use of lead-free petrol. This program will only be in force until the 31st December 2006. d) On the question of LOCAL TREASURIES, it should be noted that Act 51/2002, passed on 27th December 2002, reforming Act 39/1988, passed on the 28th December 1988 on the regulation of Local Treasuries (Official Government Gazette of the 28th December), introduced a number of amendments in relation to the granting of tax incentives and tax relief for companies and persons improving the environment, such as the following: iv) REAL ESTATE TAX Relief (established at the discretion of the Local Authorities) of up to 50 percent of the tax base on properties which have installed systems for the thermal or electric use of solar energy for producing heat or electricity. v) TAX ON PROFESSIONAL AND COMMERCIAL ACTIVITIES
Relief (established at the discretion of the Local Authorities) of up to 50 percent of the tax rate for taxpayers using or producing energy based on facilities that use renewable energies or co-generation systems. Relief (established at the discretion of the Local Authorities) of up to 50 per cent of the tax rate for taxpayers establishing efficient transport plans to take their employees to and from their workplace, such as collective or shared transport. iv) TAX ON MECHANICALLY DRIVEN VEHICLES
The maximum relief that can be established by Local Authorities for vehicles, depending on the fuel class or engine type and their impact on the environment, is extended from 50 to 75 per cent.
It is possible to remove vehicles that are 15+ years old from the Traffic Administration‘s Registers without having to produce the last receipt proving that the relevant tax has been paid. This is allowed in order to favour deregistration and to prevent the vehicle from being abandoned. iv) TAX ON CONSTRUCTION, INSTALLATION AND WORKS
Relief (established at the discretion of the Local Authorities) of up to 95 per cent of the tax rate for construction, installations and works incorporating systems for the thermal or electric use of solar energy for own consumption, using approved solar collectors.
Region of Andalusia: Taxation: New environmental taxes have been adopted in the regional context. They apply to air and water emissions of certain pollutants including GHG emissions, and to the production of hazardous wastes. Fiscal incentives are offered to enterprises investing in equipment for pollution prevention and control, and for those that have been implemented environmental standards such as ISO 14000 or EMAS. Subsidies in the context of the Programme ―Ciudad 21‖ (―City 21‖). In 2003, 120 subsidies have been granted to local entities for implementing environmental protection measures. In particular for reducing emissions from transport and increasing the use of renewable energies. The budget for these activities for the year 2004 is 5 million euros. State aid for environmental purposes The Act 36/2003 on Economic Reform Measures , passed on 11 November: Fiscal stimulus for companies, irrespective of their size, for investing in environmental protection tangible fixed assets intended for the protection of the environment (atmospheric, water and soil pollution), new industrial or commercial road vehicles, and new tangible fixed assets of companies, irrespective of their size (previously only small and medium sized enterprises were eligible) to foster renewable energy sources: solar (thermal and electric), biogas from waste, waste as fuel to produce heat or electricity, and bio-fuels from agriculture and forestry residues, and used oils. Fiscal stimulus for owners or tenants of dwellings to install solar systems (thermal or electrical) for their own use. Analytical tools The Ministry of he Environment has been working on creating a Spanish System of Environmental Indicators since 1996, with the objective of making a contribution to monitoring and evaluating the environmental situation in Spain. This line of action has included the development of specific indicators for different environmental areas (air, waste, the urban environment and natural resources). A new phase of the System was started recently, in which a System of Environmental Indicators by Sectors of Activity is being developed. This kind of analysis has started with the tourist sector (published in 2003). It should be noted that the progress in formulating environmental indicators developed by AEMA, OECD or EUROSTAT in this sector has been less important than in other sectors like Transport, Industry or Energy. The Ministry of the Environment published ―The Spanish System of Environmental Indicators for Tourism‖ in 2003. 81
Research and development The Ministry of Science and Technology‘s policy for providing incentives for competitiveness, while bearing in mind the environment, has been further enhanced by the new Programme for Fostering Technical Research (PROFIT), in force during the 2004-2007 period. The supportive instruments considered by PROFIT include refundable pre-payments, non-interest bearing loans, with grace periods and flexible repayment commitments depending on the characteristics of each project, and subsidies. SECTORS AND ISSUES Industry/cleaner production
EMAS The Ministry of the Environment has engaged in support activities to improve organisations‘ awareness and knowledge of EMAS. The most important of these are: Publication of an EMAS guide for SMEs. Starting work on implementing the EMAS Project in twelve national parks. ―Study of mechanisms to drive the application of the EU Regulation in Spain‖. 2001. Courses, conferences.
In addition to this, many Autonomous Regions have published implementation manuals, Best Available Environmental Practice Guides related to the EMAS instrument, and they have undertaken dissemination actions like explanatory conferences. Eco- labelling In this sector, the Ministry of the Environment has organised a wide range of promotion actions, along with the Autonomous Regions and other agencies, either individually or jointly. These include: Others: Organisation of workshop ―Enterprise, consumption and the environment: a common language‖, 25th February 2003, on the implementation of the different environmental management systems. 82 Conference on the European Eco-label. Chamber of Zaragoza. 15th November 2001. Workshop on Community Eco-Label. OCU-UCE. 5th July 2001. Conference on eco-marketing, eco-design and eco-labelling. The Bilbao Official Chamber of Commerce and Industry. 3rd July 2001. Conference on eco-marketing, Community Eco-Label. The Madrid Chamber of Commerce. 25th April 2001. Workshop on Community eco-labelling. OCU-UCE. Madrid. 21st March 2001. Bilbao, 28th June 2000. Valencia, 23rd February 2000. Conference on eco-labelling in the Autonomous Region of Madrid. 27th September 1999.
Housing and construction Local measures The following list of practices has been taken from the set of Best Spanish Practices, chosen by the Spanish Habitat Committee to represent Spain in the International Award for Best Practices in Improving the Living Environment, sponsored by the U.N. and the municipality of Dubai137. IV International Award for Best Practices (2002): 1. Sustainable building in the ecological municipality of Amayuelas de Abajo (Palencia). 2. Strategy of innovation and environmental adjustment in the buildings made by the Madrid Municipal Housing Company. 3. Re-cycling of sludge from the Arazuri treatment plant: a common interest shared by the city and the countryside. (Navarre) 4. Alcudia eco-tourist label. (Balearic Islands). 5. Zaragoza, water saving city. 6. Urdaibai Biosphere Reserve. Practising sustainability in a man-made European landscape (Vizcaya). III International Award for Best Practices (2000): 7. Bio-mass fired central heating. (Cuellar) 8. ―Universidad Autónoma‖ University of Madrid Eco-Campus Project. 9. The water cycle. Re-use of treated waste waters for irrigation in the town of Alcobendas, Madrid. 10. Sarriguren Eco-City. (Navarre). II International Award for Best Practices (1998): 11. Barnamil, 1,000 m2 of solar panels for heating water for the year 2000. (Barcelona). Sustainable building in the ecological municipality of Amayuelas de Abajo Amayuelas De Abajo, is an outstanding place in its own way. It belongs to the municipality of San Cebrián de Campos, in the province of Palencia. It has a population of 6 inhabitants (2001). This practice consists of a new model for the building of new bio-climatic houses with traditional methods, with the following results: - Construction of 10 bio-climatic houses. - Merger of old and new technologies and the recovery of traditional building systems. - This example is showing that sustainable building is possible and, furthermore, with clean energy technologies: 40 m2 of thermal solar panels and 6,658 W of total installed photovoltaic solar energy.
