Topic 1_ Animal and Plant Cells - Inverness Royal Academy

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					Topic 1: Animal and Plant Cells
       Cell Structure and Function
• Learning objectives:
  – By the end of the lesson you should be able to
     • State the similarities and differences between
       animal, plant and microbial cells.
     • Describe the function of cell structures namely the
       nucleus, cytoplasm, cell membrane, cell wall ,
       chloroplast and vacuole.
1:Organisms
                                  Cells
Living organisms are made up of __________
                                     Only one cell
• Unicellular organisms consist of __________
                                      More than one
• Multicellular Organisms consist of __________ cell



• Cell structures
                  Structures which carry out particular functions
• Cells contain ____________________________
Some structures are present in both
Animal and plant cells These are what make the two
_________________.
types of cell ________________
               Similar

                            Only in plant cells
• Some of these are found ___________________.
  These are what makes the two types of cell
  __________
   different



                       membrane        These structures are
                                       present in
                       nucleus
                                           All cells
                                       ________________
                       Cytoplasm
  Plant cell

membrane      These structures are
nucleus       present ______________
                       In all cells
 Cytoplasm

 Cell wall                  all
                Present in ___    Plant cells
Vacuole                     some
                Present in _____ Plant cells
Chloroplast                 green
                Present in _______ plant
                cells
Functions of cell structures
    Contains genetic
    information              Controls
                 Thin outer layer                  controls
    Entry and exit


                            Site of chemical reactions

   Cellulose
                  Support the cell
                                        stores

                                    Support the cell
    Makes food
     photosynthesis
       Cell Structure and Function
• Learning objectives:
  – By the end of the lesson you should be able to:
     • Describe the commercial and industrial uses of cells
       in:
        – Alcohol production
        – Bread making
        Commercial uses of cells
•   Yeast
•   Is a single celled fungus
•   Feeds on sugars
•   Reproduces by forming buds
• Alcoholic fermentation
                                                  NO
• Given a food source, a suitable temperature but _____
  oxygen, yeast will carry out the process of
  _________________ producing
   alcoholic fermentation
  ___________________________________.
    ethanol and carbon dioxide
 Bread Making
 Yeast releases ______________which makes dough
                  carbon dioxide
 _______and gives bread a light spongy texture.
 rise
Brewing
• Barley seeds are used to provide food for yeast, they
   contain starch which yeast cannot use, However when
   the seeds are soaked in water they ________________is
                                      Germinate and the starch
   _____________ which the yeast can use. This is
Converted to a sugar
   called _________
            malting
 • Yeast uses the sugar and makes
 • _________ which gives beer its alcohol content
   ethanol
 • ____________ which makes beer fizzy
    Carbon dioxide
Wine Making


• Yeast is added to __________________ and uses the
                      Grape juice
  ____________________________
  Sugar as an energy source



• Alcoholic fermentation takes place and the sugar is
   _________________
   turned into ____________________
                 ethanol


 • When the ethanol concentration becomes __________
                                           Too high
 the yeast is ____________ and no more ethanol is
              killed
 produced
Wine making
        Cell Structure and Function
• Learning objectives:
  – By the end of the lesson you should be able to:
     • Describe the commercial and industrial uses of cells
       in:
        – Antibiotic production
        – Yoghurt production
        – Alternative fuel production
                Alternative fuels
   Fossil Fuels
• _________________ are running out as they are a
  ____________________ resource so
  NON-Renewable
  _________________ of fuels are required e.g.
  Alternative sources
  ________________
   ethanol

   Yeast
• _________ can be used to make ethanol by fermenting
  sugars produced by __________
                     Plants

•When the liquid produced is
_______________________________
    Distilled pure ethanol is obtained
• The pure ethanol can be used as a
_________________________
   Fuel for cars e.g. gasohol
Advantages of alternative fuels
                          Renewable
•Alternative fuels are a ___________
source of fuel which produces
______________ when burned
  Less pollution
Penicillium
      Multicellular fungus
is a _______________                - a blue green mould

             Digesting and absorbing food
• Feeds by ______________________ from its
  surrounding
                     Spores
• Reproduces by ___________
• _______________________________________
   Secretes penicillin (an antibiotic) into its surroundings
  while growing
Antibiotics

• Alexander Flemming discovered the first antibiotic
  (penicillin in 1928 when he noticed in an experiment
  he was carrying out that a mould)
   Prevented the growth of bacteria
  ________________________
• Antibiotics are chemicals which
  __________________________________
   Kill or prevent the growth of bacteria
 Range of antibiotics
                   Very effective in treating some diseases
 • Penicillin is ____________________________
    ___________
caused by bacteria but has no effect on others. This
    means that ___________________________which
                 There is a need for other antibiotics
    ______________________________________
   can be used in the treatment of these diseases
 • Some bacteria are now ____________________
                             UNAFFECTED by antibiotics
   which were once effective against them. This
   means _________________ are needed in order
             New antibiotics
   to treat the diseases caused by these
   _______________
    Resistant organisms
                        Bacteria
        unicellular organisms
 • Are ____________________
 • _______________________
    Feed on substances in their surroundings

Diagram to show the relative size of a typical bacterial cell
                                                 Chromosome
                                                      Plasmid

                        Bacterium
                        magnified


                                       Highly magnified
Animal Cell                            Bacteria Cell
Bacteria Come in all sorts of
different shapes and colours!
Lactic Acid Fermentation


• Some bacteria can feed on Lactose sugar (found in milk)
                              ___________________
  and turn it into _____________________
                     Lactic acid



• Lactic acid causes the pH of milk to fall which curdles
                         ______________________
  ________________________ sour
    The milk and causes it to taste
                       Yoghurt
 • Making Yoghurt _________________________bacteria
                  Is a way of preserving milk using

A ______________ of lactic acid bacteria is
     Starter culture
                           incubated
added to milk and then____________ at 30oC
for several hours
 • The milk becomes _______________________
                           thicker, tastes sour and is
    _______________________
 • preserved by the lactic acid made by the bacteria

				
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