Documents
Resources
Learning Center
Upload
Plans & pricing Sign in
Sign Out

Сборник текстов для 1 курса

VIEWS: 0 PAGES: 15

									 СБОРНИК ТЕКСТОВ ДЛЯ СТУДЕНТОВ
            I КУРСА
         БАКАЛАВРИАТА

                       Text 1. Alanis Hypnotises Crowd

Read and translate the text
       Last Thursday night, hundreds of fans went to the Corn Exchange in
Cambridge to see Canadian singer, Alanis Morissette. There was not an empty seat
anywhere in the auditorium, although it was an incredibly cold night. 'Sure is cold
outside, but I hope we warm it up in here for you,' Morissette said to the crowd
before she started to play.
       Morissette used a lot of material from her first album Conflict. She also
played a few songs from her new album, such as 'Everything But ...', which tells
the story of someone looking for love in the wrong places. Morissette's singing was
full of feeling; some songs with anger and others with love.
       Although the auditorium was cold and the sound was sometimes poor, the
audience really loved the concert. Morissette hypnotised everybody with her
performance. Many people in the crowd were obviously real fans and they knew
the words and they sang along to nearly every song.
       At the end of the concert, Morissette showed that she was a true performer,
with a brilliant version of 'Heartache'. She finished with her latest single ‘Ironic’ –
a song about being a star. While I watched and listened, I knew that I was seeing
the performance of a real star.
1. Answer the questions
      1.   Did the reviewer like the concert? Why or why not?
      2.   How did the audience react to the singer?
      3.   What things about the concert were not very good?
      4.   From which album were most of the songs?
      5.   What feelings did she show in her songs?
2. Find words in the text with the following meanings
      1.   the people who watch a concert (three different words)
      2.   records or compact discs (two different words)
      3.   the place where you watch a concert
                              Text 2. Raising a Million
Read and translate the text
       Dominic Williams is 19 years old. Like many students of his age, he has
decided to take a year off between school and university. But whereas most of his
friends are travelling abroad or working for a year Dominic has chosen to raise
money for medical charities. Since he started three months ago, Dominic has sent
22,000 letters to companies, celebrities and politicians, asking each to donate 5
pounds.
       Most of the government ministers he has contacted have sent him back
cheques. Only two ministers declined to make a donation. Instead of sending him
money, they sent him letters wishing him well.
       At the moment, Dominic is concentrating on sending letters to car dealers
and accountants. By the end of the month he will have contacted almost every com-
pany in his local area and thousands more elsewhere. After twelve months, he will
have written about 250,000 letters. "I'm asking for 5 pounds because I thought it
would be hard for people to say "No" to that. I've only got 30,000 pounds so far.
So I've got to speed up", says Dominic.
       What Dominic really needs is a mailing machine. It would help him put
stamps on the envelopes and then he could send out letters more quickly. He also
wants a picture of himself with the Prime Minister. "Then I could send the picture
to other Members of Parliament, and that would improve my chances of getting
more donations." Dominic says he is doing it for medical research, to improve the
lives of children with incurable diseases.
1. Answer the questions
       1.   How did Dominic decide to spend his year off?
       2.   In what way did he decide to raise money?
       3.   Have all the ministers sent him cheques back?
       4.   What is Dominic concentrating on now?
       5.   Why is he asking for 5 pounds?
       6.   What does he really need?
       7.   Why does he want to have a picture of himself with the Prime Minister?
       8.   In what way is he going to help people?
2. Fill in prepositions and adverbs where necessary
      1.     Most Peter’s colleagues are working abroad _______ a year.
      2.     _______ the end _______ the month he will have contacted every company
_______ his local area.
      3.     She wants a picture _______ herself with Madonna.
      4.     It would be a hard _______ them to decline his enquiry.
      5.     Peter asks _______ permission to make a donation.
      6.     He is concentrating _______ developing new technology now.
      7.     I want to raise money _______ charity.
                        Text 3. Learning foreign languages
Read and translate the text
       Trying to export potatoes to the land of pasta would seem crazy to some
people, yet one small company was successful after it had taught its staff to speak
foreign languages.
