TASK - A LEADERSHIP INTRODUCTION Leadership is a process by which a person influences others to accomplish an objective and directs the organization in a way that makes it more cohesive and coherent. Leaders carry out this process by applying their leadership attributes, such as beliefs, values, ethics, character, knowledge, and skills. Leadership is a tough quality to define. When Leadership is definitely a quality, while tough to define, is a trait that you‟ll able to distinguish whether a person has “it” or not. Authors define leadership as Leadership may be considered as the process (act) of influencing the activities of an organized group in its efforts toward goal setting and goal achievement. (Stogdill, 1950: 3) Leadership is the accomplishment of a goal through the direction of human assistants. A leader is one who successfully marshals his human collaborators to achieve particular ends. (Prentice, 1961: 143) .Leadership is interpersonal influence, exercised in a situation, and directed, through the communication process, toward the attainment of a specified goal or goals. (Tannenbaum, Weschler & Massarik, 1961: 24) “Leaders are the most results-oriented individuals in the world, and results get attention. Their visions or intentions are compelling and pull people toward them. Intensity coupled with commitment is magnetic. And these intense personalities do not have to coerce people to pay attention; they are so intent on what they are doing that, they draw others in.” “The actions and symbols of leadership frame and mobilize meaning. Leaders articulate and define what has previously remained implicit or unsaid; then they invent images, metaphors, and models that provide a focus for new attention. …an essential factor in leadership is the capacity to influence and organize meaning for the members of the organization.” “Leaders acquire and wear their visions like clothes. Accordingly, they seem to enroll themselves…in the belief of their ideals as attainable, and their behavior exemplifies the ideas in action.”
Definitions of leadership:
1930‟s: “Popular notions of leadership tend to be expressed in terms of power to command or ability to dominate. The whole contention of this book is, however, that commanding of itself is wholly inadequate as a basis for getting results from people working in association. …Leadership is interested in how people can be brought to work together for a common end effectively and happily. (Tead, 1935, pages 11-12, quoted in Rost, page 48)” Leadership is the behavior of an individual when he is directing the activities of a group toward a shared goal. (Hemphill & Coons, 1957: 7) Burns was one of the first scholars to assert that true leadership not only creates change and achieves goals within the environment, but changes the people involved in the necessary actions for the better as well: both followers and leaders are ennobled.
“Burns became famous among alternative leadership scholars because his model of transformational leadership included an ethical/moral dimension that, prior to 1978, had not been infused into any leadership theory. Selznick (1957) had equated leadership with the infusion of values into organizations, but values are not necessarily ethical or moral. There was certainly no room in the saga of the structural-functionalists, who eschewed any kind of value orientation as a bias that made scholarship unscientific, for a leadership theory that inserted a required moral component. Even after the management and psychological scholars discovered Burns, they sanitized his concept of transformation to include any kind of significant change, not just changes
that had a morally uplifting effect on people (see Avolio & Bass, 1988; Bass, 1985; Conger & Kanungo, 1988; Peters & Waterman, 1982; Bennis & Nanus, 1985).” (Rost, pages 30-31)
How important is Leadership (Management Side of Leadership) Leadership is an important element of effective management. The functions of management undertaken by the manger ill produce far greater results if they have the
ingredient of effective leadership added to them. When this effective leadership, or effective direction and guidance, permeates the whole enterprise, the result is a successful organization. Theories of leadership: We will look at three main leadership theories here; the personality or behavioral approach; the situational approach; and the contingency theory of leadership. Personality or behavioral traits: The earliest studies of leadership were largely based on attempts to Identify the personality traits that leaders possessed. In searching for measurable leadership traits, researches took to approaches. The first approach as to compare the personality traits of leaders and non-leaders. This was the most common approach, but it failed to identify and traits that consistently set leaders apart from their followers. As a group, leaders were found to be taller, brighter, more extrovert and selfconfident than non-leaders. However, many people ho are not leaders also possess these traits, while others who are acknowledged as brilliant leaders do not For instance, two extremely charismatic, successful leaders- Napoleon and Alexander the greatWere both well below average height. The psychologies then he wrote „fifty years of study have failed to produce one personality traits or set of qualities that can be used to discriminate between leaders and non leaders The second approach was to compare the personality traits of effective leaders with those of ineffective leaders. This too has failed to isolate any traits which are strong associated with successful leadership. The Situational approach It was because of the in conclusiveness of the studies into the personality traits of leaders that the situational theory of leadership developed. According to this, people follow those leaders who they think are best placed to enable them to archive their own personal goals and objectives.
