TOPIC 12- NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY by malj

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									* TOPIC 12- NUCLEAR
  CHEMISTRY

 DO NOW: ANSWER
 QUESTIONS IN M.C.
 PACKET
1. The stability of an isotope depends on the ratio of
   protons and neutrons in the nucleus
  *Most nuclei are stable but some are unstable.
   These nuclei will spontaneously decay emitting
   radiation
  *Stable isotopes have a 1:1 ratio of protons and
   neutrons. Most radioactive isotopes have twice
   as many neutrons as protons
  *All elements with an atomic number higher than
   83 are radioactive

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2. Each isotope has a specific mode and rate of decay
   (Table N)


  *Rate of decay is called half-life
  *Half-life is a constant
  *Half-Life is the measure of the time it take for
   exactly one-half of an amount of isotope to
   decay
  *Amount of substance will never decay to zero


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3. A change in the nucleus of an atom changes it to
   another type of atom (a new element) – called
   transmutation-
    *Artificial transmutation requires the bombardments
     of a nucleus by high energy particles
 
4. Spontaneous decay involves the release of different
   particles from the nucleus
    *Types of particles as well as masses and charges can
     be found on Table O


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5. Nuclear reactions include natural and artificial decay,
   nuclear fission and nuclear fusion


  * Nuclear Fission: nucleus of an atom is split (artificially
    “shooting” the nucleus with a neutron)
  * Nuclear Fusion: combines two lighter nuclei to form
    heavier nuclei, process that powers the sun
  * Nuclear Fusion requires high temperature, not ready for
    practical use.
    * Advantage: products are not radioactive waste (as with
      fission)


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6. Nuclear reaction can be represented by equations that include
   symbols that represent atomic nuclei with mass number and
   atomic number, subatomic particles with mass and charge and
   emitted particles
EX)



7. Energy from nuclear reactions come from the small fraction of
   mass that is lost
  * The reaction converts mass to energy
  * Einstein’s eq. E=mc2 describes the relationship between
    energy and matter


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8. Energy released from nuclear reactions is much
   greater than energy released from chemical
   reactions

9. The risks associated with using radioactive
   isotopes include:
  * biological exposure (radiation/cancer)
  * long term storage/disposal
  * nuclear accidents


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10.Radioactive isotopes may be used in
 * Medicine
 * Radioactive dating
 * Industrial measurement
 * Nuclear power
 *Detection/treatment of disease


 STRATEGIES FOR CALCULATING HALF LIFE!


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* TOPIC 12- NUCLEAR
  CHEMISTRY

   SUMMARY –
    ANSWER
  QUESTIONS IN
    PACKET

								
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