       A&C Exports has seen its annual export sales rise by 40% since it improved
its foreign language skills. When the company first targeted Italy it used an
interpreter, but this was very frustrating. A middleman, however fluent, can't hope to
establish relationships. In the way a committed member of the company can. A&C
also takes great care to respond to the cultural requirements of its customers, for
example by choosing the right colour for packaging. This approach has doubled
sales to Germany.
       Karen Burdett, a language specialist who joined A&C eighteen months ago, is
the key to the firm's export success. When Burdett was appointed, she spoke Spanish
and French fluently, but her knowledge of Italian was limited. In the four weeks
before she took up her new post, she set about improving it. She listened to Italian
while she was driving, cooking, dusting, and sleeping. She watched Italian videos.
She read newspapers, magazines, pizza packets, shampoo bottles, and jars of pasta
sauce.
       Her reward came with her first phone call to Italy. 'I explained that I was
learning their language, and asked our clients to be patient with me if I made
mistakes. Far from being critical, they were delighted, and from then on a strong
relationship was established,' she says.
       Burdett is teaching Spanish to senior staff, and she says she's going to have a
working knowledge of German by Christmas. More importantly, staff at all levels
can now handle simple telephone enquiries in French, Spanish, and Italian. Now
they are all quite confident that export sales will continue to rise.
1. Answer the questions
       1.    Since when has A&C Exports seen its annual export sales?
       2.    What approach has doubled sales to Germany?
       3.    What was frustrating when the company targeted Italy?
       4.    Who is the key to the firm's export success?
       5.    How did Karen Burdett improve Italian in the four weeks before she
took         up her new post?
       6.    When did her reward come?
2. Decide if the sentences are true (T) or false (F)
       a)    A&C managed to sell potatoes to Italy
       b)    A&C wasn't happy with using an interpreter
       c)    A&C thinks that cultural differences are unimportant
       d)    One person was at the centre of the changes
       e)    Karen knows how to maximize her language learning
       f)    Customers laughed when she first tried to communicate in Italian
       g)    Karen was already a fluent Italian speaker
       h)    Karen's work has affected staff at all levels in the company
                          Text 4. How to Write e-mails
Read and translate the text
       It's easy to write an e-mail. You type it onto a computer screen, hit a button
and off it goes. But the speed of the process is also a problem. It doesn't encourage
us to think much about what we write. As a result, e-mail messages are often
grammatically incorrect, disorganized and full of spelling and typing errors. Badly-
expressed ideas are more difficult to read. They can also cause expensive
misunderstandings. Managers nowadays have to read enormous quantities of e-
mail, and this adds to the stress of their jobs. Unnecessary and badly-written
messages don't help.
       The object of modern business communication is to be fast and efficient.
Think about ways to help the reader process the information as quickly as possible.
Space is not limited in an e-mail, so you can use extra line breaks to separate text
into paragraphs. This makes the message easier to read. Aim for short simple
sentences too, and use a standard font in a size which is not too small and not too
big.
       One frequent feature of e-mail is that writers use a cheerful, informal tone.
In many cases this is inappropriate, even in an internal e-mail. The tone used needs
to be businesslike, but not too abrupt. You don't want to seem cold and unfriendly.
For example, an opening sentence like 'It was good to talk to you the other day' is a
good starter before you get down to the main point of your message. On the other
hand, don't waste the reader's time with a long opening paragraph full of social
gossip.
       Remember that an offending message can stay on file for years. The reader
can easily re-distribute e-mails which reflect badly on the writer and the company
represented. It may be just another message, but when you put something down in
black and white, be careful what you say and how you say it.
1. Answer the questions
      1.   Why do you think the company banned internal mail?
      2.   Are there any differences in the way you write internal and external e-
           mails?
