Tour of Cell Organelles

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					             Cells & Cell Organelles:
                 Doing Life’s Work

                Chapter 6 in Campbell Biology




AP Biology
   Two ways in which we study cells
    § Microscopy
    § Cell Fractionation




Regents Biology
Figure 6.3
      Light Microscopy (LM)                                Electron Microscopy (EM)
                Brightfield                     Confocal                  Longitudinal section   Cross section
    (unstained specimen)                                                       of cilium           of cilium
                                                                      Cilia




                        50 mm
                Brightfield
       (stained specimen)




                                        50 mm
                                                                                                       2 mm

                                                                                2 mm Transmission electron
                                                           Scanning electron           microscopy (TEM)
                                        Deconvolution
                                                           microscopy (SEM)
             Phase-contrast




                                        10 mm
  Differential-interference-
       contrast (Nomarski)              Super-resolution




              Fluorescence
                                        1 mm




 Regents Biology                10 mm
Figure 6.4              TECHNIQUE




                                                Homogenization
                                       Tissue

            Cell
                                        cells
                                                                          Homogenate
                         Centrifuged at
        Fractionation        1,000 g
                        (1,000 times the              Centrifugation
                        force of gravity)
                           for 10 min Supernatant
                                       poured into
                                        next tube
                                                                   Differential
                                                                  centrifugation
                                           20,000 g
                                           20 min




                                                           80,000 g
                                                           60 min
                          Pellet rich in
                           nuclei and
                         cellular debris
                                                                          150,000 g
                                                                              3 hr

                                         Pellet rich in
                                         mitochondria
                                         (and chloro-
                                         plasts if cells
                                       are from a plant)
                                                         Pellet rich in
                                                        “microsomes”
                                                      (pieces of plasma
                                                       membranes and
                                                         cells’ internal
                                                         membranes)      Pellet rich in
                                                                          ribosomes
 Regents Biology
                                  bacteria
   Types of cells                  cells
                                         Prokaryote
                                         - no organelles




                       Eukaryotes
                       - organelles


        animal cells                  plant cells
Regents Biology
   Cell size comparison

                  Animal cell                    most bacteria
                                Bacterial cell    § 1-10 microns
                                                 eukaryotic cells
                                                  § 10-100 microns




                          § micron = micrometer = 1/1,000,000 meter
Regents Biology           § diameter of human hair = ~20 microns
   Why study cells?
   § Cells ® Tissues ® Organs ® Bodies
        u bodies are made up of cells
        u cells do all the work of life!




Regents Biology
   The Work of Life
  § What jobs do cells have to do for an organism to live…
       u   “breathe”
           § gas exchange: O2 in vs. CO2 out
       u   eat
           § take in & digest food
       u   make energy
           § ATP
                                         ATP
       u   build molecules
           § proteins, carbohydrates, fats, nucleic acids
       u   remove wastes
       u   control internal conditions
           § homeostasis
       u   respond to external environment
       u   build more cells
           § growth, repair, reproduction & development
Regents Biology
   The Jobs of Cells
   § Cells have 3 main jobs
        1. MAKE ENERGY
            § need energy for all activities        Our organelles
            § need to clean up waste produced        do all these
                                                        jobs!
              while making energy
        2. MAKE PROTEINS
            § proteins do all the work in a cell,
              so we need lots of them
        3. MAKE MORE CELLS
            § for growth
            § to replace damaged or diseased cells
Regents Biology
   Organelles
    § Organelles do the work of cells
        u   each structure has a job to do
            § keeps the cell alive; keeps you alive




 They’re like
 mini-organs!




Regents Biology
                                                      Model Animal Cell
   JOB 1: Cells need power
     § Making energy
         u   to fuel daily life & growth, the cell must…
             § take in food & digest it
             § take in oxygen (O2)
  ATP        § make ATP
             § remove waste
         u   organelles that do this work…
             § cell membrane
             § lysosomes
             § vacuoles & vesicles
             § mitochondria
Regents Biology
                                                 phosphate
   Cell membrane                                  “head”

§ Function
    u separates cell from outside
    u controls what enters or leaves cell
                                                 lipid “tail”
        § O2, CO2, food, H2O, nutrients, waste
    u   recognizes signals from other cells
        § allows communication between cells
§ Structure
    u   double layer of fat
        § phospholipid bilayer
    u   receptor molecules
        § proteins
Regents Biology
cytoplasm
§jelly-like material holding
 organelles in place




cell membrane
§cell boundary
§controls movement
 of materials in & out
§recognizes signals
 Regents Biology
   Vacuoles & vesicles
                                   § Function
                                     u moving material
                                       around cell
                                     u storage


small food
                                   § Structure
  particle                           u   membrane sac
                                          vacuole filled w/
                                         digestive enzymes
        vesicle


               vesicle filled w/
             digested nutrients
Regents Biology
   Food & water storage
                                food vacuole
  plant cells
central vacuole




