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Communitarian democracy - European University Institute

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Communitarian democracy - European University Institute Powered By Docstoc
					A Political
Sociology
of
European
Democracy
A Political
Sociology
of
European
Democracy
       Week 6
      Lecture 1




      Lecturer
 Paul Blokker
           2
               Governo Locale
Introduction


               The Construction of a European Political
                Society
               • Legitimacy
               • Normative justifications

               Different views on:
               • Role and relevance of actors (governments,
                 experts, civil society, citizens)
               • Institutions and integration           3
               Governo Locale
Introduction




                                4
               Governo Locale
Introduction

                Announcement: Examination
                - The student will be evaluated at the end of
                  the course by means of a written essay


                  NB. New deadline: Thursday 7 June,
                  to be handed in by e-mail, by 17:00
                  pm;

                - The written essay will be of a minimum of
                  3.000 words, and needs to contain a
                  bibliography with at least 10 academic
                                                           5
                  resources.
               Governo Locale
Introduction




                                6
           Governo Locale
Communitarian
democracy

                Multiple Democracies II:
                Communitarian Democracy




                                           7
           Governo Locale
Communitarian
democracy

                Communitarian democracy
                  (Eriksen 2009, chapter 4)


                Stakeholder      Instrumental
                democracy        legitimacy

                Communitarian    Contextual
                democracy        legitimacy

                Postnational     Universalistic
                democracy        legitimacy
                                                  8
           Governo Locale
Communitarian
democracy

                Communitarian democracy

                 ‘To constitute and give life to a body politic
                 is to put some things in common. ... The
                 problem of the Europeans is that they do
                 not know what they want to put in
                 common’.
                 (Manent, 2006: 67)

                                                         9
           Governo Locale
Communitarian
democracy
                Communitarian democracy
                Rather than simply a classificatory matter, how
                one conceptualises the common says much about
                the models of democracy to which one wants to
                lend credence. One’s perspective is laden with
                consequences for how one understands the
                purpose of the polity and the nature of
                citizenship, and how one understands the
                challenges that a particular polity or polities in
                general may face. It may point towards certain
                kinds of institutional configuration or ‘regime’
                rather than others.
                                                              10
                (White, 2010: 106)
           Governo Locale
Communitarian   Communitarian democracy
democracy
                To suggest what Europeans might put in
                common is at the same time to suggest a vision
                of politics for the EU. Likewise any vision of how
                a polity should look is going to involve,
                explicitly or implicitly, a position being taken
                on what it is that holds the political community
                together. A debate on the nature of the
                common is embedded in all discussion of the
                political, and the implications of different
                positions are therefore an appropriate target of
                inquiry.
                                                           11
                (White, 2010: 106)
           Governo Locale
Communitarian
democracy

                    Communitarian democracy
                     (Eriksen 2009, chapter 4)
                -    Thus, a different strategy for legitimation of the
                     European Union and European democracy is
                     that of a value-based community or a
                     communitarian view of democracy.
                -    This strategy is based on the need to further
                     clarify the value basis of the EU, by means of a
                     collective process of self-interpretation or self-
                     identification.
                                                               12
           Governo Locale
Communitarian
democracy

                    Communitarian democracy
                     (Eriksen 2009, chapter 4)
                -    This strategy has been attempted both in the
                     European Charter of Fundamental Rights and the
                     Convention on the Future of Europe;
                -    A main discussion was about the question of
                     Europe’s religious heritage as one such a value
                     basis;
                -    Also the Lisbon Treaty contains a reference to
                     Europe’s religious inheritance.
                                                             13
           Governo Locale
Communitarian
democracy

                    Communitarian democracy
                     (Eriksen 2009, chapter 4)
                -    example




                                                 14
           Governo Locale
Communitarian
democracy

                    Communitarian democracy
                     (Eriksen 2009, chapter 4)
                -    example




                                                 15
           Governo Locale
Communitarian
democracy

                    Communitarian democracy
                     (Eriksen 2009, chapter 4)
                -    example




                                                 16
           Governo Locale
Communitarian
democracy

                    Communitarian democracy
                     (Eriksen 2009, chapter 4)
                -    example




                                                 17
           Governo Locale
Communitarian
democracy

                    Communitarian democracy
                     (Eriksen 2009, chapter 4)
                -    example




                                                 18
           Governo Locale
Communitarian
democracy

                    Communitarian democracy
                     (Eriksen 2009, chapter 4)
                -    The idea behind the communitarian strategy is
                     that the EU is a p0lity in the making, and in
                     order for it to become a robust political
                     community with democratic legitimacy it needs
                     to stimulate the idea of a common identity,
                     which can then serve as a basis for shared
                     objectives and visions for the European project.