      3.   What is one reason e-mails are sometimes badly written?
      4.   Why does the e-mail writer need to help the reader?
      5.   Why does the e-mail writer need to be careful?
2. Find words in the text which mean the same as the following
      a)   write using a computer keyboard
      b)   give someone a good reason for doing something
      c)   using the correct letters to write a word
      d)   style of printed letters on a page
      e)   happy
      f)   personal news and information
                  Text 5. Does the Telephone Rule Your Life?
Read and translate the text
       Most people will answer a ringing phone. Usually you don't know who is
phoning or how urgent their business is, so a ringing phone is difficult to ignore. In
one experiment a researcher wrote down the numbers of several public phones in
stations and airports. Then he called the numbers. Someone nearly always
answered. When he asked why people usually said, 'Because it rang.' A few years
ago in New Jersey a man with a gun killed 13 people. Armed police surrounded his
house but he refused to come out A reporter found out the phone number of the
house and called. The man put down his rifle and answered the phone. 'What do
you want?' he said, ‘I'm really busy right now.’
       Imagine you're at work and the phone is ringing in someone else's office. Do
you answer it or not? In one survey on telephone use, 51 % of participants told
researchers that they did. We can't ignore the phone and for that reason, it intrudes
into our lives. It interrupts what we are doing and on top of that, the caller is often
someone we don't really want to talk to. However in the survey, 58% said they
never took the phone off the hook, and 67% didn't mind if someone called during a
television programme. For 44% it wasn't a problem if someone rang during a meal,
while only 28% were annoyed or upset If someone phoned in the middle of the
night, 40% told researchers that they got nervous or frightened, while around 30%
got angry
       Of course, when someone is really annoying, you can choose to hang up on
them. This is in fact one of the rudest things you can do on the phone, but 79% said
they were prepared to do it in some cases. Only 6% told researchers they never
hung up on people.
1. Match the words and phrases a-f with the definitions 1–6
a)   to ring                                    1.   not to take any notice
b)   to take the phone off the hook             2.   to become irritated
c)   to ignore so it can't ring                 3.   to take the handset off the phone
d)   to hang up                                 4.   neither to like nor dislike something
e)   to get annoyed                             5.   to make a sound
f)   not to mind the handset                    6.   to interrupt a phone call by replacing
2. Choose from options a–d to complete these statements
       1.     If the telephone rings when I’m busy, I _______answer it.
       a always b usually c sometimes d never
       2.     If the phone rings early in the morning I_______.
       a feel angry b feel annoyed c don't mind d feel happy
       3.     If the phone rings in the middle of the night, I . _______.
       a ignore it b get nervous c feel frightened d get angry
       4.     I _______ hang up on people when they annoy me.
       a often b don't often c occasionally d never
                       Text 6. Microsoft the Last Crusade
Read and translate the text
       When we flick the switch, the light goes on. When we turn on a tap, the
water comes out. When these things don't happen, we complain. But when our new
computer crashes, for some reason we accept it as part of life. Computer programs
have holes in them, they are unreliable and open to attacks by viruses and hackers,
but it doesn't surprise us. No other industry is the same. Imagine a car with the
same level of reliability!
       Last year Bill Gates decided to invest 200 million dollars in his products to
make them more secure. His e-mail to 50,600 Microsoft employees on 17 January
2002 told them that in the future the company's priority will be to make its
software as reliable as the electricity supply or telephone service.
       As consumers, most of us have no choice when we buy programs for our
PC, but problems of security affect the reputation of Microsoft with big
corporations. This is the reason for Bill Gates' crusade. Last January, the 'Slammer'
virus infected thousands of companies that use Microsoft software. These problems
cost big business enormous sums of money and naturally, they look for
alternatives. There is other software available that can do the same job, and it's
free!
       In any case, Microsoft employees will need to be extra careful from now on.
When there is a problem with a program, it will be easy to say who made a mistake
– each line of new code will have the programmer's name attached.
1. Answer the questions
         a)   Look at the two definitions of crusade. Which one applies to the use of
the           word in the title of the article?
         b)   When something goes wrong with a computer, how do most people
react?
         c)   How is the computer industry different from other industries?
         d)   What is Bill Gates' crusade?
         e)   Why is Microsoft worried about security problems?
         f)   Why will Microsoft software engineers need to be careful?
