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THE BASIC HOUSE DESIGN Chapter 2 Four Main Designs for Residential Homes One Story (Ranch) One-and-one half story Two story Split The One Story Ranch Design Living space is located on one level Lends self to beautiful indoor and outdoor living Absence of stairs…unless it has a basement The One Story Ranch Low pitched roof with wide overhangs Outside is easy to maintain due to one story May be built with full basement Disadvantage of Ranch Design More costly to build Requires more roof area Requires more foundation Disadvantage of Ranch Design Requires a larger lot Maintainace costs may be more expensive due to large roof and exterior wall surface One-and-One Half Story Design This home is often called the Cape Cod One story with steeper roof which allows for expansion of the attic Dormers Advantages of 11/2 Story Economy Built in expansability Bedrooms and bath are generally built into attic space Second floor is about ½ the size of the first floor. One-and-One Half Story Could be left unfinished at first Heating costs are minimal Rooms must be planned for the ultimate number of occupants The Two Story More economical to build than Ranch or the 1 ½ story designs Requires smaller lot Heating and cooling is economical The Two Story Not as popular today as when it was introduced. Usually traditional in style Disadvantages of Two Story Maintenance may be difficult and more costly Does not lend itself to variations in style The Split Design Designed for the sloping or hilly lot Takes advantage of troublesome elevation. The Split Design Lowest level houses heating and cooling equipment, storage and shop or washroom Basement occupies 40- 60 percent of house space. The Split Design The Intermediate Level Generally houses garage and recreation area Ground level Patio Porch Terrace The Split Design The Living Level Also located at grade level Kitchen, dining room, living room, Full or half bath, Foyer, mud room, wash room may also be located on this level. Patios and terraces The Split Design The Sleeping Area The highest level of the house The half-level difference between the living and sleeping levels affords greater privacy and quietness The Split Design Often more expensive than two story but cheaper than a ranch Heating tends to be a problem but is resolved by different thermostats Variations of Split-Level Design 1. Side-by-Side 2. Front-to-Back 3. Back-to-Front Depending on the way the lot is sloped Traffic Circulation Primary consideration Moving from one room to another Planned with maximum efficiency Traffic Circulation Distance from garage to kitchen should be short and direct Foyer should be centrally located All bedrooms need to be close to a bath Few rooms have traffic patterns Family room and eating nook are exceptions Primary Considerations CHAPTER 3 What to consider: Neighbors Climate Shopping Transportation Room for Expansion Cost & Restrictions Costs tree removal grading drainage The deed Zoning and Codes Zoning Ordinances Commercial or Residential Topographical Features Slope Contour Size Shape Elevations Trees Rocks Soil/Water Conditions Family Needs Find/Build a home that fits needs of family Eating Sleeping Laundry Hobbies Studying etc. Other Considerations Planning the home not only from inside-out. Modular Aspects Modular homes Factory build homes Utilize materials adding extra foot around house not big expense Modular Aspects Material Size Plywood - 4’ X 8’ Paneling - 4’ x 8’ Concrete Block Modules of 4” Lumber 8’, 10’, 12,’ 16’ To reduce waste Drawings include a set of plans Plot Plan Foundation Plan Floor Plan Elevations Electrical Plan Construction Details Pictorial Representation CHAPTER 3 Primary Consideration What to consider: Site Consideration Community Cost Zoning restrictions Style Location Schools What to consider: Neighbors Climate Shopping Transportation Room for Expansion Cost & Restrictions Costs tree removal grading drainage The deed Zoning and Codes Zoning Ordinances Commercial or Residential Topographical Features Slope Contour Size Shape Elevations Trees Rocks Soil/Water Conditions Family Needs Find/Build a home that fits needs of family Eating Sleeping Laundry Hobbies Studying etc. Other Considerations Planning the home not only from inside-out. Modular Aspects Modular homes Factory build homes Utilize materials adding extra foot around house not big expense Modular Aspects Material Size Plywood - 4’ X 8’ Paneling - 4’ x 8’ Concrete Block Modules of 4” Lumber 8’, 10’, 12,’ 16’ To reduce waste Drawings include a set of plans Plot Plan Foundation Plan Floor Plan Elevations Electrical Plan Construction Details Pictorial Representation