                                 animal cells



                  contractile
Regents Biology    vacuole
cytoplasm
§jelly-like material holding
 organelles in place

vacuole & vesicles
§transport inside cells
§storage




cell membrane
§cell boundary
§controls movement
 of materials in & out
§recognizes signals
 Regents Biology
                                    § Function
   Lysosomes                          u   digest food
                                          § used to make energy
                                      u   clean up & recycle
                                          § digest broken
                                            organelles
                                    § Structure
                                      u   membrane sac of
                        lysosomes         digestive enzymes

                                           digesting broken
                                           organelles
small food        vacuole
  particle

                  digesting food

Regents Biology
   A Job for Lysosomes
6 weeks




                         15 weeks




Regents Biology
cytoplasm
§jelly-like material holding   lysosome
 organelles in place           §food digestion
                               §garbage disposal &
vacuole & vesicles              recycling
§transport inside cells
§storage




cell membrane
§cell boundary
§controls movement
 of materials in & out
§recognizes signals
 Regents Biology
   Mitochondria
§ Function
   u   make ATP energy from cellular respiration
       § sugar + O2 ® ATP
       § fuels the work of life
§ Structure                                 ATP
   u   double membrane



 in both animal &
 plant cells
Regents Biology
cytoplasm
§jelly-like material holding   lysosome
 organelles in place           §food digestion
                               §garbage disposal &
vacuole & vesicles              recycling
§transport inside cells
§storage




mitochondria
§make ATP energy
 from sugar + O2
cell membrane
§cell boundary
§controls movement
 of materials in & out
§recognizes signals
 Regents Biology
   Plants make energy two ways!
§ Mitochondria
     u   make energy from sugar + O2
                                                             ATP
         § cellular respiration
         § sugar + O2 ® ATP
§ Chloroplasts
     u   make energy + sugar from sunlight
         § photosynthesis
                                                     sugar
         § sunlight + CO2 ® ATP & sugar
            w ATP = active energy
            w sugar = stored energy                  ATP
                  n   build leaves & roots & fruit
                      out of the sugars
Regents Biology
   Mitochondria are in both cells!!
      animal cells         plant cells




                  mitochondria
                                 chloroplast
Regents Biology
cytoplasm
§jelly-like material
 around organelles
                                                  central vacuole
                                                  §storage: food,
                                                   water or waste

mitochondria                                             cell wall
§make ATP in                                             §support
 cellular respiration

cell membrane                                chloroplast
§cell boundary                               §make ATP & sugars in
§controls movement                            photosynthesis
 of materials in & out   lysosome
§recognizes signals      §digestion & clean up
Regents Biology
JOB 2: Cells need workers = proteins
     § Making proteins
         u   to run daily life & growth, the cell must…
             § read genes (DNA)
             § build proteins
                w structural proteins (muscle fibers, hair, skin, claws)
                w enzymes (speed up chemical reactions)
                w signals (hormones) & receptors
         u   organelles that do this work…
             §    nucleus
             §    ribosomes
             §    endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
             §    Golgi apparatus
Regents Biology
   Proteins do all the work!
       one of the major job of cells is to make proteins,
                          because…

                   proteins do all the work!
                                                structural
                                                enzymes
                                                signals
                                                receptors

     DNA                  proteins              cells

Regents Biology
   Nucleus
   § Function
       u control center of cell
       u protects DNA

           § instructions for building proteins
   § Structure
       u nuclear membrane
       u nucleolus

           § ribosome factory
       u   chromosomes
           § DNA
Regents Biology
cytoplasm
§jelly-like material holding   lysosome              nucleolus
 organelles in place           §food digestion       §produces
                               §garbage disposal &    ribosomes
vacuole & vesicles              recycling            nucleus
§transport inside cells                              §protects DNA
§storage                                             §controls cell

                                                     chromosomes
                                                     §DNA



mitochondria
§make ATP energy
 from sugar + O2
cell membrane
§cell boundary
§controls movement
 of materials in & out
§recognizes signals
 Regents Biology
   Ribosomes
     § Function
         u   protein factories
         u   read instructions to build proteins from DNA
     § Structure
         u   some free in cytoplasm
         u   some attached to ER
                                      Ribosomes on ER




Regents Biology
cytoplasm
§jelly-like material holding   lysosome               nucleolus
 organelles in place           §food digestion        §produces
                               §garbage disposal &     ribosomes
vacuole & vesicles              recycling
                                                      nucleus
§transport inside cells                               §protects DNA
§storage                                              §controls cell