2. Complete this table
                      Adjective                           Verb
                                                         to rely
                      acceptable
                       effective
                        costly
                                                       to operate
                      surprising
                   Text 7. Misery for over 80,000 Passengers
Read and translate the text
       British Airways ground staff returned to work yesterday after a strike on
Friday and Saturday left thousands of passengers on the ground. The strike at
Heathrow Airport led to the cancellation of more than 500 flights.
       Heathrow is the world's busiest international airport, and long queues formed
as passengers arrived for cancelled flights. Hundreds of them were unable to find
hotel accommodation and spent Friday night in the terminal. The strike continued
on Saturday and the cancellations also affected people scheduled to return to
Heathrow from destinations all over Europe.
       BA ground staff called the strike because of proposed new working
conditions. Passengers criticized BAs response to the strike. They complained that
no staff were available to help people. Angry travellers also asked why no senior
managers were present. According to a union representative, the staff later returned
to work, as a 'gesture of goodwill'.
       One family, the Condies, were on their way to Spain for their daughter's
wedding. They said they now expected to arrive for the ceremony 48 hours too
late, after saving for more than a year in order to pay for the trip. Many other
passengers had a similar story to tell.
       A British Airways spokesperson said the company hoped to restore normal
service as soon as possible, but that there were problems because of the backlog of
cancelled flights. Shares in the company fell by 3.9% on the London stock market
on Monday morning and experts estimate losses of over £10 million per day in
revenue as a result of the strike.
1. Complete these sentences with one of the underlined words from the text
       a)     A___________is when people stop working as protest against something.
       b)     ___________________are lines of people waiting for something; for
              example, at the check-out in a supermarket.
       c)     A__________________of work, for example, is when work accumulates because
you can't do it fast enough.
       d)     When something is__________________, it is part of a programme or
              timetable.
       e)     A__________________is the ceremony when two people get married.
       f)     The money coming in to a company is__________________.
       g)     ___________is similar to reaction and is the noun from the verb respond.
2. Answer the questions
       a)   What caused the cancellation of the flights?
       b)   Why did some passengers sleep in the airport?
       c)   Who did the passengers mainly criticize and why?
       d)   What happened to shares in BA?
       e)   How much did the strike cost the company?
                                   Text 8. Skoda
Read and translate the text
                                       History
       The origins of Skoda go back to the early 1890s where, like many long-
established car manufacturers, the company started out with the manufacture of
bicycles. It was 1894, and 26-year old Vaclav Klement, who was a bookseller by
trade in Mlada Boleslav, in today's Czech Republic, which was then part of
Austria-Hungary, was unable to obtain the right spare parts to repair his German
bicycle. Klement returned his bicycle to the manufacturers, Seidel and Naumann,
with a letter, in Czech, asking for them to carry out repairs, only to receive a reply,
in German, stating: "If you would like an answer to your inquiry, you should try
writing in a language we can understand". A disgusted Klement, despite not having
any previous technical experience, then decided to start his own bicycle repair
shop, which he and Vaclav Laurin opened in 1895 in Mlada Boleslav.
       In 1898 the pair bought a Werner “motorcyclette”, which was produced by
French manufacture Werner brothers. Laurin and Klement’s first motorcyclette
proved dangerous and unreliable and to design a safer machine was invited
German specialist Robert Bosch. The pair’s new Slavia motorcycle made its debut
in 1899. In 1900 Slavia exports began, with 150 machines shipped to London for
the Hwetson firm. By 1905 cars were being produced by the firm.


1. Answer the questions
        1.   When and how did the history of Skoda begin?
        2.   Why did Klement and Vaclav Laurin open their own bicycle repair
shop?
