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									 International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print),
  INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMPUTER ENGINEERING &
 ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 95-104 © IAEME
                                   TECHNOLOGY (IJCET)

ISSN 0976 – 6367(Print)
ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online)
                                                                               IJCET
Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 95-104
© IAEME: ™™™ ‹ƒ‡‡ …‘ ‹Œ…‡– ƒ•’                                             ©IAEME
Journal Impact Factor (2014): 8.5328 (Calculated by GISI)
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  PREVENTION OF PACKET DROPPING ATTACK BY SELFISH NODES IN
                          MANET

                                         Suganya P1, Rekka G2
 1, 2
        (Department of Electronics and Communication, Dr. S.J.S. Paul Memorial College of Engineering
                      & and Technology / Pondicherry University, Pondicherry, India)



 ABSTRACT

         A Mobile Ad-Hoc Network (MANET) is a set of mobile nodes which communicate with
 each other via wireless links either directly or relying on other nodes. The dependency on this
 decentralized and distributed network allows an adversary to destroy the cooperative algorithms used
 in ad hoc networks. Nodes may misbehave either because they are malicious and deliberately wish to
 disrupt the network, or because they are selfish and wish to conserve their own limited resources
 such as power, or for other reasons. In this paper, we proposed a new mechanism which detects and
 prevents the selfish nodes that exhibit packet dropping attack. Packet dropping means that the
 intermediate nodes may act as selfish nodes at some finite time and doesn’t forward the packets to its
 neighbouring nodes in order to conserve its resources. The proposed system works, based on
 Principle of Flow of Conservation (PFC) and Local Forward Percentage (LFP) metrics.

 Keywords: AODV, MANET, Node Misbehaviour, Packet Dropping, Selfish Nodes.

 1. INTRODUCTION

         MANET is a self-organizing adhoc network which combines wireless communication with a
 high degree of mobility. In case of multi-hop transmission, each node acts as a router and this cause
 high dependency on the intermediate nodes for successful data transmission. A variety of protocols
 have been developed for maintaining the route information however, these routing protocols works
 on the cooperativeness of the intermediate nodes. An intruder can exploit the cooperation of the
 nodes which makes the network vulnerable. In this paper, we propose a new protocol by which the
 partial packet dropping attack is detected and prevented in further data transmission. We have
 modified the existing AODV routing protocol such that it calculates the LFP of all the intermediate
 nodes involved in data transmission and suppress the RREP if the measured LFP is below the
 threshold value.

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ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 95-104 © IAEME

2. ADHOC ON DEMAND DISTANCE VECTOR

        The AODV routing protocol is a reactive routing protocol that enables multi-hop routing
between participating mobile nodes in an ad hoc network. AODV uses the traditional routing table to
maintain routing information. The routing table is used to determine the next hop for each packet
locally at each intermediate node.

AODV has three types of messages:

• Route Requests (RREQs): To find the route to the destination, the source node generates a RREQ
and broadcasts it to its neighbours.
• Route Replies (RREPs): When the destination receives the RREQ packet it prepares a route reply
packet (RREP) to the source and unicast it to the source node. All the intermediate nodes which
receives the RREQ packet caches a route back to source node.
• Route Errors (RERRs): A RERR message is used to notify other nodes when a link break in an
active route is detected.




                             Fig.1: Route Discovery Process in AODV

        Fig.1 depicts the route discovery process of AODV. When a node wants to communicate with
another node in the network and does not have a fresh route to that destination, it starts the route
discovery process by broadcasting an RREQ message for the destination node into the network.
Intermediate nodes that receive this request either send an RREP to the source node if they have a
fresh route to the destination node or forward the RREQ message to other nodes. A fresh route is a
valid route entry whose sequence number is equal to or greater than that contained in the RREQ
message. If the request packet has been forwarded by this intermediate node before, it is silently
dropped. When the destination node receives an RREQ for itself, it sends back an RREP message on
the reverse route. The requesting node and the nodes receiving RREP messages on the route update
their routing tables with the new route[1].

