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Organic Molecules Atoms Identify an Element Negative • Atom - smallest particle of an element • basic building blocks molecules What’s an organic molecule?? • Molecules made up of carbon atoms !!!!! Carbon – The Atom of All Organisms • Carbon atoms are unique in that they can bond together and create large polymers or macromolecules Single Bond Double Triple - Bond Bond What’s a polymer? Polymers – Many Monomers A monomer is a single unit such as this link in the entire chain. Now, we will look at a few organic molecules and their functions • Carbohydrates • Lipids • Nucleic Acids • Proteins Carbohydrates – C, H and O • Glucose and fructose are simple sugars called a monosaccharide – Both have the chemical formula C6H12O6 • A disaccharide, such as sucrose, contain 2 sugar monomers and a polysaccharide contain numerous…….Below is the polymer starch which is also a polysaccharide! What is the monomer?? Starch is a chain of hundreds of glucose monomers bonded together….. Grains (wheat, rice, corn, oats, barley) as well as tubers such as potatoes are rich in starch. Glycogen in Animals **A branched polymer made up of numerous glucose monomers ** Stored in the Liver and muscle of mammals **Long-term energy storage ** Quickly broken down into glucose for immediate energy Cellulose - Storage in Plants ** Polymer of Glucose ** Stored in Plant cells walls **Offers the plant support ** Energy storage ** Makes up cell wall ** Food source for seeds and plant bulbs The differences in structures of carbohydrates – but remember all are glucose polymers!!! Lipids – C,H very little O Fats Only Carbon-Carbon single Bonds Has Carbon-Carbon double Bonds Remember the cell membrane? v Phospholipid bilayer!!! v Semi-permeable, allowing only certain molecules to diffuse across the membrane to enter or exit the cell. Steroids • One example is cholesterol • Most of the cholesterol in our bodies is produced in the liver, though some of it comes from the foods we eat. • The body needs some cholesterol • important to the body's cell membranes • the production of certain hormones • helps act as insulation for your nerves. Proteins – C,H,O,N sometimes sulfur ** The basic building blocks of proteins are called amino acids. **Remember protein synthesis???? **A peptide bond bonds amino acids together **Creates a polypeptide Insulin • Chemical signaler protein produced in the pancreas • Causes cells in the liver, muscle, and fat tissue to take up glucose from blood and convert it to glycogen that can be stored in the liver and muscles • Diabetes is a condition when a person has high blood glucose (blood sugar), either because insulin production is inadequate, or because the body's cells do not respond properly to insulin, or both. Hemoglobin • A protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen Enzymes • Speed up the rate of a chemical reaction (a catalyst) by lowering the energy needed to begin the reaction (Below) • Re-usable • Molecule specific – like a lock and key • -Example: ONLY Lactase will break down lactose. It will NEVER break down proteins Which substrate can be reduced by the enzyme?? Specific Enzyme Starch Protein Active Site Simple useable sugars (product) Lipid ***** Enzymes are substrate-specific !!!!! Enzymes are affected by: pH Affects Enzyme Reactivity This enzyme functions in an environment that has a pH of about 4, which is acidic Rate of Reaction 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 pH scale Nucleic Acids – A Polymer of Nucleotides Nucleic Acids (DNA, RNA) are Made up of monomers or subunits called nucleotides RNA DNA § Single-Stranded § Double- § Nitrogen bases Stranded Adenine (A), double helix Cytosine (C), § Nitrogen bases Guanine (G), Adenine (A), Uracil (U) Cytosine (C), § Remember NO Guanine (G), Thymine (T) Thymine (T) § Ribose sugar § Remember NO Uracil (U) § Deoxy-ribose sugar Remember How These Molecules are Involved in Protein Synthesis?? Your Turn…. • Complete the table of organic molecules • Use the handout and this PowerPoint to guide you • Cut out the illustrations and paste them in the appropriate place!
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