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Physical_ Chemical and Cellular Basis of Life


									Organic Molecules
         Atoms Identify an Element
• Atom - smallest particle of
  an element
  • basic building blocks
What’s an organic molecule??
     • Molecules made up of carbon atoms !!!!!
Carbon – The Atom of All Organisms
• Carbon atoms are unique in that they can
  bond together and create large polymers
  or macromolecules

 Single Bond    Double         Triple
 -              Bond           Bond
What’s a polymer?
Polymers – Many Monomers

                       A monomer is a single unit
                       such as this link in the
                       entire chain.
Now, we will look at a few organic
molecules and their functions

•   Carbohydrates
•   Lipids
•   Nucleic Acids
•   Proteins
Carbohydrates – C, H and O
• Glucose and fructose are simple sugars called a
  monosaccharide – Both have the chemical formula

• A disaccharide, such as sucrose, contain 2 sugar monomers and a
  polysaccharide contain numerous…….Below is the polymer starch
  which is also a polysaccharide! What is the monomer??
Starch is a chain of hundreds of glucose monomers
                  bonded together…..
Grains (wheat, rice, corn, oats, barley) as well as tubers
          such as potatoes are rich in starch.
Glycogen in Animals
                      **A branched polymer
                      made up of numerous
                      glucose monomers

                      ** Stored in the Liver
                      and muscle of mammals

                      **Long-term energy

                      ** Quickly broken down
                      into glucose for
                      immediate energy
Cellulose - Storage in Plants

                           ** Polymer of Glucose
                           ** Stored in Plant cells
                           **Offers the plant
                           ** Energy storage
                           ** Makes up cell wall
                           ** Food source for seeds
                           and plant bulbs
The differences in structures of carbohydrates –
   but remember all are glucose polymers!!!
Lipids – C,H very little O

       Only Carbon-Carbon
       single Bonds

       Has Carbon-Carbon double
          Remember the cell membrane?
v Phospholipid bilayer!!!
v Semi-permeable, allowing only certain molecules to diffuse
  across the membrane to enter or exit the cell.
• One example is cholesterol
  • Most of the cholesterol in our bodies
    is produced in the liver, though some
    of it comes from the foods we eat.
  • The body needs some cholesterol
      • important to the body's cell
      • the production of certain hormones
      • helps act as insulation for your
Proteins – C,H,O,N
sometimes sulfur
** The basic building blocks of proteins are called amino
**Remember protein synthesis????

**A peptide bond bonds amino acids together

**Creates a polypeptide
• Chemical signaler protein produced in the pancreas
• Causes cells in the liver, muscle, and fat tissue to take up
  glucose from blood and convert it to glycogen that can be
  stored in the liver and muscles
  • Diabetes is a condition when a person has high blood glucose (blood
    sugar), either because insulin production is inadequate, or because
    the body's cells do not respond properly to insulin, or both.
• A protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen
• Speed up the rate of a chemical reaction (a catalyst)
  by lowering the energy needed to begin the reaction
• Re-usable
• Molecule specific – like a lock and key
•     -Example: ONLY Lactase will break down
  lactose. It will NEVER break down proteins
   Which substrate can be reduced by the enzyme??
Specific Enzyme


                  Active Site

                    Simple useable sugars


            ***** Enzymes are
            substrate-specific !!!!!
Enzymes are affected by:
pH Affects Enzyme Reactivity
  This enzyme functions in an environment that
  has a pH of about 4, which is acidic
      Rate of Reaction

                         1   2   3    4   5     6   7   8   9
                                     pH scale
Nucleic Acids –
A Polymer of Nucleotides
Nucleic Acids (DNA, RNA) are
Made up of monomers or subunits called
                    RNA   DNA
§ Single-Stranded               § Double-
§ Nitrogen bases                  Stranded
  Adenine (A),                    double helix
  Cytosine (C),                 § Nitrogen bases
  Guanine (G),                    Adenine (A),
  Uracil (U)                      Cytosine (C),
§ Remember NO                     Guanine (G),
  Thymine (T)                     Thymine (T)
§ Ribose sugar                  § Remember NO
                                  Uracil (U)
                                § Deoxy-ribose
Remember How These Molecules are Involved in Protein
Your Turn….
• Complete the table of organic molecules
• Use the handout and this PowerPoint to guide you
• Cut out the illustrations and paste them in the appropriate

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