Docstoc

Physical_ Chemical and Cellular Basis of Life

Document Sample
Physical_ Chemical and Cellular Basis of Life Powered By Docstoc
					Organic Molecules
         Atoms Identify an Element
                                     Negative
• Atom - smallest particle of
  an element
  • basic building blocks
    molecules
What’s an organic molecule??
     • Molecules made up of carbon atoms !!!!!
Carbon – The Atom of All Organisms
• Carbon atoms are unique in that they can
  bond together and create large polymers
  or macromolecules




 Single Bond    Double         Triple
 -              Bond           Bond
What’s a polymer?
Polymers – Many Monomers



                       A monomer is a single unit
                       such as this link in the
                       entire chain.
Now, we will look at a few organic
molecules and their functions

•   Carbohydrates
•   Lipids
•   Nucleic Acids
•   Proteins
Carbohydrates – C, H and O
• Glucose and fructose are simple sugars called a
  monosaccharide – Both have the chemical formula
  C6H12O6




• A disaccharide, such as sucrose, contain 2 sugar monomers and a
  polysaccharide contain numerous…….Below is the polymer starch
  which is also a polysaccharide! What is the monomer??
Starch is a chain of hundreds of glucose monomers
                  bonded together…..
Grains (wheat, rice, corn, oats, barley) as well as tubers
          such as potatoes are rich in starch.
Glycogen in Animals
                      **A branched polymer
                      made up of numerous
                      glucose monomers

                      ** Stored in the Liver
                      and muscle of mammals

                      **Long-term energy
                      storage

                      ** Quickly broken down
                      into glucose for
                      immediate energy
Cellulose - Storage in Plants


                           ** Polymer of Glucose
                           ** Stored in Plant cells
                           walls
                           **Offers the plant
                           support
                           ** Energy storage
                           ** Makes up cell wall
                           ** Food source for seeds
                           and plant bulbs
The differences in structures of carbohydrates –
   but remember all are glucose polymers!!!
Lipids – C,H very little O
Fats

       Only Carbon-Carbon
       single Bonds




       Has Carbon-Carbon double
       Bonds
          Remember the cell membrane?
v Phospholipid bilayer!!!
v Semi-permeable, allowing only certain molecules to diffuse
  across the membrane to enter or exit the cell.
Steroids
• One example is cholesterol
  • Most of the cholesterol in our bodies
    is produced in the liver, though some
    of it comes from the foods we eat.
  • The body needs some cholesterol
      • important to the body's cell
        membranes
      • the production of certain hormones
      • helps act as insulation for your
        nerves.
Proteins – C,H,O,N
sometimes sulfur
** The basic building blocks of proteins are called amino
   acids.
**Remember protein synthesis????

**A peptide bond bonds amino acids together

**Creates a polypeptide
                               Insulin
• Chemical signaler protein produced in the pancreas
• Causes cells in the liver, muscle, and fat tissue to take up
  glucose from blood and convert it to glycogen that can be
  stored in the liver and muscles
  • Diabetes is a condition when a person has high blood glucose (blood
    sugar), either because insulin production is inadequate, or because
    the body's cells do not respond properly to insulin, or both.
                        Hemoglobin
• A protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen
                     Enzymes
• Speed up the rate of a chemical reaction (a catalyst)
  by lowering the energy needed to begin the reaction
  (Below)
• Re-usable
• Molecule specific – like a lock and key
•     -Example: ONLY Lactase will break down
  lactose. It will NEVER break down proteins
   Which substrate can be reduced by the enzyme??
Specific Enzyme

                                     Starch
                                                  Protein

                  Active Site




                    Simple useable sugars
                    (product)

                                              Lipid



            ***** Enzymes are
            substrate-specific !!!!!
Enzymes are affected by:
pH Affects Enzyme Reactivity
  This enzyme functions in an environment that
  has a pH of about 4, which is acidic
      Rate of Reaction




                         1   2   3    4   5     6   7   8   9
                                     pH scale
Nucleic Acids –
A Polymer of Nucleotides
Nucleic Acids (DNA, RNA) are
Made up of monomers or subunits called
nucleotides
                    RNA   DNA
§ Single-Stranded               § Double-
§ Nitrogen bases                  Stranded
  Adenine (A),                    double helix
  Cytosine (C),                 § Nitrogen bases
  Guanine (G),                    Adenine (A),
  Uracil (U)                      Cytosine (C),
§ Remember NO                     Guanine (G),
  Thymine (T)                     Thymine (T)
§ Ribose sugar                  § Remember NO
                                  Uracil (U)
                                § Deoxy-ribose
                                  sugar
Remember How These Molecules are Involved in Protein
                  Synthesis??
Your Turn….
• Complete the table of organic molecules
• Use the handout and this PowerPoint to guide you
• Cut out the illustrations and paste them in the appropriate
  place!

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:1
posted:5/8/2014
language:English
pages:29