These practices, along with others dealing with a range of different thematic areas, can be found in the ―Spanish Catalogues of Best Practises‖ published by the Ministry of Public Works, and in the Electronic Library of Sustainable Cities on its web site: http://habitat.aq.upm.es
Strategy of innovation and environmentally friendly measures in the development projects of the Madrid Municipal Housing Company This practice consists of introducing environmentally friendly criteria in the developments promoted by the Municipal Housing Company by building and refurbishing buildings based, among others, on the following criteria: energy efficiency, reduction of emissions and the consumption of resources, renewable energies, improved comfort and quality, with the following results: - Seven residential Development Projects, applying criteria of energy efficiency and bio-climatic architecture, with a total of 389 houses, including all kinds of social housing. - Integral refurbishing work on a 9,000 m2 Municipal Sports Centre, installing 500 m2 of solar panels and efficient installations. - Treatment of 36 Ha of free areas and gardens in the Gavia ECO-Park. - Provision of the conditions for using and maintaining buildings to enhance user comfort, promote their environmental education and extend the lifetime of buldings. Re-cycling the sludge of the Arazuri water treatment plant: a common interest shared by the city and the countryside The aim of this practice is to combine the interests of the city and the countryside by establishing a Bio-Solids Re-Cycling Plan to be applied to agriculture. The following results have been obtained: - Construction of a Waste Water Treatment Plant - Control of industrial waste effluents - Stabilisation and sanitation of sludge. - Analytic characterisation of bio-solids. - Creation of an experimental farm in Arazuri (13 Ha). - 18,000 tons of sludge have been used in agriculture, with the acceptance of farmers - 11,000 tons have been used to produce compost. Alcudia eco-tourist label Alcudia is a coastal-tourist municipality in the Autonomous Region of the Balearic Islands with a population of 12,500 inhabitants (2001). The aim is to promote sustainable tourism, seeking a balance between economic development and protection of the environment with actions aimed at winning the active and committed participation of tourist entrepreneurs and to enhance the environmental awareness of both businessmen and their employees and clients. The results obtained include: - Award of the ―Eco-Tourist Label‖ to establishments that meet 13 requisites: courses on tourism and the environment, selective waste collection, energy and water saving, the use of re-cycled materials, respect for the environment, noise reduction, aesthetic conditions, information for employees and clients, local island menus, etc. Out of the 80 establishments in the municipality, 22 have been granted the label. - Average water consumption of the establishments entitled to show the eco-tourist label is 258 l/pax, which is below the normal consumption figures for establishments in tourist areas. - Average electricity consumption is 6.86 Kwh/pax (data from 2000). - The volume of waste waters reaching the treatment plant in summer has decreased. - There has been an increase in the amount of glass and paper/cardboard accumulated in the selective waste collection containers that have been installed inside these establishments.
Zaragoza, water saving city The purpose of this practice is to show that it is possible to solve problems of water shortages with a cheaper, more ecological approach that avoids social confrontations: increasing the efficient use of water, creating new use and management models and building a civic consensus. This is intended to use the price of water as an incentive for efficiency, in line with the new European Union directive, and encourage the dissemination and use of water saving practices and technologies. The main results achieved are: To set a rate of domestic consumption per inhabitant and day that is the lowest in Spain, below one hundred litres. A saving of over one billion litres of water in one year (5.6% of annual domestic consumption). Almost 60% of the schools of Zaragoza have taken part in the Educational Programme. Co-operation of 150 entities: public administration, NGOs, companies, unions, shops, schools, professional colleges, neighbourhood associations, trade and business associations and the media. Around fifty examples of efficient water use have been put into practice Six thousand copies of the ―Periódico del Agua‖ (Water Newspaper) have been printed. An electronic newsletter has been circulated with information about the project and water management related news. An internet sitel has been designed and hosted on the web. Management efficiency has been included among the aims of the Autonomous Region‘s Foundation for a Water Policy
Urdaibai biosphere reserve. The practice of sustainability in a European man made landscape Urdaibai, is a district set in the province of Vizcaya (Basque Country). It covers an area of 230 km2 and includes a total of 22 municipalities with a population of about 45,000 inhabitants. The towns of Gernika-Lumo and Bermeo are its most important centres. This action is seeking to foster compliance with the functions of conservation, development and logistic support: it aims to attain a sustainability scenario for the welfare of the local community, a development model for society and to preserve the heritage for current and future generations. Actions carried out so far: - Enactment of legal instruments: Urdaibai Biosphere Reserve Protection and Planning Act. Use and Management Master Plan. Regional Action Plans. Socio-Economic Activity Harmonisation and Development Programme (PADAS). - Creation of appropriate co-ordination and co-operation instruments: The Urdaibai Biosphere Reserve Board. The Urdaibai Biosphere Reserve Co-operation Council. PADAS Monitoring Committee. Local Agenda 21 for the Urdaibai Biosphere Reserve. - Active public participation in the selective collection of waste, the use of public transport, environmental voluntary projects. Demand of more actions along these lines by citizens. Promotion of sustainable tourism, rural tourism and agro-tourism.
Bio-mass fired central heating. (Cuellar) Cuellar is a municipality in the Province of Segovia with a population of approximately 9,118 inhabitants (1996). This action consists of implementing a central heating system using an energy efficiency system with a high ecological value. The aim of this system is to replace a highly polluting, perishable and imported fossil fuel, as diesel, with a less polluting, renewable and locally available fuel, through the use and recovery of forestry waste generated by clearing the undergrowth, allowing to reinforce the forest‘s sustainability. The following results have been obtained: - Good yield of the boiler in both summer and winter and good service for the different users. - Generation of enough energy for all the users connected to the system with still potential for others to connect. - A major cost has been eliminated for each owners‘ association, i.e. maintenance of the old boilers and cleaning chimneys. Universidad Autónoma (Madrid University) Eco-Campus Project The purpose of this action is to turn the ―Universidad Autónoma‖ University of Madrid into a model of sustainable environmental management that can act as a reference for other public and private institutions and centres. The results are: - Enhance awareness of the need to develop more sustainable environmental actions and behaviour. - Replacement of florescent lamps and tubes with more efficient light sources. - Installation of taps with timers. - Creation of an efficient chemical and toxic product collection system. - Plan to increase and optimise paper, battery and glass collection and re-cycling systems. Sarriguren Eco-City This practice consists of creating a new urban development based on the principles of EcoPlanning and bio-climatic Architecture, seeking to generate a demonstration effect on Navarre society. The results are: - Creation of a genuine urban community (social diversity and integration). - Reduction of house prices. - Energy saving, the integration of renewable energies and the application of healthy building principles. - Facilities for collective transport and alternative modes of transport. - Landscape and ecological aspects have been taken into account, creating ecological corridors to overcome the barrier effect of the infrastructure that the city requires. - The emphasis has been placed on the quality of common spaces by using traditional urban layouts and by planning new and attractive resources. Barnamil, 1,000 m2 of hot water solar panels by the year 2000. Barcelona This practise consists of installing 1,000 m2 of hot water solar panels on existing buildings, with the following actions: - Signing agreements with a series of NGOs whereby they undertake to: distribute a promotion leaflet, publish articles promoting STE and organise dissemination meetings and talks.
Information and support for people interested in using STE. Dissemination and promotion with special events, press articles and co-operation agreements with local entities. Creating a permanent office to provide the public with information, with technical and administrative support.