        3.   What happened in 1898?
        4.   How can you characterize Laurin and Klement’s first motorcyclette?
        5.   What was done to design a safer machine?
        6.   When did the firm start?



2. Match the following synonyms from the article
        A decline                    get, acquire
        To merge                     refuse to accept, failure
        To start out                 doubtful, unpredictable
        Unreliable                   company
        Enterprise                   to begin new venture
        To obtain                    bring or come together
                   Text 9. Great Tips to Making the Break
Read and translate the text
       If you are thinking of starting a company you may find these tips useful.
       If you want to succeed you must have an interest in the business you are
going into. You should be able to build a team. It is absolutely necessary for the
success of your business. You need very careful cash management. Merchant
banks round up to the nearest thousand but entrepreneurs have to know where
every penny is going.
       Don't fall in love with your idea and don't be afraid of changes. Customers'
needs or desires or a new development in technology create markets for ideas. You
can't do it.
       Be very specific about your target market. Think who might be interested in
your products or services. Be prepared to work longer hours than you've ever
worked before. Running a business may turn out to be much more difficult and
time-consuming than you expected.
       Have a realistic view of your perspectives. Remember that the vast majority
of businesses fail. Five out of ten go bankrupt, four out of ten breakeven point and
only one in ten makes money.
       New businesses are either lemons or pearls: lemons take three to four years
to ripen, pearls seven to ten, so be prepared for a long haul. The KFC sandwich
chain spent five years in its first location before expanding – an overnight success
that has taken 15 years to develop.


1. Answer the questions
      1.    What should you have an interest in if you want to succeed?
      2.    What is absolutely necessary for the success of your business?
      3.    What do entrepreneurs have to know?
      4.    What creates markets for ideas?
      5.    What should you think about?
      6.    The vast majority of businesses fail, don’t they?
      7.    How many businesses make money?


2. Match the words and phrases (a-e) with the definitions (1–5)
      1.   badly in need                    a)    to start a company
      2.   to set up                        b)    absolutely necessary
      3.   to earn money                    c)    run a business
      4.   to be in charge of a business    d)    idea
      5.   a plan, thought or suggestion    e)    make money
                   Text 10. The World’s First Package Tours
Read and translate the text
        When was the last time you had a holiday? And did you organise the trip or
did you take a package tour? These days, most people choose a package tour,
especially when they go abroad on holiday. They pay for their travel and ac-
commodation in their own country, and they take traveller's cheques which they
exchange for local money when they arrive in the foreign country. But in the past it
was very different. In fact, before the middle of the 19th century, travelling for
pleasure was rare and very expensive, and only a few rich people travelled abroad.
The man who changed all this and brought in the age of mass tourism was Thomas
Cook.
        Thomas Cook was a printer in Leicester, England and the secretary of a local
church organisation. In 1841 it was his job to arrange rail travel for members of his
church to a meeting in Loughborough, a round trip of twenty-two miles. This was
the first world's package trip. After this first success, he organised many more for
his church. Then in 1845 he advertised a package tour to Liverpool for the general
public, and before it took place went to Liverpool to meet the hotel staff, and check
the accommodation and restaurant.
        He then started to organise trips ail over Britain, including the Great Exhibition
in London. In 1851 he published the world's first travel magazine which had details of
trips, advice to travellers and articles and reports about the places to visit.
        In 1854 he gave up his job as a printer. In 1855 he took his first group of
tourists to Paris and later that year led tour of Belgium, Germany and France. In
1863 he went to Switzerland and in 1864 to Italy. By then he had a million clients.
The following year he opened an office in London, which his son John Mason
managed. They introduced a circular ticket which gave the traveller a single ticket
to cover one journey instead of a number of tickets from all the railway companies
involved, and they organised a system of coupons which people bought at home
and exchanged in the foreign country for a hotel room and meals.