3. RELATED WORK

       This section details about the various approaches, namely, Watchdog[2], TWOACK[3],
Adaptive Acknowledgment (AACK)[4] and EAACK[5] (Enhanced Adaptive ACK) to detect the
misbehaving actions of the nodes in mobile network.

3.1 Watchdog
      Marti et al.[2] proposed Watchdog scheme that aims to improve the throughput of the
network in the presence of malicious nodes. This scheme works in two phases: Watchdog and

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International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print),
ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 95-104 © IAEME

Pathrater. Watchdog is responsible for detecting malicious node misbehaviours in the network.
Watchdog node overhears the next node activity and reports it as malicious if it fails to forward the
packet within a certain period of time. Pathrater cooperates with the routing protocols to avoid the
reported nodes in future transmission. The Watchdog scheme fails to detect malicious misbehaviours
with the presence of the following: 1) ambiguous collisions; 2) receiver collisions; 3) limited
transmission power; 4) false misbehaviour report; 5) collusion; and 6) partial dropping.

3.2 Two ACK
       TWOACK proposed by Liu et al. [3] aims to resolve the receiver collision and limited
transmission power problems of Watchdog. It detects the misbehaving links by acknowledging every
data packet transmitted over every three consecutive nodes along the path from source to destination.
Upon retrieval of a packet, each node along the route is required to send back an ACK packet to the
node that is two hops away from it down the route.




                                     Fig.2: TWO ACK Scheme

3.3 Adaptive ACK (AACK)
       Based on TWOACK, Sheltami et al. [4] proposed a new scheme called AACK. This works in
the combination TWOACK and ACKnowledgement (ACK).




                                        Fig.3: ACK Scheme

       In the ACK scheme shown in Fig.3, Source node S sends out Packet 1. When the destination
node D receives Packet 1, it sends an ACK packet to the source node in the reverse order of the same
route. Within a predefined time period, if the source node receives the ACK packet, then the packet
transmission from node S to node D is successful. Otherwise, the source node S will switch to
TWOACK scheme by sending out a TWOACK packet.

3.4 Enhanced Adaptive ACK (EAACK)
       EAACK is designed to tackle the false misbehaviour, limited transmission power and
receiver collision problems of Watchdog scheme. It works in three modes:

•   ACK: ACK is basically an end-to-end acknowledgment scheme reduces the network overhead
    when no network misbehavior is detected.

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ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 95-104 © IAEME

• S-ACK: S-ACK mode is similar to TWOACK scheme. It detects the misbehaving links in the
   presence of receiver collision or limited transmission power.
• MRA: The false misbehaviour report is generated by malicious attackers to falsely report the
   innocent nodes as malicious. The core of MRA scheme is to authenticate whether the destination
   node has received the reported missing packet.

4. PROBLEM STATEMENT

        The above mentioned acknowledgement based schemes resolves the Ambiguous collisions,
Receiver collisions, Limited transmission power and false misbehaviour reportmisbehaviors of the
mobile nodes. But they fail to resolve the Packet dropping attack which is always been a major threat
to security in MANETs. In the proposed system, the misbehaving nodes that drop the packets instead
of forwarding it to the next intermediate node are identified.
        The routing protocol employed in the existing system is Dynamic Source Routing (DSR).
Since DSR stores its routing information is stored in its header it might causes network overhead.
This makes the protocol works inefficient in case of high mobility network. To handle his scenario
we have implemented AODV routing protocol in the proposed system. This will be more efficient in
high mobility network where the routing information is stored in the routing table.

5. SCHEME DESCRIPTION

       The proposed scheme efficiently prevents the packet dropping attack. It works based on the
PFC (Principle of Flow of Conservation) scheme which calculates the Local Forward Percentage
(LFP) of each routing path in the Mobile Ad hoc Network. The path that has LPF below threshold is
considered as malicious routing path. These malicious paths will be discarded in further data
transmission.