REDUCING POLLUTION AENA (Spanish Public Air Traffic Control and Airports Agency) AENA is now working on a strategy to reduce the pollutant emissions from airport activities and promote energy efficiency in the installations. The key areas of this strategy are: Infrastructures: an agreement with the National Institute for Aerospace Techniques is exploring the energy efficiency and renewable energy possibilities of installations. The renewable energies projects in study include wind energy – Almería, Jerez, Lanzarote, Tenerife and La Palma airports-, photovoltaic panels –for air traffic control in Villanova I la Geltrú, and in airports (Jerez, Cuatro Vientos and Melilla)-, solar thermal energy for hot water and air conditioning – Jerez, Cuatro Vientos and Palma de Mallorca. The energy efficiency projects include improving of illumination and air conditioning, benefiting from environmental conditions and CHP plants in Lanzarote, Melilla, Tenerife and Valladolid airports. Airport operations (mainly Madrid-Barajas and Barcelona airports): there are three main lines of action: i) reducing the taxi operations before taking-off and after landing; ii) renewing the ground vehicle fleet with electric or natural gas vehicles; iii) substituting the Auxiliary Power Units of aircrafts with Ground Power Units (400 Hz). Air traffic control: improvements in the CNS/ATM (Communication, Navigation and Surveillance/Air Traffic Management) systems, to reduce the waiting time for takingoff and landing. Some initiatives have already been implemented. Other measures: Furthermore, there are some additional measures under study, such as a pilot phase of an emission allowance trading scheme for air transport by means of a voluntary agreement, divulgation of the ICAO report on fuel savings and emission reduction, and R + D programmes on fuel cells for the commercial aviation sector. 3.2 Energy The IDAE (Institute for Energy Diversification and Saving), part of the Ministry of the Economy, along with the Spanish Federation of Municipalities and Provinces (FEMP), played an essential role on the design and dissemination of a model of municipal bylaw on solar thermal energy . (The important increase in the number of Spanish Local Authorities that have developed by-laws to promote solar thermal energy is reflected in a short report that can be sent to the Commission by ordinary mail.) The development of projects based on renewable energy sources and the promotion of energy efficiency were favoured by third party financing, a financing instrument that has been successfully adapted by the Institute for Energy Diversification and Saving to the features of the Spanish market. (There is a short explanatory report that can be sent to the Commission by ordinary mail).
Region of Aragon Eight new wind farms started up operation in 2003, and two more increased their capacity. In total, wind energy capacity grew by nearly 250 MW during the last year.
Region of Valencia Wind Energy Plan of the Region of Valencia. construction of new wind farms within the region.
It regulates and promotes the
Region of Navarre Renewable energies. Wind energy accounts for 60 per cent of the electricity consumed, avoiding 1.9 million tonnes of CO2 emissions per year. The regional government has already approved the construction of further renewable energy sites aiming at producing 97% of the electricity consumed by the region by 2005. Energy savings and efficiency. A social forum has been created to foster public awareness on energy efficiency. Region of Asturias Renewable energies. The regional government is promoting renewables through several actions, including: i) establishment of an administrative unit responsible for all issues related to renewable energies (regulation, permits, subsidies); ii) subsidies, given to local entities, small and medium size enterprises, and the public in general, for the purpose of installing solar panel systems, implementation of innovative industrial processes, use of bio-fuels in transport, etc; iii) the regional administration participates in the ―Energy Foundation of Asturias‖, foundation with the objective of promoting a sustainable use of energy, energy efficiency and renewables. Wastes. Biogas from landfills is recovered and used for energy purposes, producing around 46 GWh every year. 3.3 Agriculture and forestry Among measures in the agricultural sector that contribute towards sustainable consumption and production are, for example, the promotion of best practice codes for fertilisation (reducing the amount used to just the appropriate), reduction of cultivated surface, prevention of fires and conservation of extensive pasture systems, selective disposal of agricultural wastes or the increase of surface for bio-fuel crop production. Other measures are intended to establish coordinated actions with other production sectors that make it possible to use the capacity of the agricultural sector to absorb byproducts from other activities without generating additional problems for this sector. A particular noteworthy additional factor is the low intensity level of the Spanish ruminant livestock and of Spanish agriculture, as well as the will to increase correct management of waste and manure from intensive cattle raising. The use of wood from forests that are managed in a sustainable way. On the 10th October 2003, the first Sustainable Forestry Management Certification was awarded in Spain to the ENCE Group, thus making it the first and largest certified forestry manager in Spain. The Custody Chain Forestry Certification, carried out by an independent third party, proves that raw materials of forestry origin used in a productive process are harvested from forests that are managed in a sustainable way, and the process is controlled and documented, as required by the Pan-European Forestry Certification System (PEFC). To obtain this certification, the traceability of the products involved must be guaranteed throughout the transformation process. The aim is to allow that the end 88
products obtained from the raw materials taken from the forests, can be provided to society with all the guarantees of good management that she requires. The Spanish Association of Wood Importers (AEIM)138, adopted the ―Code of Best Environmental Practices‖ in 2002, signed by all member companies. The Spanish Association of Wood Importers (AEIM) is a private business organisation that is made up of the main Spanish importers supplying raw materials and processed products to the wood industry: carpentry, construction, decoration, etc. EDUFORES: Multi-media forestry education programme to foster a wider knowledge of forests and their products139. The programme is targeted at teachers who wish to raise awareness among their students of the important role that forests play. This programme has just been published by the Ministries of Education and the Environment and the Spanish Association of Pulp, Paper and Cardboard Manufacturers (ASPAPEL), with a view to fostering knowledge of forests and their products and to raise awareness of the responsibility of society in general for their protection and care, according to information provided by paper manufacturers. The project offers education material presented in an ―Educational Forestry Case‖, which includes a guide, a video, a CD-Rom, a comic, a pack of cards and a web site, all designed to enhance society‘s understanding of our dependence on the environment and the importance of forests. Future projects: Wood importer‘s manual, to ensure that wood imports are legal Campaign to promote the use of wood as a renewable raw material.
Region of Andalusia In 2003 the revision of the Forestry Plan 2003-2007 was adopted. Among other activities, the Plan foresees reforestation of 70.000 hectares, and deforestation on 81,000 hectares of agricultural land. Region of Aragon 400 hectares were reforested during 2003. Region of Navarre Deforestation and reforestation activities are promoted. A target of an annual increase of 2 million of m3 of wood has been set for 2005. Region of Asturias A new Forestry Plan for Asturias is now under analysis. It spans 60 years and sets up the following targets: deforestation and reforestation of 163,000 hectares (one sixth of the region), and implementation of improved practices in 150,000 hectares of forests. The measures within the Plan will result in a growth in wood produced by forests of 3 million m3/year (the present figure is 0.6 m3/year).