                                                              19
           Governo Locale
Communitarian
democracy

                    Communitarian democracy
                     (Eriksen 2009, chapter 4)
                -    This perspective posits that ‘because of a
                     common destiny, a common fate induced by
                     common vulnerabilities, people are turned into
                     compatriots who are willing to take on new
                     collective obligations to provide for each other’s
                     well-being’ (Eriksen 2009: 66).


                                                               20
           Governo Locale
Communitarian
democracy

                    Communitarian democracy
                -    On the political philosopher’s Will
                     Kymlicka’s account, the significance of a
                     national identity and culture for democracy
                     consists of the fact that it provides
                           - a common language for
                           communication as well as
                           - a system of meaning in order to make
                           meaningful choices;
                                                          21
           Governo Locale
Communitarian
democracy

                    Communitarian democracy
                -    National identity thus provides individual
                     citizens with meaning, means of
                     communication and a distinct identity. A
                     ‘societal culture’, in Kymlicka’s terms,
                     consists of a ‘territorially concentrated
                     culture, centred on a shared language which
                     is used in a wide range of societal
                     institutions, in both public and private life’
                     (in: Blokker 2009)
                                                            22
           Governo Locale
Communitarian
democracy

                    Communitarian democracy
                -    Imagined community
                     “It is imagined because the members of even the
                     smallest nation will never know most of their fellow-
                     members, meet them, or even hear of them, yet in
                     the minds of each lives the image of their
                     communion. Renan referred to this imagining in his
                     suavely back-handed way when he wrote that 'Or
                     l’essence d'une nation est que tous les individus
                     aient beaucoup de choses en commun, et aussi que
                     tous aient oublié bien des choses.”
                                                                  23
           Governo Locale
Communitarian
democracy

                    Communitarian democracy
                -    Imagined community
                     “With a certain ferocity Gellner makes a comparable
                     point when he rules that 'Nationalism is not the
                     awakening of nations to self-consciousness: it
                     invents nations where they do not exist.' The
                     drawback to this formulation, however, is that
                     Gellner is so anxious to show that nationalism
                     masquerades under false pretences that he
                     assimilates 'invention' to 'fabrication' and 'falsity',
                     rather than to 'imagining' and 'creation‘.“
                                                                    24
           Governo Locale
Communitarian
democracy

                    Communitarian democracy
                -    Imagined community
                     “In this way he implies that 'true' communities exist
                     which can be advantageously juxtaposed to nations.
                     In fact, all communities larger than primordial
                     villages of face-to-face contact (and perhaps even
                     these) are imagined.
                     Communities are to be distinguished, not by their
                     falsity/genuineness, but by the style in which they
                     are imagined”.
                     (Benedict Anderson (1983), Imagined Communities)
                                                                   25
           Governo Locale
Communitarian
democracy

                    Communitarian democracy
                     (Eriksen 2009, chapter 4)
                -     A communitarian strategy is based on the
                      socio-cultural mobilization of people around
                      particular ethical- cultural values and the
                      idea of clear boundaries between the in-
                      group (EU citizens) and the out-group (non-
                      EU citizens);

                                                           26
           Governo Locale
Communitarian
democracy

                    Communitarian democracy
                     (Eriksen 2009, chapter 4)
                -     Thus, ‘once established, the sense of
                      common identity is maintained through a
                      system of border control, which excludes
                      those deemed as others, and a system of
                      military defence that protects against
                      external aggression, influence, and control’.