5.1 Principle of Flow of Conservation
       The following equation states the principle of flow of conservation principle in an ideal static
network [6]:




    • Let vj be a node such that vj V, where V = {v1, v2, v3 … vN} is the set of all nodes in the
network, N is the total number of nodes in the network, and j= 1, 2,3 … N.
    • Let Uj be the subset of nodes in the network which are neighbours of vj, i.e. Uj is the
neighbourhood of vj. It follows that vj Uj and also Uj V.
    • Let Tij be the number of packets that node vi has successfully sent to node vj for vj to forward
to a further node; vi Uj, vj Ui, i ≠ j and Tij(t0) = 0.
    • Let Rij be the number of packets that node vi has successfully received from node vj that did
not originate at vj; vi Uj, vj Ui, i ≠ j and Rij(t0) = 0.

        The equation holds well over an ideal static environment but in a MANET’s environment, the
ideal condition does not exist. Nodes may exhibit malicious behaviour unintentionally, especially in a
MANET because of several reasons like the unavailability of resources like CPU cycles, buffer space
and bandwidth when the packet has to be forwarded. Hence a threshold has to be setup in order to


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International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print),
ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 95-104 © IAEME

accommodate unintentional misbehaviour by a node which may result in packet dropping.
Mathematically, it can be represented as follows:

                                                                                     (2)

5.2 Local Forward Percentage
       Partial dropping can be measured using the Local Forward Percentage [7].It is defined as
below:

                                                                                      (3)

6. PROPOSED WORK

        In this paper, we propose a robust secure efficient algorithm for the detection of the packet
dropping attack by selfish nodes is described. Fig 4 is the architectural diagram of the proposed
system. The proposed algorithm includes a new metric field; Cumulative LFP in the RREP packet.
This field contains the cumulative LFP of all the intermediate nodes that are involved in the data
transmission.




                            Fig.4: Architecture of the Proposed System

6.1 Proposed Algorithm
        Source node starts the route discovery procedure by preparing a Route Request packet;
RREQ and broadcast it to all its neighbouring nodes. All the intermediate nodes on receiving this
packet, forwards it to its neighbouring nodes and this process continues until the packet reaches its
destination node. When destination node receives the RREQ packet, it prepares a new reply packet;
RREP and unicast it to the source node. Each node vi maintains two metrics, number of transmitted
packets (Tij) and number of received packets (Rij). LFP of each nodes is calculated as Rij/Tij.
Whenever a node receives the RREP packet, it calculates its LFP value and adds it to cumulative
LFP of the RREP packet. At Source node, on receiving the RREP packet, it calculates the LFP of the
routing path (Cumulative LFP/hop count). If the calculated LFP is below the threshold value, then
the routing path is suppressed. By this approach the routing path that involves the selfish nodes are
discarded in further data transmission. Fig 5 is the modified AODV-RREP packet structure. Fig.6
depicts the flow diagram of the proposed scheme followed by the proposed algorithm.




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                                                                              0976-6367(Print),
International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976
ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 95-104 © IAEME




                          Fig.5: Proposed AODV-RREP packet structure
                                          AODV




                            Fig.6: Process Flow of the Proposed System

•   Root Discovery Process: The source node S starts the route discovery phase for destination by
                                                                                        d
    preparing the RREQ packet and broadcast it to the neighbouring node.
•                              RREP
    Metrics Computation in RREP: When each intermediate node receives the RREP packet, it
                                                   value
    increments the hop count and appends its LFP value to the cumulative LFP field in RREP packet.
•   Collecting Replies: Source node collects all the RREPs sent by the destination node
                                                                                   node.
•                        us
    Removal of Malicious Routing path: After receiving the RREP, LFP of the routing path is
    calculated. Routing path having LFP below the threshold value is suppressed from the Routing
    Table insertion.
•   Continue Default Routing Process: After discarding the malicious routing path continue with
                                                                                  path,
    the normal procedure of AODV.

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International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print),
ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 95-104 © IAEME

7. SIMULATION RESULTS

        The simulation parameters and the comparison results of the simulated MANET before and
after prevention are illustrated in this section.