3.6 Tourism Central Government Actions Objectives Actions Tourism and Environmental Management Programme for applying environmental management Systems in hotels Programme for applying environmental management Systems in tourist municipalities. Programme for defining and extending a Tourist Quality System in Protected Natural Areas. Courses on the sustainable development of tourism
Tourism and Protected Natural Areas
Sustainable tourism training
Programme for applying environmental management Systems in hotels Phase one 1999-2000: Project to apply an Environmental Management System for Hotels, based on the European EMAS Standards. The objective of the project was to define an environmental management system, based on the EMAS standards, adapted to the hotel industry. To this end, a pilot programme was organised with 15 hotels from 3 tourist areas: Benidorm, Tenerife and Granada. The following has been done: - Diagnosis of the environmental situation of the 15 hotels - Design the methodological corps of the system and its documental and computer tools. - Training staff involved in the system - Direct technical assistance for implanting the system in each hotel. At the same time, a more open training course was given on environmental management in hotels, with over 160 participants, using a methodology that mixed two face to face systems (the initial and final sessions) with distance training. The main result of the Project is a CD containing all the information and documentation necessary for implanting the system. In general, the conclusion reached from one part of the industry is that EMAS certification is highly complex and difficult for an enterprise like an hotel. Phase 2 2001-2002: Based on the previous experience, an Internet training Project was designed for Environmental Management in the Hotel Sector, in accordance with the EMAS Standard (―e+turismo Programme‖). The final result has been to train 400 technicians and managers from 200 hotel facilities in Spain, using a system that has combined face to face classes with virtual training through the Virtual Classroom, which uses the latest new services. Paradores: Paradores is a chain of 86 publicly owned, state hotels with characteristically outstanding architecture and locations, and which are excellent value for money. The
Paradores chain is an instrument of State tourist policy for conserving properties of outstanding historic-artistic value, for catalysing tourism and for enhancing the prestige and quality of certain tourist destinations. But the Paradores chain has another singular feature too: it is the hotel chain with the most number of environmentally certified hotels in the world. Fifty eight of its eighty six hotels have obtained an environmental certificate based on the EMAS Standard, and the objective, which will be attained in the near future, is to certify one hundred percent of these hotels. Sustainable Tourist Municipality Project The ―Sustainable Tourist Municipality‖ Project is an initiative driven by the General Secretariat for Tourism, the objective of which is to define and implant an environmental management system for tourist municipalities, financed by the Secretariat. The Spanish Federation of Municipalities and Provinces (FEMP) also participate in the Project, as the main interlocutor and the Secretariat, providing a municipal point of view and facilitating the choice of municipalities. The Project emerged from the consideration that the success of a tourist destination depends increasingly on whether or not it can maintain an attractive environment, avoiding a degradation of the surroundings that is often caused by the sometimes mass affluence of the tourists themselves. The aim of the Project is to provide know-how for managing the environmental implications of a tourist municipality more responsibly and efficiently, and for municipalities to get used to this kind of management, in order to gain recognition at the end of the day, in the form of environmental certification. Benefits of the system: Competitiveness, positioning and image: Environmentally responsible destinations will remain competitive in the mid and long term, and will enjoy a better position and image in the market. Continual improvement in municipal management: This system belongs to the area of the continually improving systems, which involves rationalising processes, reducing costs, increasing service qualities and establishing controls. Improving relations with the community, tourists, visitors and with the environment.
Methodology: To implement the system, the methodology arising from European Parliament Regulation (CE) Number 761/2001 and from the Council of the 19th of March 2001, allowing organisations to voluntarily join a common management and environmental audit system (EMAS). The methodological working sequence is as follows: 1. Environmental diagnosis of the municipality 2. Establish a programme of improvement objectives 3. Introduction of changes in the municipal management system (environmental management system) 4. Audit 5. Certification
Phases of the project: This initiative started in 1997, with an initial pilot phase, with the participation of 6 municipalities. In 2000, the second phase of the project was carried out, considering the implementation of an Environmental Management System (EMS) in a further 16 municipalities. In phase 3 (2002 – 2003), the ambitious goal set is to provide technical assistance and to introduce the system in 202 tourist municipalities in Spain. Preliminary conclusions April 2003: Implementing the Environmental Management System is an arduous task that requires a major effort from all involved. In some cases, there were obstacles to overcome, such as the shortage of human and material resources, with a special effort being made to improve co-ordination at all administrative levels: local, regional, national. The positive aspects include enhancing environmental awareness and the implementation of environmental management habits in 202 Spanish tourist municipalities and obtaining environmental certification in a percentage of them that remains to be determined. Project to define and apply the Spanish Tourist Quality System in Protected Natural Areas The General Secretariat for Tourism, at the request of EUROPARC-Spain, (an association of protected natural areas) decided to tackle the design and pilot implementation of a specific Quality System for protected natural areas (PNA). This is a peculiar and atypical sector of the system, as it is not an enterprise like other tourist sub-sectors (hotels, restaurants, agencies, etc). The objectives of the system focus on improving the quality of a tourist visit, without entering into other, conservation related aspects of managing these areas, of course. The Quality System refers to publicly used services and amenities offered by the protected area, either directly or through concessions. In phase one of the project (2000-2001), a diagnosis was made of the supply and demand situations of the activities available in the protected natural areas, including a major effort in field work in 7 pilot areas to gain an accurate diagnosis of the quality of the publicly used services. This was used to draw up the quality Standard and tools necessary for implanting the System. As one of the basic premises is that it is the sector itself that should define the quality criteria, a Technical Standards Committee was established, made up of EUROPARC-Spain and representatives of the pilot protected natural areas, which has been given the mandate of drafting the Standards. The Standard chapters include references to the different areas of action of public Use, and to the different support activities: Management, Welcoming and Recreation, Information, Sign-posting, Environmental Education and Heritage Interpretation, Marketing and Reservations, Security, Cleaning and Maintenance, Environmental Management, Monitoring and Evaluation. Phase two: 2002-2003. The objective of this phase is to extend the Spanish Tourist Quality System to cover 19 new Protected Natural Areas, and to continue working with the 7 pilot areas of phase one. The work of phase two will continue until December 2003. The Quality System will provide us with a set of tools and procedures that will enable us to continually assess the efficiency of the services offered to visitors and tourists by protected areas, with a view to attaining the principle end-point of improving the attention given to the growing number of users of these services, making a contribution to improving the general level of Spanish tourist product through a resource that is constantly increasing in importance as a tourist attraction.
Sustainable tourism raising awareness In the period 1997-2002, the organisation of over 75 courses on the sustainable development of tourism in the main Spanish tourist destinations. Actions of 5 Autonomous Communities Balearic Islands The Autonomous Community of the Balearic Islands is one of the most active areas in the country in the development of public actions in the areas of environment and tourism. These presently include three kinds of actions: 1) SUSTAINABLE REGIONAL PLANNING The regulatory framework for regional planning is highly restrictive in Majorca, limiting the construction of all kinds of new tourist accommodation with a view to reducing the pressure of tourism on the environment. The regulations were adopted by the Council of Majorca in October 2000 and January 2002.140 At this moment in time, pending the adoption of the Majorca Regional Land Use Plan, the regulations limit most of the accommodation facility building projects in the islands, which has managed to reduce building pressure on tourism and increase the quality of the current supply and protect the environment. 2) ECOTUR Programme In recent years, Programme actions are giving priority to two specific sectors of tourist management: - Development of Environmental Management Systems in Tourist Establishments Within the ECOTUR Installations programme, special emphasis is placed on the implementation of environmental management systems in tourist establishments. Currently, according to Regional Ministry data, over twenty establishments have managed to implant the EMAS environmental management system. The Balearic Government has led the way in the domestic tourist industry, in applying the Environmental Management and Audit System (EMAS).
Preliminary Territorial Standards, adopting provisional measures to ensure the feasibility and effectiveness of the Majorca Partial Regional Land Use Plan. (published in the BOIB – Official Balearic Islands Gazette – on the 28/10/2002) : Measures include the suspension of construction Works on buildings and developments in certain tourist zones. Preliminary Territorial Standards, adopting provisional measures to ensure the feasibility and effectiveness of the Majorca Partial Regional Land Use Plan (published in the BOIB on the 05/02/2002): Modifies and extends the previous Standard with more restrictive measures. This includes the granting of licenses for building new hotel beds only if other beds are taken off the market, that is, accommodation establishments that have partially or completely demolished the building.