1. Answer the questions
       1.    How did people organise trips before the middle of the 19th century?
       2.    How did Thomas Cook change the way of travelling?
       3.    What brought him success?
       4.    How could the first travel magazine help tourist?
       5.    What kind of travel was a new idea in 1841?
       6.    What is a circular ticket?
       7.    What is a traveller's cheque?
2. Correct the sentences that are not true. Use the negative form of the verb
       1.    Thomas Cook was a chemist.
       2.    Before the middle of the 19th century travelling was rare and expensive.
       3.    The first world’s package trip was in 1863.
       4.    Thomas Cook created his own fleet for war actions.
                     Text 11. The Сhanging Face of the UK
Read and translate the text
       Let’s start with some good news – people live longer nowadays. The bad
news for the government is that it has to pay out more in pensions. On average,
people live for 78 years (75 for men and 80 for women) – in 1911 it was only 52!
Is it because we have a healthy lifestyle? Maybe. More people see smoking as a
health hazard; only a quarter of the population smokes compared to half 30 years
ago. People eat more fruit and less fat but about three-quarters of men and two-
thirds of women between 55 and 64 are seriously overweight.
       More people work than ever before – 79% of men and 69% of women have
jobs. And people earn three times more in real terms than 50 years ago – but the
difference between rich and poor people is bigger. The most important growth area
for jobs is in computers. Young people certainly see qualifications as importance to
get a good job. The percentage of 16-18 year-olds in education went up from 35%
to 55% in the 1990s. And did you know, the British work the longest hours per
week in Europe? That's an average of 45.7 hours for men and 46.7 hours for
women.
       Traditional family and home life is changing. In fact, nearly a third the
population lives alone and there are fewer marriages nowadays. Each year almost a
quarter of a million babies are born in England and Wales to parents who are not
married to each other – that's 40% of the total. Women are having children later
and 29 are now the average age for having a baby. Young people are staying with
their parents longer than before, mainly because it b expensive to get a place to
live.
       The proverb ‘Early to bed, early to rise’ seems a good description of the
British lifestyle. On weekdays, most people get up before 8 a.m. (77%) and go to
bed before midnight (81%). Main meal times are from 8 a.m. to 9 a.m. (breakfast),
at 1 p.m. (lunch) and between 5 p.m. and 9 p.m. (dinner).
       What do people do in the evenings? Are the Brits a nation of couch
potatoes? On average, they watch TV for 25 hours a week. Children and teenagers
watch less TV than 25-44 year-olds but spend five times longer on computers,
mainly playing computer games. The biggest Internet user are the 16-24 year-olds
– on average, they are online for four minutes a day.
1. Which of these statistics about the UK do you think are true?
       1.   On average, women live ten years longer than men.
       2.   75 per cent of men between 55 and 64 are overweight.
       3.   Over two-thirds of women go to work.
       4.   Nearly a third of the population live on their own.
       5.   Over three-quarters of the population get up before 8 a.m. during the   week.
2. Read the article again. Answer these questions
       1.   Why are people living longer?
       2.   What job area is growing fast?
       3.   Why are young people staying with their parents longer?
       4.   Why do some people think the UK is a nation of 'couch potatoes'?
                     Text 12. Environmental Protection
Read and translate the text
       Environmental problems have become exceptionally acute in the modern
world, and environmental protection has become a vital necessity for all people.
       Our planet is in serious danger. One of the most important environmental
problems in the world today is the shortage of clean water. Industrial pollution has
made many sources of water undrinkable. Rivers, lakes and even seas have become
poisonous. Thousands of fish die every year as a result of the illegal dumping of
waste in rivers by factories all over the world.
       Lake Baikal is one of the worlds' largest and most beautiful lakes. It contains
a rich variety of fish and plants, including 1,300 rare species that do not exist
anywhere else in the world. However, they are being killed by massive industrial
waste, which some factories still pour into the lake every day. A few years ago
people thought that the supply of clean water was unlimited. Now clean water is
scarce, and we are beginning to respect this precious resource. We must protect the
clean water that remains for the sake of our children and grandchildren.
       Air pollution is another important problem. In hundreds of cities and towns
the concentration of harmful substances in the air is over ten times the admissible
level. Every day a huge number of plants and factories emit lots of harmful
substances into the atmosphere of big cities. The great increase in the use of motor
cars in the last quarter of the twentieth century has caused an increase in a new
kind of air pollution. Pollution from factories and cars poison the air we breathe,
and is the main reason for the greenhouse effect and acid rain.
