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Packet 7_ Biochemistry

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					 One  of the fundamental ideas in Biology is
  that all living things are made of CELLS.
 Each part of a cell is made up of lots of small
  (nonliving) building blocks called ATOMS.
 These are divided into two broad categories:
 OrganicCompounds- are easy to identify
 because they must contain the element
 carbon.
    Carbon is known as the building block of life
     because ALL living things contain carbon.
          Compounds- do not contain the
 Inorganic
 element carbon.
    Carbon Dioxide (CO2) is the main exception to
     this rule. It contains Carbon, but is classified as
     inorganic.
 PRODUCERS   – such as plants are able to
  make their own organic compounds from
  inorganic compounds through photosynthesis
  (the chemical equation is seen below).
Carbon Dioxide + Water +    Sunlight ® Glucose      +
  Oxygen
  6 CO2        + 6 H2O + Solar energy   ® C6H12O6       +   6 O2
 Inorganic      Inorganic               Organic
   Inorganic
 CONSUMERS-    such as humans must get
  the building blocks to grow and survive
  from the food that we eat (i.e. plants or
  other animals)
  Glucose + Oxygen -> Carbon Dioxide +Water + Cell Energy

  C6H12O6 + 6 O2 ®       6CO2      + 6 H2O + ATP

 Organic Inorganic Inorganic        Inorganic


If we know that today, almost all organic compounds are only
   formed by living things, then the question became – how
  did the first organic compounds form?
       Alexander Oparin –
         A. He hypothesized that in the oxygen free
          environment (anaerobic) of primitive earth, it
          would have been possible for inorganic
          molecules to combine and form organic
          molecules (abiotically – without a living
          thing).
 A. They simulated the conditions thought to be
  around in early Earth’s atmosphere.
 B. To do this they sealed several simple
  (inorganic) gasses plus water in a closed glass
  chamber. Periodically they ignited a spark (to
  simulate lightening)
 C. At the bottom of the collection chamber they
  found Amino Acids which had formed on their
  own. The formation of this organic compound
  supported Oparin’s hypothesis.
 D. Further research has shown how similar
  conditions could produce two other important
  organic compounds that are found in RNA ( part
  of your genetic code).
 Miller and Urey’s experiment provides
  support for the idea that conditions on
  lifeless, ‘primordial’ Earth could have
  allowed the spontaneous formation of more
  complex (organic) molecules
 Since the conditions on Earth are now very
  different, we do not see the same reactions
  occuring.
 MONOMER: A single compound or building block
 used to make a larger compound.



 POLYMER: Many monomers joined together to form
 a large compound.
                the process joining
 Polymerization:
 compunds together to make large compounds

 Macromolecules: large molecules made
 when polymers join together
 DehydrationSynthesis: The process of
 combining small compounds to form large
 compounds and water molecules
 Hydrolysis:Breaking down a larger
  compound (polymers) into smaller pieces
  (monomers)…
 Enzymes and water are needed to break the
  polymer down.
 Carbohydrates
 Lipids
 Proteins
 Nucleic   Acids
 1.      Carbohydrates:
     Contains the elements carbon, hydrogen and
      oxygen.
     Three main functions
         Provide Energy for body (Glucose: C6H12O6)
         Food Storage
         Plays a role in the cell membrane
 Monosaccharide:      ONE simple sugar
    Ex. Glucose and fructose
 Disaccharide:    TWO monosaccharides bonded
 together
    Ex. Sucrose (which is a glucose bonded to a
     fructose)
               (or complex carbodydrates):
 Polysaccharide
 MANY simple sugars bonded together
    Ex. Cellulose (which forms the cell wall of plants
     and gives structural support to plant cells).
    Animals (mammals) store excess sugar as
     GLYCOGEN (a polysaccharide)
    Plants store an excess of sugar (glucose) in the
     form of STARCH (a polysaccharide).
        Glucose is the primary product of photosynthesis (the
         base of our energy source)
 Also   known as fats, oils and waxes.
     Fats are SOLID at room temperature and come
      from animals.
     Oils are LIQUID at room temperature and come
      from plants.
     http://player.discoveryeducation.com/index.cfm
      ?guidAssetId=b257ccd0-1cfc-4007-8597-
      63517f1f8560&productCode=HUB
 Fatty  acids and glycerol are the monomers
  (building blocks) of lipids
 Both types of monomer are made up of
  carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms
 A triglyceride is a lipid made up of 3 fatty
  acids bonded to one GLYCEROL which makes
  it a polymer.
 Most lipids are (non-polar) not soluble in
  water (think about when you mix oil and
  water)
 Long term ENERGY storage (more energy
  per gram than in carbs and proteins)
 Forms barrier around all cells
 Chemical MESSENGER (ex. Hormones
  such as testosterone and estrogen)
 INSULATION (ex. Blubber on a whale)
 WATERPROOFING (ex. Cuticle- the waxy
  layer on the leaves of plants)
 Contains the element carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
  and NITROGEN
 Monomers of proteins are AMINO ACIDS. There
  are 20 different amino acids. Different
  combinations of these amino acids are what
  makes each protein different.
 Polymers are polypeptide chains (or protein)
  held together by PEPTIDE bonds.
                                                      Peptide bonds


            A.A.   A.A.   A.A.   A.A.   A.A.   A.A.    A.A.   A.A.   A.A.
 Structural Component of cell membrane,
  hair and fingernails
 Helps chemical reactions occur faster
  while needing less energy (these types of
  proteins are known as ENZYMES)
 Allows for large or charged particles to
  cross into a cell through the cell
  membrane
 Allow for MOVEMENT of the organism
    i.e. muscles, cilia and flagella
 The  AMINO group, which is NH2 on the left
 The CARBOXYL group –COOH (sometimes
  called the acid group) on the right
 The R group
(the only difference between all amino acids is the R group (R is not an
   element, but rather a symbol that represents the different elements or
   group of elements that can be put in its place)




                                H   H    O
                          H-N       C   C-OH

                 Amino Group        R   Carboxyl Group
 Nucleic  acids main function is to store
  cellular information in the form of a code.
  These codes are important in the
  manufacturing of proteins for the cells.
 Composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen,
  nitrogen and phosphorus atoms.
 Monomers of nucleic acids are called
  NUCLEOTIDES.
 Polymers of nucleic acids are DNA and
  RNA.
   DNA
    (DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC
    Acid) is like the cell’s
    cookbook. It contains
    all the instructions (or
    recipes) that each
    cell needs to survive.
 RNA (Ribonucleic
 Acid) is like a
 single recipe. The
 purpose of RNA is
 to CARRY
 MESSAGES, such as
 the instructions for
 making proteins.

				
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