The contingency approach to leadership: According to Fiedler (1967), people become leaders not only because of their personal attributes and personalities, but also because of the interaction between them and changing situations. Therefore, an effective leader is one who can adapt and lead in all situations. Action Leadership John Adair further developed the contingency approach to leadership into the idea of action centered, or functional, leadership. According to Adair there are three variables in any work situation; task needs, group needs and individual needs. Individu al needs Group needs Task needs
The above diagram shows action leadership. If the task needs are ignored then the group will cease to have goals to aim at and the individuals will have no occupation or purpose. Leadership styles: Leadership styles classified them on the basis of how leaders use their authority. These regard managers as applying one of the three basic styles; 1. Autocratic style. The autocratic leader is seen as person who commands and expects compliance, who is dogmatic and positive; and who leads and directs others by an ability to give or withhold rewards or punishment. 2. Democratic/participative style: The leader who uses this leader-ship style consults with his subordinates about proposed actions and decisions and encourages them to participate in these decisions. 3. Self motivatory style. This third style of leadership is one in which the leader gives subordinates a substantial degree of independence in their work, leaving them to set their own goals and discover their own ways of achieving them. The leader adopting this
style sees his role as one of facilitating the activities of the others by providing them with information, and acting as a contact with the groups external environment.
The managerial grid – Blake and Mouton Blake and Mouton‟s managerial grid (Figure 6.2) is a two-dimensional measurement of manages leadership styles. One axis of the grid represents how production is valued, the other represents the human element in businesses – how people are valued. Scores are allocated from one to ten along the both axes (1= low, 10 = high)
Using this grid Blake and Mouton identified four extreme styles of management in leadership: 1. Improved management. This style of management is reflected in low scores on both axes as managers show little concern for either people or production values. They tend to be involved to a minimum in the requirements of management.
Shortcomings of leadership-style theories: Leadership style theories focus on behavior, but do not address values, except by implication: what values are relevant and effective in getting the job done and relating to subordinates and others. “Leadership- style approaches have remained largely unfulfilled owing to their un due emphasis on the leader, followers and the task at the expense of the leadership situation (Whipp and Pettigrew, 1993: 205).
Leadership – style theories fail to consider the contingencies in the leadership situation (Korman, 1966; Kerr et al., 1974; Schriesheim and Murphy, 1976; katz, 1977; Schriesheim, 1980).
Fiedler’s contingency model:
One of the First leader –situation models was developed by Fiedler in this contingency theory of leadership effectiveness ---It concentrated on relationship between leadership and
organizational performance. He developed a LPC (Least preferred co- worker). Which measures the rating given by leaders about the person with whom they could work least well. Fiedler suggests that leadership behavior is dependent upon the favorability of the leadership situation. there are three major variables which determine the favorability of the situation and which affect the leader‟s role and influence. Leader-member relations The task structure Position power
FUNCTIONS OF LEADERSHIP
Some of the leadership functions are listed below Leader's function Policy maker Planner Expert External representative Controller of relationships group internal Actions Establishing policies and goals. Deciding how the group will achieve its goals. A source of expert information. Speaking for the group with others. Determining the social structure of the group. Controlling rewarding. members by punishing and
Purveyor of rewards and punishment Arbitrator and mediator Exemplar Symbol of the group Substitute for individual responsibility Ideologist
Resolving disputes in the group. Behaving in a way that others should behave. Acting as symbolic embodiment of the group, its goals and its values. Relieving individuals of the need responsibility of personal decisions. Being the source of beliefs and values. and
BEHAVIORAL THEORYTHEORY OF LEADERSHIP . Traits theory of Leadership SITUATIONAL STYLE THEORY OF LEADERSHIP The Situational Leadership Theory suggests that effective leadership requires both acts of “leadership” and “management.” Depending on the level of each of these acts necessary, four different styles of leadership can be utilized. These are delegating, coaching, directing, and supporting. For a leader to be purposeful in their direction, they must use the correct style by
being able to evaluate a follower‟s readiness level. In other words, they must “meet a follower where they are.”
SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP BEHAVIOUR Blanchard and Hersey characterized leadership style in terms of the amount of direction and of support that the leader gives to his or her followers, and so created a simple grid:
Directing Leaders define the roles and tasks of the 'follower', and supervise them closely. Decisions are made by the leader and announced, so communication is largely one-way. Coaching Leaders still define roles and tasks, but seeks ideas and suggestions from the follower. Decisions remain the leader's prerogative, but communication is much more two-way. Supporting Leaders pass day-to-day decisions, such as task allocation and processes, to the follower. The leader facilitates and takes part in decisions, but control is with the follower. Delegating Leaders are still involved in decisions and problem-solving, but control is with the follower. The follower decides when and how the leader will be involved.
In recent years, top corporate executives have reaped a pay bonanza without precedent in the long and sweaty history of working for a living. Is today's boss overpaid? Probably, but to whom much has been given, even more will be expected. The job of leading a company has never been more demanding, and it will only get tougher in the 21st century. The CEO will retain ultimate authority, but the corporation will depend increasingly on the specialized skills of a host of subordinate leaders. Long live the chief of customer relations, the chief of knowledge, the Web chief! The accelerated pace and complexity of business will continue to force corporations to push authority down through increasingly horizontal management structures. In the future, every line manager will have to exercise leadership's prerogatives--and bear its burdens--to an extent unthinkable a generation ago. TRANSACTIONAL LEADERSHIP Style The transactional leader works through creating clear structures whereby it is clear what is required of their subordinates, and the rewards that they get for following orders. Punishments are not always mentioned, but they are also well-understood and formal systems of discipline are usually in place. The early stage of Transactional Leadership is in negotiating the contract whereby the subordinate is given a salary and other benefits, and the company (and by implication the subordinate's manager) gets authority over the subordinate. When the Transactional Leader allocates work to a subordinate, they are considered to be fully responsible for it, whether or not they have the resources or capability to carry it out. When things go wrong, then the subordinate is considered to be personally at fault, and is punished for their failure (just as they are rewarded for succeeding).
Discussion Transactional leadership is based in contingency, in that reward or punishment is contingent upon performance. Despite much research that highlights its limitations, Transactional Leadership is still a popular approach with many managers. Indeed, in the Leadership spectrum, it is very much towards the management end of the scale.
The main limitation is the assumption of 'rational man', a person who is largely motivated by money and simple reward, and hence whose behavior is predictable. In practice, there is sufficient truth in Behaviorism to sustain Transactional approaches. This is reinforced by the supply-and-demand situation of much employment, coupled with the effects of deeper needs, as in Maslow's Hierarchy. When the demand for a skill outstrips the supply, then Transactional Leadership often is insufficient, and other approaches are more effective.
Kanter (1992) conjures up an image of a new kind of business hero who avoids the extremes of bureaucratic manager or „corporate‟ on the one hand and „moverick‟ on the other. Such a leader, she asserts, need to cultivate the following skills and sensibilities: Hopper and Potter (1997) point out that the key issue facing future leaders is „Unlocking the enormous human potential by winning people‟s emotional support…….our leaders of the future will have to be more competent, more articulate, more creative, more inspirational and more credible if they are going to win the hearts and minds of their follower.
FEMININE LEADERSHIP The world we know today is not the world we grew up with. At work we see that women have never been more prepared and never have had more opportunities. Yet many women are opting out of corporate life and choosing to go their own way. We are learning that having it all also means conflicting agendas and stress. However, women have a vital role to play in this century and each of us embodies the power to influence, to decide, to lead and to stir up change in the current business organizations. Women's feminine leadership is the dynamic key to transforming business organizations, Longterm change has to happen in a new model where values such as integrity, compassion, listening, receiving and a win-win approach to negotiation play key roles in leadership and top level of the managerial positions. Feminine Leadership which inspires authenticity, caring and sharing, a new leadership style and feminine ways of doing business in the present world. This type of leadership is about taking the next step, it is about creating a life that has possibilities without the stress, it is about combining two worlds and not having to choose between either/or. It is about giving hope, a sense of community and living simpler and a more fulfilling life.
Feminine Leadership is not just about gender. Feminine Leadership focuses on total diversity, recognizing that everybody is part of an business organizations.