- Developing the Local Agenda 21 in Island Municipalities Planned actions of the ECOTUR Destinations sub-programme include the development of the Local Agenda 21 in island municipalities. At the moment, 65 municipalities have signed up to the Aalborg Charter, the document that regulates the implementation of Local Agenda 21s. After implementing the phases of Diagnosis and having drawn up the Action Plan, another three Balearic Local Corporations are already promoting their own Agenda 21s (Calvià141, Alcudia and Sant Antoni de Portmany), and another dozen are far advanced in their legislation on this point142. Canary islands The Canary Island Government has been especially active in promoting actions aimed at controlling the territorial pressure of tourism on the environment of the Islands. Up until recently, this issue was developed through a highly restrictive regulatory system 143, which, to a large extent, limited the construction of new tourist accommodation. In April 2003, the Canary Island Government, after a long process, adopted the General Regional Land Use and Tourism Planning Guidelines for the Canary Islands, known as the Tourist Moratorium, a set of measures aimed at controlling pressure on the Canary Island environment by restricting the building of new accommodation.144 The new Guidelines will hereafter regulate planning and land use, as it will remain in force indefinitely, not withstanding whatever reviews and modification may be introduced in the future. The new regulations are organised in three inter-dependent sections, the contents of which are summarised below: a) Tourism model Definition of a new tourist development model for the Islands based on the premise of quality and sustainable supply. b) Renovation of buildings and urban rehabilitation Renovation and maintenance actions for present tourist properties, with a view to increasing the quality of tourist supply. c) Conditions of growth Actions to occupy land zoned for tourism subject to strict limits145; and the planning of new tourist products that will help to renew the market of the Islands, from the quality perspective.
More information: ECOTUR Programme of the Balearic Government Ministry of Tourism http://www.caib.es/medi_ambient/DG_residusier/ecotur/index.htm http://www.ecotaxa.org/
Law 6/2001, of the 23rd of July, urgent measures in matters of regional planning and tourism in the Canary Islands and Decree 10/2001, of the 22nd of January, regulating tourist standards.
LAW 19/2003, of the 14th of April, adopting the General Planning Guidelines and the Tourism Planning Guidelines of the Canary Islands The granting of new licenses will depend on a large number of limits: carrying capacity of the area, growth rates, current accommodation supply, sustainable nature of the Project, etc.
Regulation of whale watching activities On the 6th of October 2000, Decree 178/2000, of the 6th of September, was published, regulating whale watching activities. The basic objective of this Decree is to regulate whale watching activities, in order to establish the necessary conservation measures for protecting the existing species in the area of the Autonomous Community of the Canary Islands. An administrative authorisation will be necessary for companies to operate in the whale watching industry. In the case of whale watching for tourist purposes, the permit will be granted by the Canary Island Regional Government Ministry with competence for Tourism, having received a binding report from the Regional Ministry responsible for the Environment and a Declaration of Ecological Impact. Authorised tourist vessels will have to display the "Barco Azul / Blue Boat" label, in the form of a flag, and will have to carry a tourist guide aboard. The Decree establishes a Regimen of Sanctions that, among other measures, includes a series of behaviours that could disturb or prejudice the animals, as a means of identifying these as an administrative infraction. Finally, a Whale Watching Monitoring Committee has also been created as a technical and advisory collegiate body. Its main tasks will include the monitoring and assessment of whale watching activities, and they will also propose measures to provide incentives for protecting and conserving protected marine species from whale watching activities. The Canary Islands government has drafted a law on this matter146. Andalusia Andalusia is one of the most active autonomous communities in the development of Local Agenda 21s, most of them in tourist municipalities. The Ciudad 21 Environmental Sustainability Programme has been implemented in the region, based on an exchange of support and technical advice among the different institutions (Andalusia Regional Government ―Junta de Andalucia‖, Andalusia Federation of Municipalities and Provinces – FAMP– and local entities...), with the aim of providing incentives to municipalities to develop their own Agenda 21s. Over one hundred (112) municipalities of Andalusia have signed up to the Ciudad 21 Protocol, thus joining the Programme. The Andalusia Federation of Municipalities and Provinces (FAMP), with the same intention, created the Network of Sustainable Cities of Andalusia (RECSA) in July 2001, made up of the local authorities of Andalusia that voluntarily wanted to join the network and which signed up to the Aalborg Charter. There are presently over two hundred municipalities that are members of the network, many of which are far advanced in defining their own Agenda 21s. With this initiative, over one hundred municipalities of Andalusia (and most provincial capitals) have, so far, ratified the Aalborg Charter, mainly driven by the Ciudad 21 Programme and other initiatives147.
More information: Canary Island Tourism Planning Guidelines http://www.gobiernodecanarias.org/directrices/direordtur.html, Ministry of Tourism and Sports of the Canary Island Government http://www.gobiernodecanarias.org/turismo/ http://www.gobcan.es/medioambiente/biodiversidad/ceplam/vidasilvestre/charlascetaceos/CharlaFranciscoMolin a.pdf
More information: Environmental City Programme
Valencia In the context of the Qualitur Programme, or Programme for Excellence in Valencia Tourist Enterprise Management, a range of initiatives has been implemented in an attempt to take on board environmental parameters in tourism policy. The main contributions of Qualitur include backing for all initiatives, especially enterprising initiatives148, that seek to develop quality and environmental management systems aimed at obtaining the corresponding certification. To this end, the Programme establishes a Register of Enterprises that are certified by one of the Systems recognised in Spain (ISO 9000, ISO 14000). At this moment in time, a total of 157 tourist enterprises and entities of the Autonomous Community of Valencia have been awarded one of the quality and environmental certificates from the modalities recognised by the Qualitur Programme. During the year 2002, the Valencia Tourism Agency provided grants for 60 new companies, to the tune of a total of 172,764 euros. With this, the Agency has registered a 90% increase in grants for the quality incentive programme, within the Qualitur 2002 Programme. On the other hand, coastal tourist municipalities149 have also embarked on programmes to implant management systems for their beaches. In total, the Agency has provided grants for a total of 109,647 euros for implementing these systems, to a total of 7 municipalities and 12 implementation projects. The Valencia Tourism Agency forecasts that, by the end of this year, Valencia tourist enterprises and entities will have a total of over 200 certifications in environmental quality and management, leading all other regions of Spain in the number of certifications in the tourist sector150. Catalonia The institutional experiences, as a whole, carried out in Catalonia, in the area of tourism and the environment, have promoted, amongst others, the aspects of a rapid expansion of the Local Agenda 21 processes in Catalan municipalities, taking the Community into the European Sustainable Cities and Towns Campaign, and a general rapid expansion in criteria of quality and sustainability in the tourist business sector. Actions include: Programme to Foster Local Sustainability The introduction of environmental and sustainable criteria in administrative decisions in the Region has notable experience, especially since 1991, when the Catalan Government Department of the Environment was created.