CHAPTER 5 The Bedroom The Bedroom Home divided into three basic areas Sleeping Living Service The Sleeping Area Bedrooms Baths Dressing Room Nurseries The Bedroom Should be located in the Southwest corner of the house Homes are categorized into categories of 2,3 & 4 Bedroom homes The 3 BR home has the greatest sale potential Bedrooms are located on a separate wing of the house or upstairs The Bedroom FHA minimum - 100 Square Feet Average - 125-175 Square feet Largest Bedroom is referred to as the Master Bedroom Bedroom Closets 4 linear feet for a man’s closet 6 linear feet for a woman’s closet Minimum of two feet deep Should be 30 inches if possible Located along interior wall of Bedroom Access to Bedroom Closets Variety of Options Bifold door 8’ in length Accordion Door in 8’ length Flush Door Door Height = 6’-8” Be sure to have good lighting in closet Bedroom Windows Windows on two walls if possible Bedroom Doors Doors swings into Bedroom Locate door near corner of Bedroom At least one entry door 1 3/8” Thick 6’-8” Height 2’ to 3’ Wide minimum of 2’-6” wide Assignment Design an average size bedroom according to the FHA specifications. Make a plan view drawing of the room including bed, dresser, chest pf drawers, and other furniture to meet the needs of your own activities. You may want to include study or reading areas. Attach a closet to the bedroom. 3’ x 8’ with maximum door access CHAPTER 6 Living Room Living Area Composed of a number of rooms Living room Dining room recreation or family room den or study special purpose rooms foyer patios guest bedroom Living Room Center of Activity Play room for children TV room Conversation Place Living Room Size Small 150 square feet Medium (average) 250 square feet Large 400 + square feet Most Important Questions Regarding Size of Living Room 1. What furniture is planned to this room? 2. How aften will the room be used? 3. How many people are expected to use the room? 4. How many functions are combined in this room? 5. Is the living room size in proportion to the remainder of the house? Living Room Location Traffic pattern should not pass through living room Slightly raise or lower the floor to help discourage “thru traffic” Room should be positioned at grade level No main entrance way in room Living Room Large windows or sliding doors give the room of feeling of spaciousness. Adequate wall space for furniture Located near dining room Should be exciting and colorful The Dining Room Most modern homes have dining rooms The function is to provided a special place for eating The Dining Room Size Small - 120 square feet Medium - 180 square feet Large - 252 square feet and larger The Dining Room Possible Furniture to Include Rectangular, Oval, or Round Table China Cabinet or Hutch Buffet Server or Cart Corner Cabinet Dining Chairs Dining Room Chairs Allow at least 2’-3” from center line to center line of dining room chair Allow 2’-0” space for serving (behind the chair to the wall or piece of furniture). Location of Dining Room Adjacent to the kitchen near family/living room between kitchen and living room (ideal) Dining Room Lighting should be able to be adjusted to set a mood Bright warm and cheerful atmosphere should be presented Entryway and Foyer All houses have at least one entryway but not necessarily a foyer Entryway Three basic types of entryways 1. Main Entry 2. Service Entry 3. Special Purpose Entry Entryway Main Entryway Designed to Impress Need not be large Creative use of materials will enhance beauty Centrally located Should lead into foyer rather than room Entryway Main Entryway Should be designed so that caller can be viewed from inside the home Protection from weather is a consideration Entry doors are normally 3’-0” wide x 1 ¾” Thick x 6’- 8”High Entryway Main Entryway Should be designed so that caller can be viewed from inside the home Protection from weather is a consideration Entry doors are normally 3’-0” wide x 1 ¾” Thick x 6’- 8”High Entryway Service Entrance Usually connected to the kitchen May pace a mud room or utility room between the door and kitchen Entryway Special Purpose Entries Those providing access to patios, decks and terraces Not intended to be striking Foyer Functions as a place to greet guests and remove coats Floor must be made of materials not affected by moisture and dirt Must have coat closet Minimum size – 2’x3’ but 30” x 4’-0” is more desirable Foyer Size of Foyer depends on several factors The size of home Cost of the home Location Personal preference Foyer Minimum foyer size 6’ x 6’ Average foyer size 8’ x 10’ Large foyer size Anything larger than 8’ x 10’ Foyer Often provide access to other rooms in house through halls Hall spaces should