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Comparison of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells

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					CHAPTER 4: COMPARISON of PROKARYOTIC and EUKARYOTIC CELLS
  BASIC STRUCTURE OF ___KARYOTIC CELL
     Basic Bacterial __________
BASIC SHAPES:

1. Bacillus
   ____-shaped

2. _________
   spherical

3. __________
     ___KARYOTIC CELL STRUCTURES
                    CELL _________

                    (Outer Membrane)
• EXTERNAL              Cell Wall      • INTERNAL
                     Cell Membrane
  – ____________                          – Cytoplasm
    • Capsule                             – ________ Region
                                            • DNA
    • Slime layer                              – Double-stranded
  – Appendages                                 – circular

    • _________                          – Ribosomes
    • _____                              – Inclusions/granules
    • Fimbriae                           – ______spores
    • Axial                              – _____
      Filaments                            Cytoskeleton
_____________
• DESCRIPTION
   – Sticky, gel-like
   – made of polysaccharides,
     polypeptides, or both
   – surrounds cell
• TYPES
   – ______ – organized, firmly attached to cell wall;
                   ex. S. mutans
   – Slime layer – unorganized, loosely attached to
            cell wall, ex. S. pneumoniae, B. anthracis
• FUNCTION
   – Protection against _______cytosis
   – Protection against dehydration
   – Production of __________-slime layers used for
     attachment
   _____________________
• Microbes attach to _____ surfaces and
  grow into masses
• They will grow on rocks, pipes, teeth,
  and medical implants
    PROKARYOTIC ___________
Description
  long, whip-like appendages
  Location
    _________ to cell
Structure
  _______ -outermost
  hook-widest
  basal body-_______
Function
  _____________
    Runs, tumbles,
     swarms
    Chemotaxis - response to chemical signals
      AXIAL _______ in PROKARYOTES
             a.k.a. endoflagella
• Description
   – Bundles of filaments
• Location
   – Anchored at 1 end of
     spirochete cells
   – Wrap around the
     length of the
     spirochetes, ex.
     ___________,
     ____________
• Function
   – Spiral, corkscrew
     ____________
     PROKARYOTIC _______________
• Description
  – hair-like
    appendages
• Location
  – Surrounds entire
  cell or at poles of cell
• Function
  – Colonization (_____________)
  – Ex. ______________ gonorrhoeae
• Structure
  – Protein (pilin)
          PROKARYOTIC ______
• Structure
   –Long, rigid, tubular
    structures
   –1 or 2 per cell
• Function
   –Conjugation –
    transfer of _________
    from 1 bacterial cell
    to another
   BACTERIAL CELL WALLS:
      determine ______
provide structural __________
 COMPARISON of GRAM POSITIVE and
GRAM NEGATIVE BACTERIAL _________
            __________________
• Polymer of ____saccharide
  N-acetylglucosamine (NAG) & N-acetylmuramic
  acid (NAM)
• Linked by poly_____________




                                           Figure 4.13a
Figure 4.13b, c
             ____________________________________________________
        BACTERIAL _______ STRUCTURE
     GRAM-____________ CELL WALLS
• _____
• _________ acids: Alcohol + phosphate
      • Lipoteichoic acid links to plasma membrane
      • Wall teichoic acid links to peptidoglycan
   – May regulate ___________movement in and out cell
   – Provide antigenic specificity
   – Play role in cell __________




                                               Figure 4.13b
  GRAM-_____________ CELL WALL
• PG - thin
• OUTER __________
  – Structure
     • Lipopolysaccharides
     • Lipoproteins
     • Phospholipids
     • Porins
  – Function
     • _________
         – Helps evade ______cytosis
         – Helps evade complement action
         – Barrier to certain antibiotics (penicillin),
           lysozyme, detergents, metals, some dyes
   ATYPICAL BACTERIAL CELL WALLS
• Myco__________
  – _____________
  – Sterols in plasma
     membrane
  Ex. Mycoplasma
        pneumoniae
• Archaea
  -_______-less, or
  – Walls of __________murein
    (lack NAM and D-amino acids)
       DAMAGE to BACTERIAL CELL
               WALLS
Some methods include:
• _______- digests bonds between disaccharides in
  peptidoglycan.
  – In G+, results in _____plasts (totally wall-less cells).
  – In G-, results in _______plast (semi wall-less cells).