LEADERSHIP AND ORGANISATIONAL FITTINGS: Leadership and management are two distinctive and complementary system of action. Each has its own function and characteristic activities. Both are necessary for success in an increasingly complex and volatile business environment. Most of the business organizations, we usually see that employee are tied up with technology, people and the work hierarchy in the business which are linked to each other. These links present a different challenge in business organization. We find the top level management are overeducated and not much educated in leadership style, approach and traits, and people moving in this same direction is an business organizational problem.
TASK 3 BILL GATES : Transformational leadership models are grounded in a world view of self-interest. But the exclusive Pursuit of self-interest is found wanting by most ethicists (Gini, 1995, 1996; Rosenthal & Buchholz, 1995). Authentic transformational leadership provides a more reasonable and realistic Concept of self- a self that is connected to friends, family, and community whose welfare may be More important to oneself than one‟s own. Burns (1978) discussed leadership as transforming, and on occasion, as transformational. Both the leader and the led are transformed – sharply changed in performance and outlook. Billionaire computer tycoon. Astute predictor of future technology. People have described Bill gates in many ways. But he is more than just the world richest man and the most influential transformational leaders in field business and commerce, not only in United States, but also throughout the world. Under his leadership, Microsoft revolutionized computing and became one of the most important competitors in the internet and media business. Bill gates is known as having a high skill in “parallel processing” and “multitasking” and his seen as most adept in accomplishing several tasks at the same time. In order to create followers, the leader has been very careful in creating trust, and their personal integrity is a critical part of the package that they are selling of the brand Microsoft. This shows how this leader is effectively, selling themselves as well as the vision. Burns (1978) described transformational leadership as a process in which “leaders and followers raise one another to higher levels of morality and motivation.”
The Leadership is transformational in the context here, its charisma or idealized influence is envisioning and confident, and sets high standards for emulation. Recent literature underscores the spiritual dimensions of such influence (Fairholm, 1998, part V; Kanungo & Mendonca, 1996, pp.87ff.), as well as the moral dimensions of the influence process itself ( Kanungo & Mendonca, 1996, pp. 52-56). The behaviors of authentic transformational leadership and the attributions given to transformational leadership on moral basis; that is the process of vision articulation and choice are matters of moral concern, not just the consequences. It is the presence or absence of such a moral foundation of the leader as a moral agent that grounds the distinction between authentic versus pseudo-transformational leadership. Contrast authentic and pseudotransformational leadership of Bill gates are Idealized influence (or charisma) Inspirational motivation, Intellectual stimulation Individualized consideration
Leading Moral components of transformational leadership: Bill gates (Leadership Dynamic and Ethical concern) Idealized influence: Bass (1958, pp. 182-85) summed up the importance of the values Held by a transformational leader in determining his or her actions. Bill gates as a leader Predominate and whether he is manipulative. Inspirational motivation: Bill gates inspirational motivation of transformational leadership provides followers with challenges and meaning for engaging in shared goals and undertakings. The inspirational appeals of the authentic transformational leader tend to focus on the best in people – on harmony bill gates donates money through his charitable foundation, the bill & Melinda gates foundation is also one of the most generous givers. Intellectual stimulation: Bill gates intellectual stimulation of transoformational leadership incorporates an open architecture dynamic into process of situation evaluation, vision formulation, and patterns of implementation. Whether the leader‟s program is open to dynamic transcendence and spirituality or is closed propaganda and a ‟line‟ to follow. Individualized consideration: The transformational leader treats each follower as an individual
And provides coaching, mentoring and growth opportunities (Bass, 1985). In this aspect followers are treated as ends or means, whether or not their unique dignity and interests are respected. Conclusion In the context specific, bill gates introduced windows when their was boom for computers and other software‟s. When the market was budding up in the late 80‟s. If bill gates would not have bought that technology in that time he would not have situation to introduced them later. Its like in good old days bill gates already made all important decisions. Hence it is a situation based leadership This role and function of leadership is important task in any business organization from the above discussion, it is clear that leaders should have vision, be creative , innovative, take important decisions in the organization and effective leadership qualities to lead.
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12..http://businessworld.abp.in/index2.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=641 &pop=1&page=0&Itemid=692 (Electronically accessed on 01 AUG 2009) 13. Bill Gates http://books.google.com/books?id=1ngR2P5iWaYC (Electronically accessed on 01 AUG 2009)