                                                     ribosomes
mitochondria                                         §build proteins
§make ATP energy
 from sugar + O2
cell membrane
§cell boundary
§controls movement
 of materials in & out
§recognizes signals
 Regents Biology
   Endoplasmic Reticulum
   § Function
        u   works on proteins
            § helps complete the
              proteins after ribosome
              builds them
        u   makes membranes
    § Structure
        u   rough ER
            § ribosomes attached
            § works on proteins
        u   smooth ER
            § makes membranes
Regents Biology
cytoplasm
§jelly-like material holding       lysosome
 organelles in place               §food digestion
                                   §garbage disposal &
vacuole & vesicles                  recycling
                                                          nucleus
§transport inside cells                                   §protects DNA
§storage                                                  §controls cell




                                                         ribosomes
mitochondria                                             §builds proteins
§make ATP energy
 from sugar + O2
cell membrane
§cell boundary                 ER
§controls movement             §works on proteins
 of materials in & out         §makes membranes
§recognizes signals
 Regents Biology
   Golgi Apparatus
    § Function
         u   finishes, sorts, labels & ships proteins
             § like UPS headquarters
                w shipping & receiving department
         u   ships proteins in vesicles
                                                         vesicles
             § “UPS trucks”                         carrying proteins
     § Structure
         u   membrane sacs




Regents Biology                               transport vesicles
cytoplasm
§jelly-like material holding       lysosome
 organelles in place               §food digestion
                                   §garbage disposal &
vacuole & vesicles                  recycling
                                                            nucleus
§transport inside cells                                     §protects DNA
§storage                                                    §controls cell




                                                           ribosomes
mitochondria                                               §builds proteins
§make ATP energy
 from sugar + O2                                        Golgi apparatus
cell membrane                                           §finishes, packages
§cell boundary                 ER                        & ships proteins
§controls movement             §helps finish proteins
 of materials in & out         §makes membranes
§recognizes signals
 Regents Biology
     nucleus             endoplasmic
                          reticulum
                                                  protein
    DNA                                          on its way!              TO:




             RNA                       vesicle                      TO:




                                                              TO:

                                                              vesicle
        ribosomes

                                                        TO:


                   protein                              finished
                                                         protein

                                  Golgi
                                apparatus
   Making Proteins
Regents Biology
                         nucleolus
                         §make ribosomes       endoplasmic reticulum
nucleus                                        §processes proteins
§control cell                                  §makes membranes
§protects DNA
                                                       ribosomes
cytoplasm                                              §make proteins
§jelly-like material
 around organelles
                                                     central vacuole
Golgi apparatus
                                                     §storage: food,
§finish & ship
                                                      water or waste
 proteins
mitochondria                                                cell wall
§make ATP in                                                §support
 cellular respiration

cell membrane                                  chloroplast
§cell boundary                                 §make ATP & sugars in
§controls movement                              photosynthesis
 of materials in & out     lysosome
§recognizes signals        §digestion & clean up
Regents Biology
JOB 3:Cells need to make more cells
  § Making more cells
       u   to replace, repair & grow,
           the cell must…
           § copy their DNA
           § make extra organelles
           § divide the new DNA & new
             organelles between 2 new
             “daughter” cells
       u   organelles that do this
           work…
           § nucleus
           § centrioles
Regents Biology
   Centrioles
   § Function
        u   help coordinate cell division
            § only in animal cells
    § Structure
        u   one pair in each cell




Regents Biology
cytoplasm
§jelly-like material holding       lysosome
 organelles in place               §food digestion
                                   §garbage disposal &
vacuole & vesicles                  recycling
                                                            nucleus
§transport inside cells                                     §protects DNA
§storage                                                    §controls cell

centrioles
§cell division

                                                           ribosomes
mitochondria                                               §builds proteins
§make ATP energy
 from sugar + O2                                        Golgi apparatus
cell membrane                                           §finishes, packages
§cell boundary                 ER                        & ships proteins
§controls movement             §helps finish proteins
 of materials in & out         §makes membranes
§recognizes signals
 Regents Biology
   Cell Summary
   § Cells have 3 main jobs
        u   make energy
            § need food + O2
            § cellular respiration & photosynthesis
            § need to remove wastes               Our organelles
                                                   do all those
        u   make proteins                             jobs!
            § need instructions from DNA
            § need to chain together amino acids & “finish”
              & “ship” the protein
        u   make more cells
            § need to copy DNA & divide it up to daughter cells
Regents Biology
                That’s my
             cellular story…
             Any Questions?
AP Biology                     2009-2010

				
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