       Acid rain can damage life in lakes and rivers and destroy forests. The
greenhouse effect may also have disastrous consequences for our planet. It is
already affecting several areas of the world with unusual weather causing droughts
or heavy storms. The world's temperature is going up and the climate is changing.
Cutting down on emissions from large combustion plants and exhaust fumes from
vehicles would help solve the problem. I think we should try and use alternative
energy, such as solar energy and wind energy, and design plants and cars that run
on electricity, a much cleaner fuel than petrol.
1. Answer the Questions
      1.  What ecological problems are urgent now?
      2.  What is the influence of pollution on people's health?
      3.  What is happening to our forests?
      4.  What are the consequences of nuclear disasters?
      5.  Was life better a hundred years ago? Why do you think so?
      6.  What ecological problems exist in your home town?
      7.  How can people protect our planet?
      8.  What is the aim of ecological organizations? What ecological
          organizations do you know?
      9. What can you personally do to keep the world healthy?
      10. Should we reject technological progress?
                             Text 13. Arriving in Britain
Read and translate the text
       If you were going to Britain, how would you get there?
                                         Travelling by boat
         The English Channel has kept out invaders for a thousand years. Nowadays, Britain
wants to welcome tourists, but the crossing makes travelling between Britain and the rest of
Europe inconvenient and time-consuming. Despite that, about 18.1 million people visit Britain
every year. Half of these people come to England by ferry or hovercraft.
         The English Channel is one of the busiest stretches of water in the world and Dover, on
the south coast of England, is the busiest passenger terminal in Europe. In August, the most
popular month for visitors, there are 50 ferry and 14 hovercraft crossings between Dover and
Calais every day. There are many routes across the Channel, but the fastest trip is the 35-minute
hovercraft crossing between Dover and Calais.
                          Three hours from Paris or Brussels to London
         The ferry and hovercraft companies are worried about competition from the Channel
Tunnel, or the "Chunnel" as it is commonly known.
         The Chunnel was officially opened on 6 May 1994. It took ten years to build and cost
£9.8 billion (more than double the original estimate). All of the money came from private
companies.
         There are two ways of travelling through the tunnel. Lorry and car drivers take their
vehicles onto special trains. They stay inside their lorries and cars for the 20-minute journey
through the tunnel. Foot passengers sit in a normal train compartment.
         Direct trains already run from London to Paris and Brussels. The journey between
London and the English coast is relatively slow in comparison to the journey between the French
coast and Brussels and Paris. There have been considerable delays in planning the high-speed
rail track in England and it is not due to open until 2002 at the earliest.
1. Are the sentences true or false
       1.    About 10 million people visit Britain every month.
       2.    All of the money spent on building The Chunnel came from the
             government subsidy.
       3.    Gatwick is the busiest airport in the world.
       4.    There is only one way of travelling through the tunnel.
       5.    Direct trains run from London to Paris and Brussels.
       6.    The fastest trip between Dover and Calais is by plane.
2. Match these words and phrases to their definitions
1.   invader                   1. sometimes that takes a long time to do.
2.   crossing                  2. to do something later than is planned or expected.
3.   time-consuming            3. a country, army etc. that uses force to enter another
4.   hovercraft                country.
5.   compartment               4. one of the separate spaces into which a railway
6.   delay                     carriage is divided
                               5. a place where you are allowed to cross something
                               such as road or border
                               6. a vehicle that can move over both land and water,
                               raising itself above the surface by blowing air
                               downwards.
           Text 14. Coca-Cola Unveils New Global ad Strategy
Read and translate the text
       Recently Coca-Cola has unveiled a new global ad strategy. The company
wants to change its image and increase profits. There is a new slogan: "Welcome
to the Coke side of life." It replaces the three-year-old "Make it real" campaign,
which analysts say was unsuccessful, despite a billion dollars of advertising. Coke
is returning to its roots with the new campaign. There is a strong focus on the
iconic shape of the old-fashioned Coke bottle. There will also be different versions
of the slogan to reflect cultural tastes and lifestyles. These will be fine-tuned to
specific markets.