                                         TABLE 1
                                    SimulationParameters
                               Parameter               Value
                          Simulator             NS2
                          Operating System             Linux-Mint-15
                          Number of nodes              25
                          MAC Type                     802.11
                          Antenna Type                 Omni directional
                          Routing Protocol             AODV
                          Simulation Time              9 sec
                          Traffic Type                 TCP
                          Source Node                  Node 0
                          Destination Node             Node 18

        Fig. 7 shows the implementation of MANET with 25 nodes and highlights the selfish nodes in
red color. Fig.8 depicts the identification of selfish nodes by measuring the LFP for each node in the
simulated MANET. The nodes having LFP as 100 are promiscuous nodes which has forwarded all the
packets to its neighbouring node without dropping any packet. The nodes having zero LFP are not
involved in the routing process except for source and destination nodes. The nodes having low LFP
values are highlighted and these nodes (node11, 23 and 24) are identified as selfish nodes. The Fig. 9
shows the graphical output of the comparison of LFP values of each node before and after prevention
in the simulated environment. Fig.10 shows the Packet Dropped and Packet Delivery Ratio before and
after prevention.




                                 Fig.7: Simulation of Selfish nodes


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ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 95-104 © IAEME




                          Fig.8: Detection of Selfish nodes using LFP




               Fig.9: Graph showing LFP of each node before and after prevention


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ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 95-104 © IAEME




                          Fig.10: Packet metrics before and after prevention




                    Fig.11: Performance metrics of AODV and modified-AODV

       Fig,11 is the performance comparison of the AODV and M-AODV. It is clearly seen that the
Packet drop ratio and PDR has been improved for proposed M-AODV compared to the existing
AODV in the presence of Packet dropping attack. From all the above simulation results, it is evident
that M-AODV is works efficiently in the packet dropping environment.

8. CONCLUSION

        In this paper a robust efficient approach for the detection of selfish nodes that are responsible
for packet dropping attack in the mobile ad hoc network on AODV routing protocol is proposed. In
the proposed approach, a solution is proposed based on the Principle of Flow of Conservation (PFC).
By measuring the Local Forward Percentage of each node, the malicious selfish nodes are detected
and it is eliminated in further data transmission.From all the above simulation results, it is evident
that M-AODV is works efficiently in the packet dropping environment.

9. REFERENCES

 [1]   SEVIL ¸SEN, JOHN A. CLARK, and JUAN E. TAPIADOR “Security of Self-Organizing
       Networks MANET,WSN,WMN,VANET - Security Threats in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks”
       CRC Press.
 [2]   H. Miranda and L. Rodrigues, “Preventing Selfishness in Open Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,”
       Proc. Seventh CaberNet Radicals Workshop, 2002.



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International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print),
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 [3]  S. Marti, T. J. Giuli, K. Lai, and M. Baker, “Mitigating routing misbehaviour in mobile ad
      hoc networks,” in Proc. 6th Annual. Int. Conf. Mobile Computing. Network, Boston, MA,
      2000, pp. 255–265.
 [4] K. Liu, J. Deng, P. K. Varshney, and K. Balakrishnan, “An acknowledgment-based approach
      for the detection of routing misbehaviour in MANETs,” IEEE Trans. Mobile Computing., vol.
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 [5] Elhadi M. Shakshuki, Nan Kang, and Tarek R. Sheltami, “EAACK—A Secure Intrusion-
      Detection System for MANETs” IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL
      ELECTRONICS, VOL. 60, NO. 3, MARCH 2013.
 [6] Oscar F. Gonzalez, Michael Howarth, George Pavlou, “Detection of Packet Forwarding
      Misbehavior in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks”.
 [7] Tiranuch Anantvalee, Jie Wu “A Survey on Intrusion Detection in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks”;
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 [8] Bhakti Thakre and S.V.Sonekar, “Design and Development of an Algorithmic Approach for
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 [9] Shah Vrutik, Dr.Nilesh Modi and Patani Ashwin, “AODVgap-An Acknowledgment Based
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      0976 – 6375.




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