be kept to minimum Minimum hall width – 3’-0” More desirable – 3’-6” to 4’-0” Family Recreation Room The family recreation room provides a place where the family can play or pursue hobbies Designed for functionality and maintenance Often provides for overflow of space if needed Family Recreation Room Can be places near patio to take advantage of pool, outdoor picnics or sunbathing Often located in basement Common size – 12’ x 20’ Patios, Porches and Courts Architect should plan for outdoor living Patios Near house but not structurally connected Usually at ground level Concrete, brick, and stone are common materials used Designed for entertainment, relaxation, playing, living Patios Locate patio to ensure privacy Off living, dining or family room Patio Size Small – 10’ x 14’ Large – 20’ x 30’ Should be designed proportional to the house Take into consideration the sun, wind and view Porch Structurally connected to the home Usually covered Courts May posses characteristics of both a patio and a porch Used for dining, relaxation and entertaining Often used to break up floor plans Provide natural light into the home CHAPTER 7 Room Planning and Service Area Chapter 7 The service area supplements the Living and sleeping areas of the house. Includes: Kitchen, Laundry, Work Center, Utility, Garage and Storage Chapter 7 The service area supplements the Living and sleeping areas of the house. Includes: Kitchen, Laundry, Work Center, Utility, Garage and Storage Kitchen Food preparation but can be used for dining, laundry, and storage Usually the most expensive room in the house Efficient Kitchen Placement of appliances Providing adequate storage cabinets food preparation facilities Minimum amount of walking distance The Work Triangle Measure of kitchen efficiency Lines drawn from the center of the range, sink and refrigerator Lengths of lines are added together Practical kitchen should not exceed a 21’ work triangle Six Basic Kitchen Styles Straight Line “L” Shaped Corridor “U” Shaped Peninsula Island Straight Line Kitchen Used in cottages and apartments Little space is required Two disadvantages Not very interesting Provides little cabinet space “L” Shaped Kitchen Located along two adjacent walls attractive Two work centers are located along one wall and a third along another wall Not intended for large kitchens The Corridor Kitchen Located on two walls opposite each other Small to medium size Ideal for long, narrow room Open space between the cabinets should be at least four feet The “U” Shaped Kitchen Most popular design High level of efficiency No through traffic Work triangle is compact and functional The Peninsula Kitchen Popular because it provides plenty of work space Attractive Easily joined to the dining room using the peninsula as a divider Peninsula may be used as a cooking center, eating area, food preparation Traffic is reduced to a minimum Work triangle is compact The Island Kitchen Island may house the sink, cooking center, food preparation, work space, snack bar Island should be accessible from all sides At least four feet clearance should be allowed on all sides of the island Cabinets and Appliances Cabinets and Appliances Appliances are available in a variety of styles, colors, and sizes Standards are located on page 137 Cabinets Provide most storage in kitchens Available in standard sizes but can be custom made Standard base cabinets are 34 1/2” high, 24” deep, and width increments in 3” multiples (15”, 18”, 21”) Cabinets Wall cabinets are either 12 or 13 inches deep (standard) Cabinets are 12” to 30” high in increments of 3 inches Cabinets Figure 7-26 on page 140 manufactures numbers are located on each cabinet wall cabinets are represented by a hidden line Cabinets Figure 7-26 on page 140 manufactures numbers are located on each cabinet wall cabinets are represented by a hidden line Kitchen Location Near outside door for easy access to trash Near dining room Windows should be placed so that children can be observed in yard Near laundry room Near bathroom Ventilation Wall fan is good but hood with fan is better Exhaust should not be expelled into the attic Kitchen Decor Pleasant Well Lighted - over work stations Colors of appliances should be consistent with the overall design of the kitchen Kitchen materials should be easy to maintain Clothing Care Centers Located near the kitchen Should include place to take care of laundry Washer Dryer Ironing board Sewing machine Assignments Finish room design Plot room design Design a medium-size living room with furniture Design a modern Kitchen. Design and draw plans for a dining room which is designed to seat six people.
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