• ______- inhibits formation of ______ bridges in
  peptidoglycan.
  – G+ bacteria more susceptible than G- bacteria
 BACTERIAL CELL WALL SUMMARY
  Gram-positive          Gram-negative
• Thick peptidoglycan    § _____ peptidoglycan
• _________ acids        § ________ membrane
                         § Periplasmic space
• In acid-fast cells,
  _______ acid present




                                         Figure 4.13b–c
       GRAM STAIN MECHANISM
• Crystal violet-iodine (CV-I) crystals
  form in cell
• Gram-positive
  – _______dehydrates peptidoglycan
  – CV-I crystals do not leave
• Gram-negative
  – __________ dissolves outer
  membrane and leaves holes in
  peptidoglycan
  – CV-I washes out
    FLUID MOSAIC CELL MEMBRANE MODEL
• STRUCTURE: PHOSPHOLIPID BILAYER + _________
• FUNCTION: controls movement into and out of
  cell, ______________
     DAMAGE to PLASMA
     Membrane- Results in leakage
     of cell contents/___________
– Caused by:
     _________, Ammonia
     (detergents),
     Polymixin antibiotics

                                        Figure 4.14b
INTERNAL COMPONENTS OF PROKARYOTIC CELLS
CYTOPLASM
   substance inside the plasma
     membrane
NUCLEAR AREA (_________
   region)
  Genetic material
     Single, circular chromosome
RIBOSOMES(70S)
     Function in ________ synthesis



                                      Figure 4.6a, b
        PROKARYOTIC INCLUSIONS
• Metachromatic        •Phosphate reserves
  granules (volutin)
• Polysaccharide       •________ reserves
  granules             •________ reserves
• Lipid inclusions     •________ reserves
• Sulfur granules
                       •Ribulose 1,5-diphosphate
• Carboxysomes         carboxylase for CO2 fixation

• Gas vacuoles         •Buoyancy
• Magnetosomes         •Protein covered cylinders
                        Iron oxide (destroys H2O2)
               ENDOSPORES
• __________ cells
• Resistant to
  desiccation, ______,
  chemicals
• _________ sp.,
  Clostridium sp.
• Sporulation: Endospore
  _____________
• Germination: Return to
  ___________state
        EUKARYOTIC CELL




What groups of microorganisms are eukaryotic?
________________ CELL STRUCTURE
         Flagella and ________*
     *no _______ in prokaryotic cells




Eukaryotic Flagellum: Structure
Microtubules
Tubulin
__ pairs + __ arrangement
                                        Figure 4.23a, b
EUKARYOTIC CELL WALL PROPERTIES*
 • Function
   - _________, protection
 • Structure (lack muramic acid)
    – _______________
      • Cellulose, chitin, glucan, mannan
         – Plants, algae, fungi
   Cell walls NOT present in _______ cells
 ________________
   – Carbohydrates extending from animal
     plasma membrane
   – Bonded to proteins and lipids in membrane
          EUKARYOTIC ______________
STRUCTURE - Phospholipid
 bilayer + ___________
 -_______ (may be present)-
  protection against lysis
 -Carbohydrates-serve as
  -attachment + recognition sites
FUNCTION
 -Selective __________- allows
  passage of some molecules:
  water, simple sugars, oxygen,
  amino acids, carbon dioxide
 -Enzymes for ATP production
 CYTOPLASMIC STRUCTURES of EUKARYOTIC CELLS

