Atoms Identify an Element
• Atom - smallest particle of
• basic building blocks
What’s an organic molecule??
• Molecules made up of carbon atoms !!!!!
Carbon – The Atom of All Organisms
• Carbon atoms are unique in that they can
bond together and create large polymers
Single Bond Double Triple
- Bond Bond
What’s a polymer?
Polymers – Many Monomers
A monomer is a single unit
such as this link in the
Now, we will look at a few organic
molecules and their functions
• Nucleic Acids
Carbohydrates – C, H and O
• Glucose and fructose are simple sugars called a
monosaccharide – Both have the chemical formula
• A disaccharide, such as sucrose, contain 2 sugar monomers and a
polysaccharide contain numerous…….Below is the polymer starch
which is also a polysaccharide! What is the monomer??
Starch is a chain of hundreds of glucose monomers
Grains (wheat, rice, corn, oats, barley) as well as tubers
such as potatoes are rich in starch.
Glycogen in Animals
**A branched polymer
made up of numerous
** Stored in the Liver
and muscle of mammals
** Quickly broken down
into glucose for
Cellulose - Storage in Plants
** Polymer of Glucose
** Stored in Plant cells
**Offers the plant
** Energy storage
** Makes up cell wall
** Food source for seeds
and plant bulbs
The differences in structures of carbohydrates –
but remember all are glucose polymers!!!
Lipids – C,H very little O
Has Carbon-Carbon double
Remember the cell membrane?
v Phospholipid bilayer!!!
v Semi-permeable, allowing only certain molecules to diffuse
across the membrane to enter or exit the cell.
• One example is cholesterol
• Most of the cholesterol in our bodies
is produced in the liver, though some
of it comes from the foods we eat.
• The body needs some cholesterol
• important to the body's cell
• the production of certain hormones
• helps act as insulation for your
Proteins – C,H,O,N
** The basic building blocks of proteins are called amino
**Remember protein synthesis????
**A peptide bond bonds amino acids together
**Creates a polypeptide
• Chemical signaler protein produced in the pancreas
• Causes cells in the liver, muscle, and fat tissue to take up
glucose from blood and convert it to glycogen that can be
stored in the liver and muscles
• Diabetes is a condition when a person has high blood glucose (blood
sugar), either because insulin production is inadequate, or because
the body's cells do not respond properly to insulin, or both.
• A protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen
• Speed up the rate of a chemical reaction (a catalyst)
by lowering the energy needed to begin the reaction
• Molecule specific – like a lock and key
• -Example: ONLY Lactase will break down
lactose. It will NEVER break down proteins
Which substrate can be reduced by the enzyme??
Simple useable sugars
***** Enzymes are
Enzymes are affected by:
pH Affects Enzyme Reactivity
This enzyme functions in an environment that
has a pH of about 4, which is acidic
Rate of Reaction
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Nucleic Acids –
A Polymer of Nucleotides
Nucleic Acids (DNA, RNA) are
Made up of monomers or subunits called
§ Single-Stranded § Double-
§ Nitrogen bases Stranded
Adenine (A), double helix
Cytosine (C), § Nitrogen bases
Guanine (G), Adenine (A),
Uracil (U) Cytosine (C),
§ Remember NO Guanine (G),
Thymine (T) Thymine (T)
§ Ribose sugar § Remember NO
Remember How These Molecules are Involved in Protein
• Complete the table of organic molecules
• Use the handout and this PowerPoint to guide you
• Cut out the illustrations and paste them in the appropriate