Reversing Nuclear Phase out Decision to Help Sweden Achieve Emission Targets by GlobalData

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									Reversing Nuclear Phase out Decision to Help Sweden Achieve Emission Targets
Reference Code: GDNE0023VPT Publication Date: APR 2009

Nuclear Energy Viewpoint
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GDNE0023VPT / Published APR 2009 Page 1

Table of Contents

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Table of Contents
Table of Contents
List of Figures

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GlobalData Viewpoint
Summary

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3 Reversing Nuclear Phase out Decision to Help Sweden Achieve Emission Targets
3.1 Nuclear Power in Sweden

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3.2 Key Reasons for rethinking the decision of nuclear phase out in the country 3.2.1 Average life time of Sweden’s Nuclear Reactors 3.2.2 Kyoto Protocol: Need to cut down energy related emission 3.2.3 Lack of other Alternative energy to replace nuclear energy 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 Nuclear Power Contribution in Sweden’s Energy Mix Sweden’s Energy related emission Target and the Role of Nuclear Sweden’s Nuclear Energy Outlook Conclusion

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Recent Developments
Feb 05, 2009: Sweden Plans To Allow Construction Of New Nuclear Reactors

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4.2 Jan 14, 2009: ABB Wins $45 Million Order From Vattenfall To Upgrade Swedish Nuclear Power Plant 9

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Appendix

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5.1 Methodology 5.1.1 Coverage 5.1.2 Secondary Research 5.1.3 Primary Research 5.1.4 Expert Panel Validation 5.2 Contact Us

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Table of Contents

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About GlobalData Disclaimer

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Table of Contents

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Figure 1: Figure 2:

List of Figures
Sweden, Electricity Generation By Fuel Type, Percentage Share, 2007 GlobalData Methodology 7 10

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GlobalData Viewpoint
Summary
In the month of February 2009, the Swedish government made the statement that it will reverse the decision of nuclear phase out considering the climate issue and nuclear energy will play a key role in the electricity production in the coming future. The country has 10 operable nuclear reactors with nuclear power contributing about 45% to the total annual electricity generation. As per an earlier legislation incorporated in 1980 all the nuclear power reactors in the country were to be decommissioned by 2010. However, the new government had taken the decision that no new nuclear reactors will be decommissioned up to the next elections as the government feels it is important to continue with nuclear power generation. It is also important for the country to reduce its reliance of other petroleum sources in order to reduce its energy related emissions. In this context, continuation of the nuclear power industry will help the country meet its greenhouse gas emissions targets.

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3 Reversing Nuclear Phase out Decision to Help Sweden Achieve Emission Targets
3.1 Nuclear Power in Sweden
Currently Sweden has 10 operable reactors with nuclear capacity of about 9000 MW and the nuclear power generation for the year 2007 was 64.3 Billion kilo Watt hours. The nuclear power contribution to the total electricity generation is about 46%. The Barseback unit 1 and 2 were shut down in the year 1999 and 2005 and as a result of which the nuclear capacity was decreased by 1200 MW. In the 1980 referendum the country made an energy policy to phase out nuclear power by 2010. The only domestic energy sources in Sweden are hydropower and biomass. Sweden's energy requirement is covered both by imported energy, primarily oil, coal, natural gas and nuclear fuel and by domestic energy in the form of hydropower, wood and peat plus waste products from the forestry industry.

3.2

Key Reasons for rethinking the decision of nuclear phase out in the country
Legislation was incorporated in 1980 that all the country’s nuclear power reactors should be shut down permanently by 2010 and subsequently a complete phase out of nuclear power. However this was put aside by the Christian Democrat policy in March 2007. The coalition government decided that no new nuclear reactors would be planned or decommissioned during their first term. The act which banned construction of new nuclear reactors has been officially abolished and permission will be given to gradually replace the existing reactors that reached the end of their economic life. The coalition government scrapped old anti-nuclear policies to make nuclear energy as part of Sweden's long-term energy program. The key reasons for reconsidering the decision of nuclear phase out are as below.

3.2.1

Average life time of Sweden’s Nuclear Reactors
The Swedish Energy Agency has estimated that the country's nuclear power reactors have an average life span of 60 years and the youngest reactor will potentially continue operating for a further 38 years. The agency has also mentioned that nuclear reactors can be taken out of operation until between 2032 and 2045. The nuclear power plants have longer economic life span and the government is seriously considering the life extension of these nuclear reactors.

3.2.2

Kyoto Protocol: Need to cut down energy related emission
The country has aimed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 4% by 2010 compared to the 1990 level. The country’s energy agency made goals to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions by 30% by 2020 and aims at no emissions by 2050. This goal can be achieved only by cutting down energy related emissions drastically, for which nuclear power would play a key role.

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3.2.3

Lack of other Alternative energy to replace nuclear energy
After the referendum conducted in 1980 on building new nuclear power stations, the government planned to boost electricity generation from alternative alternate sources. However the renewable and alternative energy sector has not made any significant progress. Under the new energy policy, restrictions have been imposed on the construction of hydel power facilities in rivers which might affect the ecosystem. This in turn has affected the construction of new hydropower facilities. As per plan the country should install more than 200 wind mills every year to 2020 in order to meet the demand of electricity, which also appears not to be feasible due to investment limitations.

3.3

Nuclear Power Contribution in Sweden’s Energy Mix
The figure below indicates the electricity generation by fuel type in Sweden for the year 2007. The major contribution is made by renewable energy. The renewable energy sources including hydro and wind contribute a total electricity generation of about 50%. The nuclear energy contribution is about 46% and the rest of the contribution is met by fossil fuels.

Figure 1:

Sweden, Electricity Generation By Fuel Type, Percentage Share, 2007

1% 1% 1%

51%

46%

Coal & Lignite
Source: GlobalData

Oil

Natural Gas

Nuclear

Renewables

After the Chernobyl nuclear accident, the Swedish government decided to permanently shut down the nuclear reactors by 2010. Due to political pressures, Barseback unit 1 & Barseback unit 2 were permanently shut down in 1999 and 2005. This decision of shutting down the two nuclear reactors has not affected the other ten nuclear reactors which will continue to be operable until 2012-25. In March 2007 the Christian Democrats changed their policy to expli
								
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