       Coke CEO Neville Isdell said the new global ad strategy should return the
company to its former glories within eighteen months. Coke's shares have lost
almost 20 percent in value under Isdell's control. He admitted that Coke needed to
be more innovative. He has created new drinks and appointed a new marketing
chief, Mary Minnick, to help the global brand. She outlined three new themes to
appeal to customers -enjoyment, comfort and nutrition. She said: “We want Coke
brands to be...an integral part of consumers' everyday lives.” So soon, Coca-Cola, a
cola-coffee blend, will start Coke's new strategy.
1. Look at the article and say whether these sentences are true (T) or false (F)
      a)   Coke's new slogan is to help its image and increase profits.
      b)   The new slogan is "Welcome to the fizzy side of life". с Coke is going
           back to its roots with its new ad strategy.
      c)   Coke's taste will be fine-tuned for the global market as a whole.
      d)   Coke's CEO said it would take 18 years to return to former glories.
      e)   Coke's CEO said the company has lacked innovativeness.
      f)   Coke wants its drinks to be an integral part of consumers' daily lives.
      g)   Coke has produced a new cola-flavored coffee drink.

2. Synonym match
Match the following synonyms from the article:

a.   unveiled                      installed
b.   increase                      advertisement
с    roots                         mirror
d.   old-fashioned                 revealed
e.   reflect                       boost
f.   ad                            launch
g.   former                        basic
h.   appointed                     origins
i.   integral                      previous
j.   start                         traditional
                      Text 15. Environment and Ecology
Read and translate the text
       The word environment means simply what is around us. Some people live in
a town environment; for others, their environment is the countryside. Nowadays
people understand how important it is to solve the environment problems that
endanger people's lives. The most serious environmental problems are: Pollution
in its many forms (water pollution, air pollution, nuclear pollution) Noise from
cars, buses, planes, etc. Destruction of wildlife and countryside beauty. Shortage
of natural resources (metals, different kinds of fuel) The growth of population
Water Pollution. There is no ocean or sea, which is not used as a dump. Many seas
are used for dumping industrial and nuclear waste. These poisons kill fish and sea
animals. "Nuclear-poisoned" fish can be eaten by people. Many rivers and lakes
are poisoned too. Fish and reptiles can't live in them. There is not enough oxygen
in the water. In such places all the birds leave their habitats and many plants die. If
people drink this water they can die too. It happens so because factories produce a
lot of waste and pour it into rivers. So they poison water. Most of the pollution in
big cities comes from cars and buses. More and more often people are told not to
be in direct sunlight, because ultraviolet radiation from the sun can cause skin
cancer. Normally the ozone layer in the atmosphere protects us from such
radiation, but if there are holes in the ozone layer ultraviolet radiation can get to
the earth. Many scientists think that these holes are the result of air pollution.
Nuclear power stations can go wrong and cause nuclear pollution. Both clean air
and clean water are necessary for our health. If people want to survive they must
solve these problems quickly. Man is beginning to understand that his environment
is not just his own town or country, but the whole earth. That's why people all over
the world think and speak so much about ecology.
1. Answer the questions
      1.   What does the word ‘environment’ mean?
      2.   Why is it important to solve the environment problems?
      3.   Do you know anything about forms of pollution?
      4.   What protects people from the radiation?
      5.   What should we do in order to solve the problems of ecology?
2. Complete these sentences using the words from box.
environment        a dump       habitats      layer        holes

      1. There is no ocean or sea, which is not used as …
      2. In such places birds leave their … and many plants die.
      3. Normally the ozone … in the atmosphere protests us from radiation.
      4. Many scientists think that these … are the result of the pollution.
      5. Man is beginning to understand that his … is not just his own town or
   country.

								
To top