Organic 1 Chapter 3 Chemistry of Chemistry Organic Molecules Organic 2 Chemistry Outline Organic vs Inorganic Functional Groups and Isomers Macromolecules Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids Organic 3 Chemistry Organic Molecules Inorganic – Chemistry of elements other than carbon Organic – Carbon-based chemistry Inorganic Organic Usually w/ Always contain + & ions C and H Usually Always ionic bonding covalent bonding Always w/ Often quite large, w/ few atoms many atoms Often associated w/ Usually associated w/ nonliving matter living systems Organic 4 Chemistry Carbon Atom Carbon atoms: 6 protons 6 electrons Mass # = 12.011 How many neutrons? Carbon to carbon bonds Hydrocarbons Octane & Cyclohexane 5 Organic 6 The carbon skeleton & Chemistry functional groups Skeleton or backbone: Functional groups: hydrophilic vs. hydrophobic Organic 7 Chemistry Isomers Isomers - organic molecules that have: Organic 8 4 Classes of Organic Chemistry Molecules in Living Things Some molecules called macromolecules because of their large size Polymer vs. Monomer Category Example Subunit(s) Lipids Fat Glycerol & fatty acids Carbohydrates Polysaccharide Monosaccharide Proteins Polypeptide Amino acid Nucleic Acids DNA, RNA Nucleotide Common Foods 9 Organic 10 Four Classes of Organics: Chemistry 1 - Carbohydrates A. Monosaccharides: “simple sugar” Backbone of 3-7 cabons CH2O Glucose – C6H12O6 (Hexose) isoforms: fructose and galactose Ribose and Deoxyribose (Pentose) found in nucleic acids Organic 11 Four Classes of Organics: Chemistry 1 - Carbohydrates B. Disaccharides: Contain 2 monosccharides Joined by what type of reaction? Dehydration Reaction Maltose – 2 glucose molecules Sucrose – (Sugar) Glucose + Fructose Lactose – Glucose + Galactose Organic 12 Four Classes of Organics: Chemistry 1 - Carbohydrates C. Polysaccharides: polymers short term energy storage molecules helical shape Starch: how plants store glucose 1) Amylose – nonbranched 2) Amylopectin – branched No main C chain new chains occur every 6th carbon Starch 13 Structure and Function Organic 14 Four Classes of Organics: Chemistry 1 - Carbohydrates C. Polysaccharides: Glycogen – how animals store glucose Stored in liver Glycogen 15 Structure and Function Organic 16 Four Classes of Organics: Chemistry 1 - Carbohydrates Structural Carbohydrates Cellulose: Most abundant carb and most abundant organic molecule on Earth Monomer: Glucose Humans DO NOT digest cellulose Chitin: fungal cell walls and exoskeletons monomer has attached amino group Cannot be digested by animals has antibacterial and antiviral properties Used in wound dressings and suture material Organic 17 Four Classes of Organics: Chemistry 1 - Carbohydrates Structural Carbohydrates Peptidoglycan – Structural molecule in bacteria Monomer has amino acid chain Cellulose 18 Structure and Function Organic 19 Four Classes of Organics: Chemistry 2 - Lipids Insoluble in water Types of Lipids Type Organismal Uses Human Uses Longterm energy storage & Fats thermal insulation in animals Butter, lard Longterm energy storage in Oils plants and their seeds Cooking oils Component of plasma Phospholipids membrane Nostick pan spray Component of plasma Steroids membrane; hormones Medicines Waxes Wear resistance; retain water Candles, polishes Blubber 20 Organic 21 Types of Lipids: Chemistry Fats 1) Fats a) Trigylcerides – 3 fatty acid chains with -COOH » ~ 16 – 18 Cabons (some shorter) b) Saturated fatty acids – NO DBL bonds »can pack tightly c) Unsaturated fatty acids – have DBL bonds »melt at lower temp »cannot pack tightly In general: Solid @ room temp – animal origin Liquid @ room temp – plant origin Types of Lipids: 22 Triglycerides Organic 23 Types of Lipids: Chemistry Phospholipids 2) Phospholipids part of the cell membrane Contains a phosphate polar head group & 2 nonpolar fatty acid tails Cell membrane – phospholipid bilayer Phospholipids Form 24 Membranes Organic 25 Types of Lipids: Chemistry Steroids & Waxes 3) Steroids – skeleton of 4 fused rings Cholesterol, testosterone, estrogen 4) Waxes Long-chain fatty acid bonded to a long-chain alcohol High melting point; solid @ room temp Waterproof Resistant to degradation Steroid Diversity 26 Organic 27 Four Classes of Organics: Chemistry 3 –Proteins (polypeptides) Functions Support – Enzymes – Transport – Defense – Hormones – Motion – Organic 28 Protein Subunits: Chemistry The Amino Acids Amino acids (aa’s) Shapes of proteins: 1) primary (1o) - long chain aa's 2) secondary (2o) - coils or folds examples: alpha helix, beta sheet H-bonding b/w every 4th amino acid = helix 3) tertiary (3o) - 3D shape (globular proteins) H-bonds, ionic bonds, and covalent bonds 4) quaternary (4o) - More than 1 polypeptide Hemoglobin – 4 polypeptides Structural Formulas for 29 the 20 Amino Acids Essential vs. Nonessential Levels of Protein 30 Organization Examples of Fibrous 31 Proteins Organic 32 Protein Subunits: Chemistry The Amino Acids Denatured – when a protein loses its natural shape Chaperone Proteins – helps new formed proteins fold into normal shape might even correct misfolding! Protein Folding Diseases: Cystic Fibroses Alzheimers Disease Transmissble Spongioform Encephalopathies – Prions – misfolded proteins Organic 33 Four Classes of Organics: Chemistry 4 -Nucleic Acids Polymers of nucleotides Nucleotide: sugar + phosphate grp + base Complementary Base Pairing DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) RNA (ribonucleic acid) Nucleotide 34 s DNA Structure 35 RNA Structure 36 Organic 37 Chemistry Comparison of DNA & RNA Table 3.4 Feature DNA RNA Sugar Deoxyribose Ribose Cytosine, guanine; Cytosine, guanine; Bases adenine, thymine adenine, uracil Doublestranded; Strands Pairing across strands Mostly single stranded Helix Yes No Heredity; cellular control Interprets genetic info; Function center protein synthesis Chromosomes of cell Where nucleus Cell nucleus and cytoplasm Organic 38 Chemistry Other Nucleic Acids ATP (adenosine triphosphate) composed of adenine, ribose, and three phosphates In cells, one phosphate bond is broken – Yields: Energy for processes of the cell ATP 39 40 Questions?
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