http://www.juntadeandalucia.es/medioambiente/medio_urbano/indmedioamburb.html Ministry of Tourism and Sports of the Andalusia Government http://www.juntadeandalucia.es/turismoydeporte 148 This support covers all kinds of companies related to the tourist sector: tourist hotel and apartment management companies or owners, restaurants, rural accommodation, bars, travel agencies and auxiliary tourist product enterprises. 149 In 2002, Qualitur moved towards incentives for tourist enterprises, along with a second line of action aimed at implanting quality and environmental systems in the beaches of the coastal municipalities of the Community of Valencia. 150 More information: Qualitur Programme http://www.qualitur.com/
Since 1994, there have been a variety of Catalan Government initiatives for coming within the Agenda 21 framework. This was made more effective after 1998, with the development of the Programme to Foster Local Sustainability, and its review in 2002. The Programme was established with the objective of providing strategic support and proposals from local entities, aimed at achieving a more sustainable development. On the other hand, the depth of some experiences guarantees the singularity of Catalonia in the overall framework of Europe. Some Agenda 21 experiences are not only quoted on a municipal scale, there are also supra-municipal and district lines of work that help to enhance the synergy in these matters. In fact, there are relatively few European regions that are defining – or have already defined – a development framework for the years to come, that is not similar to the Catalan model151. 3.7 Waste Green Flag-Sustainable City Award152 The Federation of Independent Users and Consumers is a nationwide association, founded in 1986 with the main purpose of promoting and developing the rights of consumers and users. With this action, FUCI intends to honour the work of the Local Authorities that manage their solid domestic waste efficiently, preserving their environment, raising awareness of the population and sharing the environmental care of their cities and towns with their citizens. With this prize, FUCI considers such important issues as the investment made, the budget earmarked for collecting SDW, cleaning streets and waste paper bins, the procedures used in waste collection, the frequency of waste collection and the number of containers installed for selective waste collection, among others. But all this is merely part of a more extensive analysis aimed at developing responsible consumption habits among citizens, with campaigns aimed at users promoting re-cycling, keeping streets clean and raising awareness among children, thus promoting their environmental education. Demand for municipal accreditation with the ―Green Flag-Sustainable City‖ is growing among Local Authorities. The list of municipalities that have been awarded this prize in recent years is as follows: 2002: Marín, Villaviciosa de Odón, Vilagarcía de Arousa, Alcobendas, San Fernando, Salobreña, Santiago de Compostela, Santa Coloma de Ceruello, and Chiclana de la Frontera. 2003: Castro Urdiales, Finestrat, San Bartolomé, Collado Villalba, Espartinas, Navacerrada, Colmenarejo, San Roque, El Prat de Llobregat, and Benissa.
More information: Agenda 21 Catalonia http://www6.gencat.net/a21cat/home.htm since 1997, the Federation of Independent Users-Consumers (FUCI) has awarded this prize annually www.efuci.org
During the last 20-30 years the Swedish Government has carried out and encouraged measures to reduce the environmental impact of products and services in Sweden. A large number of both soft and hard policy measures have been taken. We see environmentally sound products and services as one key to sustainable development. Sustainable development is only possible though, if we apply an integrated approach taking into account the entire lifecycle of products and if all sectors of society – central, regional and local governments, industry, organisations, and individual citizens- are involved in the solution. IPP is one strategy to contribute to Sustainable Consumption and Production. Since cooperation on different levels is necessary in order to change unsustainable Consumption and Production Patterns, Sweden welcomes the EU Inventory on SCP in order to identify ongoing measures and activities, the gaps and need for new or different actions on EU level. The EU Survey should also be available for the UNDESA/UNEP survey on SCP to follow up the WSSD and the commitments from Johannesburg. We have chosen to present the following activities. There are however a number of other initiatives, for example the use of economical instruments, partnerships, energy-reducing programmes, implementing environmental managements systems (EMS) in business as well as in Government and central agencies and development of Environmental Product Declaration, EPD, etc. The Swedish EPA presented the summer 2002 the report ―Towards Greener Products‖ (Report 5296) – a commission by the Swedish Government to develop a basis for further development of the Integrated Product Policy, IPP. There is also a report from the Confederation of Swedish Enterprise ―A toolbox for greening of products‖, presented in May 2002153. 1. DIFFERENT
WAYS OF USING ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY AS A DRIVER FOR INCREASED COMPETITIVENESS IS PILOTED BY 350 SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES
The business development programme Environment-driven business development aims at strengthening the competitiveness of SME‘s by stimulating product- and business development from a sustainability perspective. NUTEK, The Swedish Business Development Agency, has used 28 mSEK to the programme and there are 34 on-going projects that will end 2004. The programme Environment-driven business development started 2001 and will end by 2005 and compared to previous programmes it is oriented more towards integrating environmental issues into the core business strategy of the SMEs. The on-going projects are typically managed by Regional development agencies, Municipalities, Consultants, Universities and Industrial Research organisations. The projects are conducted in networks with active participation by 350 small and medium-sized enterprises. Tools, methods and products coming out of these projects will be documented and disseminated widely. NUTEK contributes with 30 percent of the total project cost. By Jan 2005, the aim is: 60 inspiring business case studies
15 new/developed methods for environment-driven business development that are relevant to a large number of SMEs 180 of the participating companies (50%) believe the project has increased their competitiveness or will do so in the coming 3 years 180 of the participating companies (50%) believe they can prove a reduced environmental impact of their products or operations due to changes done in the project 80 products (goods or services) have been designed for the environment within the programme and; 80 participating companies have secured an internal system for continuous improvements
19 projects focus on ‖Environmentally sound products as a competitive device‖ where the global demand for more sustainable products is addressed at a local level to find innovative solutions. In some of these projects design for the environment is linked to business strategy and tools for design for the environment (DfE) are applied, tested or developed. Several companies work actively with supply-chain co-operation and some focus on environmental market communication, for example Environmental Product Declarations. Another 15 projects work with ‖Operational development focusing on continuous improvements‖. The demand stems partly from the general challenge to create staff participation in order to achieve continuous improvements and more specifically from a lot of companies loosing momentum for continuous improvement within the boundaries of their environmental management systems. Participating SMEs are aiming to integrate ecological and social sustainability aspects into core business development. Some projects are primarily focusing on employee participation and leadership commitment to improve business and environmental performance. A couple of projects are using environmental performance indicators to bring about continuous improvements in a specific region or business sector. A handful projects are looking into the area of responsible entrepreneurship, i.e. ways for SMEs to respond to and work with Corporate Social Responsibility. The projects will continue until mid-2004 and the programme will finish by the end of 2004154. 2. LOCAL INVESTMENT PROGRAMMES (LIP) IN SWEDEN
Support for local investment programmes has one major purpose - to significantly speed up the transition of Sweden to an ecologically sustainable society. Work with local investment programmes took part between 1998-2003. The funds available for LIP during this period sums up to SEK 6.2 billion. By 30 June 2002, a total of 210 programmes had been awarded grants of approx. SEK 6 billion. This means that more than 1800 projects have been supported. The total investment volume for these programmes amounts to just under SEK 26 billion. An investment programme consists of a single or a combination of several projects aimed at increasing ecological sustainability. The direction of a programme is decided by the
Swedish information about all projects and contact details for all the project owners is available to download at www.nutek.se/maf
municipality. Selection of projects should be based on a comprehensive analysis of conditions such as local environmental problems and the areas where the environmental load of the municipality is greatest. Other important factors are areas in which the municipality is most able to make improvements, given such factors as the building and business sector structure, and previous priorities in environmental work. In addition to reducing environmental impact, these programmes are intended to stimulate employment, to make more efficient use of energy and other resources, to make greater use of renewable raw materials, to extend the re-use and recycling of waste materials, to strengthen biological diversity, to conserve cultural heritage assets and to improve the cycling of plant nutrients through an eco-cycle. Environmental effects According to local authority estimates, grants awarded to local investment programmes for the period 1998-2002 will lead to reductions in energy use by 2.1 billion kilowatt hours. Discharge of carbon dioxide in the country as a whole has declined by 1 574 000 tons per year, which is equivalent to reducing heavy lorry transports in Sweden by half. This has occurred because of the reduction in the combustion of fossil fuels and an increase in the combustion of renewable raw materials. These investments have also led to the amount of waste deposited in landfill sites being reduced by 500 000 tons. This corresponds to about 10 per cent of the total amount of waste deposited in landfill sites in Sweden today. 3. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY DISSEMINATION OF INFORMATION AND
Transfer of knowledge and technology is an important issue. A report on environmental technology developed within the LIP, which is suitable for export to Eastern Europe and developing countries has just been finalised. The Swedish EPA considers that greater emphasis should be placed on communicating knowledge and experience from project-oriented programmes, such as the Local Investment Programmes (LIP). A large and increasing proportion of environmental protection takes the form of projects, at national level and within the European Union. Experience of methods is needed here, particularly when it comes to identifying and communicating the results of successful projects. It is hoped that this report will make a contribution in this respect. Exchange of information and know-how about ‖best practices‖ is encouraged in the Commission Action Plan for Environmental Technology (ETAP). The plan identifies a social obstacle to sustainable production and consumption in that stakeholders are not always aware of promising alternative technical solutions. According to the Commission, it is therefore necessary to encourage the exchange of best practices. One example mentioned is the EEA theme report 2002:2 "Case Studies on Waste Minimisation Practices in Europe‖, which lists successful examples of waste prevention, recycling and cleaner technology in Europe. The Swedish LIP programme has also achieved useful results, which should be of interest to other member states as well as Eastern European countries outside the EU and developing countries.