                                                            27
           Governo Locale
Communitarian
democracy

                    Communitarian democracy
                     (Eriksen 2009, chapter 4)
                      A European strategy of communitarian
                      democracy:
                -    The active development of a we-feeling;
                -    The identification of a set of European values;
                -    Socialization of people into becoming
                     ‘Europeans’;
                -    A set of clearly identified criteria of who are
                     Europeans and who are not.                   28
           Governo Locale
Communitarian
democracy

                    Communitarian democracy
                     (Eriksen 2009, chapter 4)
                      Communitarian forms of legitimacy:
                -    Democracy is here about searching for shared
                     values, identify problems which need collective
                     attention, and make hard choices about non-
                     commensurable entities;
                -    Communitarian legitimacy then views
                     democracy then as deliberation upon the
                     common good, and the enhancement of
                                                              29
                     solidarity.
           Governo Locale
Communitarian
democracy

                    Communitarian democracy
                     (Eriksen 2009, chapter 4)
                      Communitarian forms of legitimacy:
                -    Citizens are then supposed to participate in the
                     collective quest for a common good and
                     interest;
                -    There is thus a strong emphasis on political
                     socialization and the development of feelings of
                     belonging.

                                                              30
           Governo Locale
Communitarian
democracy

                    Communitarian democracy
                     Communitarian democracy as a model:
                -    Communitarian democracy gives a priority to an
                     ‘ethic of identity’ (Blokker 2010), that is, the idea
                     that democratic society needs a minimal level of
                     shared identity;
                -    The ‘community is paramount and communal
                     solidarity the overriding value’ (Rosenfeld
                     2006);

                                                                  31
           Governo Locale
Communitarian
democracy

                    Communitarian democracy
                     Communitarian democracy as a model:
                -    Identity fulfils various functions:
                            - facilitates meaningful communication;
                            - facilitates meaningful choices for
                            individuals;
                            - stimulates some form of solidarity
                            between members of a community ‘that
                            will never meet’, an ‘imagined
                            community’                          32
           Governo Locale
Communitarian
democracy

                    Communitarian democracy
                     Communitarian democracy as a model:
                -    Modern democracies need to make choices on
                     membership and its criteria;
                -    In addition, any kind of democracy needs some
                     cultural substrate (based on a common history,
                     traditions and shared language);
                -    Communitarian democracy is about ‘patriotism’
                     and a shared ‘love of the particular’ of the polity;
                                                                 33
           Governo Locale
Communitarian
democracy

                    Communitarian democracy
                     Communitarian democracy as a model:
                -    This means that identity is ultimately prior to
                     rights in a communitarian democracy;
                -    In other words, rights are defined through the
                     lens of a specific community;
                -    Specific rights are deemed more important in
                     some states than in others: social rights,
                     freedom of expression, religious rights
                                                               34
           Governo Locale
Communitarian
democracy

                    Communitarian democracy
                     (Eriksen 2009, chapter 4)
                      Communitarian democracy:
                -    Communitarian democracy is akin to what the
                     political philosopher Michael Walzer has called
                     “Liberalism 2”, which "allows for a state
                     committed to the survival and flourishing of a
                     particular nation, culture or religion or of a limited
                     set of nations, cultures, and religions - so long as
                     the basic rights of citizens who have different
                     commitments or no such commitments at all are  35
                     protected."
           Governo Locale
Communitarian
democracy

                Communitarian democracy
                 (Eriksen 2009, chapter 4)




                                             36
           Governo Locale
Communitarian
democracy

                Communitarian democracy
                Benefits of EU communitarianism:
                  1. Symbolic dimension: Potentially tying
                  citizens to the European project (reflection
                  of key values);
                  2. Dialogic dimension: facilitation of debate
                  on European values (e.g. religion);
                  3. Collective dimension: emphasis on the
                  common good.                            37
           Governo Locale
Communitarian
democracy

                Communitarian democracy
                 Problems with communitarianism:
                 1. No autonomous political sphere, but
                 politics expression of national community;
                 2. Depoliticisation;
                 3. Diversity is downplayed (e.g. EU is
                 pluralistic);
                 4. Rights are understood contextually, and
                 less so in a universalistic way.      38

				
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