• Cytoplasm
  – Substance inside plasma membrane and outside
    nucleus
• Cytosol
  – Fluid portion of cytoplasm
• ____________*
  – microfilaments
  – Intermediate filaments
  – microtubules
    provide support and movement for cytoplasm
• Cytoplasmic _____________*
  – __________ of cytoplasm throughout cells
         EUKARYOTIC CELL _____________
• Membrane-bound:
  – _______               Contains chromosomes, genetic
                             information; _______ proteins**
  – ER                     ___________ network between
                                          plasma and nuclear
                                          membranes

  – ____ complex          Membrane formation,
                                distribution, protein packaging
  – Lysosome              Digestive ___________
  – Vacuole                       Brings food into cells and
                                            provides support
  – Mitochondrion         Cellular __________
  – Chloroplast(plants)   Photosynthesis _________
  – _______some           Oxidation of fatty acids; destroys
                               H 2 O2
     EUKARYOTIC CELL ORGANELLES
• Not ________________:
  – __________________
     • Protein synthesis (80S)
  – Centrosome*
     • Cell division
     • Consists of protein fibers and ________
  – _______________*
     • Cell division
     • Mitotic spindle formation
     _____SYMBIOTIC
         THEORY
• __karyotes evolved from
  ____karyotes
• Eukaryotes develop a
  _________
• Eukaryotes ingest ________
  bacteria – become
  mitochondria
• Eukaryotes ingest
  _____________ bacteria –
  become chloroplast           Figure 10.2
           PLASMA MEMBRANE
Function
     Selective permeability – allows
passage of some molecules via the following
transport mechanisms:
• ________ transport • Active transport –
     NO ____ needed             ____ needed
  – Simple diffusion    – Transporter protein
                        – Group translocation
  – Facilitated
                        – Endocytosis
    diffusion              • Phagocytosis:
  – ________                 Pseudopods extend and
                             engulf particles
                           • Pinocytosis: Membrane
                             folds inward bringing in
                             fluid and dissolved
                             substances
          Movement Across Membranes
               PASSIVE TRANSPORT
• _________ diffusion:
  – Movement of a _________ from an area of high
    concentration to an area of low concentration.




• Facilitated diffusion:
  -Movement of a _________ from an area of high
      concentration to an area of low concentration.
  – Solute combines with a transporter _________ in the
    membrane.
     Movement Across Membranes
               _________ TRANSPORT
• Simple diffusion:
  – Movement of a solute from an area of _______
    concentration to an area of ___ concentration.
  MOVEMENT ACROSS MEMBRANES
Facilitated Diffusion (Passive Transport)
    _______ combines with a transporter
    _________ in the membrane.




                                       Figure 4.17
      MOVEMENT ACROSS MEMBRANES
• Osmosis (_____________ transport)
  – Movement of ______ across a selectively
  _____________membrane from an area of high
  water concentration to an area of lower water.
• Osmotic pressure
  – The pressure needed to stop the
  movement of _____ across the membrane.




                                                   Figure 4.18a
THE EFFECT of _______ on CELLS
      MOVEMENT ACROSS MEMBRANES
• _________ transport
  – Transport of substances
    requires a transporter
    protein and ATP.
  Group translocation
  – Transport of substances
    requires a transporter
    protein and PEP.
_____CYTOSIS & _____CYTOSIS
       ACTIVE TRANSPORT
_______ vs. PASSIVE TRANSPORT
   COMPARISON of PROKARYOTIC and
        EUKARYOTIC CELLS
• One circular     • Paired
  chromosome,        chromosomes, in
  not in a           nuclear membrane
  membrane         • Cytoskeleton
• No __________    • Histones
• No __________    • Organelles
• Peptidoglycan    • _____________ cell
  cell walls         walls*
• Binary fission   • Mitotic spindle
• 70 S ribosomes   • 80S ribosomes
PROKARYOTIC vs. EUKARYOTIC

				
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