IPP-APPROACH IN THE PACKAGING CHAIN
Tetra Pak, Stora Enso and the Swedish Forestry Industry Federation have produced a document to illustrate how one can work with IPP. ―This is IPP - an example of environmental measures in the packaging chain.‖ (from wood as raw material for packaging, to packaging, to the milk package)155. 5. ECO-LABELLING
One of the strengths of eco-labeling is its ability to communicate a complex message in a simple way. There are three main environmental labels on the Swedish market; The Nordic Swan label, the Nature Conservation Society´s Bra Miljöval (Good environmental Choice) and the KRAV label for organic food. The Swan label has currently more than 600 licenses. An evaluation of the Nordic Swan label revealed that the credibility of the label is high in Sweden, Norway and Finland. Between 60-75 per cent of consumers spontaneously named the label when asked if they know any eco-labels. The justification for the credibility was that the Swan label was common, had existed for some time and that it was from the Government and therefore official. There are also some more indirect effects. The criteria for the Swan are used as guidelines by purchasers, both public and private, and also when establishing environmental management systems. The label has increased the environmental awareness among consumers, purchasers and companies and contributed to more environmentally friendly processes and better structures and documentation in companies. The evaluation also illustrated that the main product area and product groups included in the eco-labelling are of significance for the environment. Some important groups from an environmental point of view, such as transport and food are however not included which currently limits the significance of the eco-label for reduced environmental impact. 6. ECOLOGICALLY SUSTAINABLE PUBLIC PROCUREMENT / EKU-WORK
In 1998 the Swedish government appointed a committee to work on ecologically sustainable public procurement (the EKU committee). The committee task was finalised in 2001 and one of main outcomes was the EKU-tool, an internet based guideline for purchasers. The operational maintenance of the EKU-tool is since 2003 the responsibility of the Swedish Environmental Advisory – a company owned by the state, local communities and the Confederation of Swedish Enterprise. The tool, which contains proposals for procurement criteria for about 75 product groups, is continuously updated and the aim is to broaden its use to all kinds of professional purchasers. Product groups are chosen on the basis of a strategy for prioritisation, aiming at such product groups that are both strategically important and have significant environmental impact. Criteria development is done in working groups with a broad representation of both environmental expertise, suppliers and a scientific platform. The EKU-tool will be further developed in order to facilitate for purchasers to obtain good contracts and most environmental benefits.
You will find the report at http://www.forestindustries.se/environment.asp
Information and knowledge building The lack of sufficient environmental knowledge and the lack of support from top management are two of the major hurdles for not greening the procurement practice. Environmental knowledge is necessary in order to make priorities. The Swedish Environmental Protection Agency has, on the basis of discussions with relevant stakeholders such as the Organisation for Swedish Public Purchasers, the Swedish Association of Local Authorities, The County Councils‘ procurement group, the Agency for Public Management (responsible for the coordination of government procurement) and the Swedish Environmental Advisory Council which now administrates the EKU-tool, initiated a project on knowledge building for public purchasers, top managers and politicians. The idea is to broaden the scope of existing training and information to include questions of national environmental objectives, sustainable consumption, lifecycle-based information on the environmental effects of products, environmental information tools and the environmental work of the supply sector. The objective is to provide an infrastructure for training purposes and a broad foundation of knowledge for all three target groups, adapted to their specific needs. For this purpose the EPA is providing an environmental training kit, consisting of a compendium on environmental knowledge with complementary slides. A specific campaign will be aimed at the second target group, top managers in public organisations and politicians. Two brochures with the ambition to inform and motivate purchasers as well as managers and politicians, have been developed within the auspices of the Nordic Council of Ministers. 7. WEB SITES PRESENTING ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION The Swedish Consumer Agency has a web site that had more than 5 400 000 visitors last year. The environmental information on this site is integrated with other matters of interest to consumers, such as economy and safety. To motivate consumers to reduce their environmental impact, they need concrete advises as well as feedback on the effects of the proposed changes. More than 300 such advices are published on this web site. An example: ―If you lower the indoor temperature one degree Celsius you will save 5 percent energy‖ One of the most popular applications is called the “Buyer‟s guide”. This guide helps consumers to choose products that are less harmful to the environment and they can easily compare models from different manufacturers. The information is gathered from the manufacturers and general agents, and the accuracy is being checked before it is published. The aim is to gather information about all the models of household appliances on the Swedish market. The Buyer‘s guide received more than 917 000 visitors in 2003. The liberalised electricity market in Sweden cannot only give consumers a lower price; it also gives them an opportunity to choose how the electricity they buy is produced. A tool for helping the consumers to make a choice is the “Electricity guide”, with 740 000 users last year. The “Energy calculator” is another application on this web site. It contains information about the economic as well as the environmental impact of different house heating systems and equipment for saving energy, for example installing automatic control of temperature. In connection to this calculator the consumers can find general information of importance for choosing a new heating system, as well as information about the indoor climate and the environment. The Energy calculator had 140 000 visitors in 2003.
1. 2. 2.1 INTRODUCTION GENERAL POLICY STRATEGIES AND INSTRUMENTS General Policy Framework
SCP Framework Energy White Paper Innovation report 2.8 Information tools Energy Saving Trust 3. 3.1 SECTORS AND ISSUES Industry/cleaner production
The Carbon Trust 3.7 Waste A significant waste programme is the Waste Implementation Programme (WIP)156. The Waste Implementation Programme (WIP) responds to the package of strategic measures recommended by the Strategy Unit (SU) report "Waste Not Want Not" published in November 2002, and the Government's Official Response. The remit of the Strategy Unit was to consider action to be taken to help the UK to meet the legally binding targets under Article Five of the EU Landfill Directive. The SU's report to the Government recommends a number of economic and regulatory changes, strategic investment measures, and funding and delivery structures to address these challenges. Building on the Strategy Unit recommendations, WIP's programmes combine to drive waste management solutions up the waste hierarchy, improving the sustainability of waste management. The 8 WIP programmes are: 1. Local Authority Support 2. Local Authority Funding 3. New Technologies 4. Data 5. Research
6. Waste Minimisation 7. Kerbside 8. Waste Awareness 4. UK SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY ('A BETTER QUALITY OF LIFE') The UK Sustainable Development Strategy was published in May 1999157. It defines sustainable development as:
Integrating economic, environmental and social policies to ensure a better quality of life for everyone, now and for future generations
This means achieving four objectives simultaneously:
Maintenance of high and stable levels of economic growth and employment Effective protection of the environment Prudent use of natural resources Social progress that meets the needs of everyone
The Strategy is being reviewed, and a revised strategy will be in place by 2005. ENVIROWISE The Envirowise annual savings to business should read £220 million. WRAP SCP FRAMEWORK158 In September 2003 the UK Government launched ―Changing Patterns: the UK Government Framework for Sustainable Consumption and Production‖ as its contribution towards the commitment made at the World Summit on Sustainable Development to “encourage and promote the development of a 10-year framework of programmes”. The main features of the policy approach are: Taking a holistic approach that considers whole life-cycles of products and services, intervening to deal with problems as early as practicable in the resource/waste flow. Working with the grain of markets and identifying and tackling market failures. Integrating SCP thinking and objectives in all policy development and implementation. Using a well-designed package of policy measures and following the principles of better regulation Stimulating innovation in all its facets.
Work is already underway on various strands of follow-up action to further the SCP agenda, including: - A review of how to add more value to the various government ‗sustainable production‘ programmes which contribute to resource efficiency and business support for SCP - A wide-ranging review of the scope for Government procurement activity to contribute directly to progress on sustainable development. - The establishment of collaborative projects involving particular product chains or sectors as pilots to explore practical application of the SCP approach. ENERGY WHITE PAPER159 In February 2003, the Government published the white paper ―Our Energy Future – Creating a Low Carbon Economy‖ which defines a long-term, strategic vision for the UK‘s energy policy combining its environmental, security of supply, competitiveness and social goals. The paper recognises that one of the major challenges to be faced is the threat of climate change, and consequently one of the four goals of the energy policy is to put the UK on a path to cut its CO2 emissions by 60% by 2050, with real progress by 2020. The UK aims to achieve this by reducing energy consumption together with a substantial increase in renewable energy. Emissions trading schemes will have an important part to play but measures to stimulate further energy efficiency in business, the public sector and households are envisaged, for instance, the bringing forward of the next revision of the Building Regulations to raise standards for energy efficiency in new buildings and refurbishments, and the increased funding for renewables capital grants. ENVIROWISE160 Envirowise is a programme sponsored by The Department of Trade and Industry and the Department for the Environment, Farming and Rural Affairs designed to encourage business to adopt best practice in environmental techniques, focusing on cost-effective cleaner technology and waste minimisation, leading to combined cost savings and environmental gains. It delivers services including a range of well-regarded best practice guidance material, a telephone helpline service and free advisory visits to smaller businesses. It has established waste minimisation clubs to provide a forum for networking, and developed a wide range of tools to give practical support to business. It has built strong relationships with a wide range of business support organisations both to target a wider audience and to support them in assisting members and local companies with resource efficiency. Research suggests that the programme has delivered annual savings to business of £45 million. On average, businesses working with Envirowise save £1000 per employee per year, converting an additional 1% of turnover directly into profit. CARBON TRUST161 The Carbon Trust is an independent company funded by government whose role is to help the UK move to a low carbon economy by helping business and the public sector reduce carbon emissions now and capture the commercial opportunities of low carbon technologies. It is developing and implementing programmes that will accelerate the transition to a low carbon economy including:
159 160 161
http://www.dti.gov.uk/energy/whitepaper/ourenergyfuture.pdf http://www.envirowise.gov.uk/envirowisev3.nsf http://www.thecarbontrust.co.uk/carbontrust/
Delivering independent information and impartial advice on energy efficiency and carbon management to the business and public sector through its ―Action Energy‖ and ―Carbon Management‖ programmes. Promoting the Government‘s energy efficiency ―Enhanced Capital Allowances‖ scheme to encourage investment by business in qualifying energy saving technologies and products, and managing the Energy Technology List of qualifying energy saving equipment Investing in the development of low carbon technologies in the UK through projects such as ―Carbon Vision‖, ―Research and Development Demonstrator Projects‖, ―Technology Acceleration Projects‖, ―Incubator Programme‖ and ―Venture Capital Programme‖.
WASTE RESOURCES ACTION PLAN (WRAP)162 WRAP is a not-for-profit company supported by funding from the DTI and Defra and the devolved administrations of Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. It was founded in 2001 in response to the Government‘s Waste Strategy. It is working to promote sustainable waste management by creating stable and efficient markets for recycled materials and products. Its initial programmes of work concentrated on: Creating stable and efficient markets for recyclable materials and products Specific work in six material streams: aggregates, glass, organics, paper, plastics and wood, supported by work in three generic areas: financial mechanisms, procurement and standards.
Since 2003 it has newly added programme areas: Reducing waste at home by working towards increasing home composting, reducing nappy waste, working with the big retailers to reduce supermarket waste and creating a waste minimisation innovation research fund to help with this. Recycling and composting more by setting up an advisory service to help councils make their recycling schemes more effective, and providing support for the composting industry to expand to absorb the extra material collected. Engaging the public by raising the awareness of the need to reduce waste and recycle more, particularly by helping councils get the most out of their collection schemes by promoting them more effectively.
WRAP works closely with all those currently engaged in recycling: local authorities, waste management companies, the community sector and reprocessors. INNOVATION REPORT163 In December 2003 the DTI published its Innovation Report. This review of the Government‘s policies that impact on innovation was undertaken as it was recognised that a step change in the UK‘s rate of innovation was needed in order to raise our level of productivity to compete effectively against newly-emerging economies. The report was produced in close partnership with industry, the Trades Unions and university and research institutes. The report restated the
http://www.wrap.org.uk/ http://www.dti.gov.uk/innovationreport/innovation-report-full.pdf Visit also DTI‘s Sustainable Development and Environment website at: http://www.dti.gov.uk/sustainability
point (also made in the Government‘s Framework for Sustainable Consumption and Production) that innovation will be essential for meeting the environmental challenges of the future – including moving to a low carbon economy and reducing waste. Innovation is needed to find new ways to break the link between economic growth and resource depletion and environmental degradation. The report sets out a strategy for innovation that sets out direct measures in seven key areas where Government can most effectively act to raise the rate of innovation. In one of these areas, the regulatory environment, a cross-Government project team will look at three areas of environmental policy and will focus on how the regulations are designed or whether there are alternatives to regulation. The team will work in consultation with business and other stakeholders. MARKET TRANSFORMATION PROGRAMME164 The aim of the market transformation programme is to encourage products, systems and services that do less harm to the environment using less energy, water and other resources over their lifetime. The Market Transformation Programme (MTP) provides strategic support to a growing set of 'product' policies. These aim to encourage resource efficiency through the development of supply-chain measures such as reliable product information, raising minimum standards and encouraging best practice and where consensus and joined-up thinking is essential to establish priorities and to deliver practical policies. Making extensive use of public domain, consultative sector review processes to engage industry and other stakeholders at all levels, coupled with an explicit policy rationale based on scenario-planning techniques and reliable information and analysis, the market transformation approach is to create a managed environment and mechanism for joined-up policy discussions and to establish the scope, priorities and practical pre-requisites for progressive and sustainable improvements to UK resource efficiency. The MTP is primarily focussed on climate change and sustainable energy issues. However it also supports a broader environmental agenda, in particular the Eco-label. ENERGY SAVING TRUST165 The Energy Saving Trust was set up by the UK Government after the Rio Earth Summit in 1992 to address the damaging effects of climate change. It is a non-profit organisation funded by government and the private sector. Working with a range of partners, EST focuses on delivering practical solutions for households, small firms and the road transport sector - solutions which save energy and deliver cleaner air. Current priorities are: - to stimulate energy efficiency in UK households and achieve social, environmental and economic benefits
to create a market for clean fuel vehicles which will deliver local and global environmental benefits. to stimulate a market for renewable energy which will achieve social, environmental and economic benefits
The Energy Saving Trust operates an Energy Efficiency Helpline and a website which gives practical information to householders on how to save energy and where to go for grants for energy efficient products.