Chapter 12 – The Cell Cycle by hcj

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                                        12.1




           Chapter 12
          The Cell Cycle
12.1 Mitotic cell division results in genetically identical
daughter cells
12.2. Mitosis alternates with Interphase in the cell cycle
12.3. Not for exam
                               But first some
                               sections of Ch. 6
 Note the logarithmic scale


                              Some paradigms in Biology

                                1. All organisms are
                                composed of cells
                                2.  There is a universal
                                genetic code shared by
                                all organisms and this
                                code transmits
                                information between
                                generations.



6.2
                     Capturing
                     sharp images
                     at many
                     different
                     planes à 3D




     Variations in
     density




    Variations in

                     Electron
    density ~3D



                     microscopy
Lightlabel dyes
    Adding
    to
microscopy
    molecules


                                    6.3
6.4. Research Methods:
Cell fractionation

The disruption of a cell and
separation of its parts by
centrifugation at
successively higher speeds.
Bacteria, Archaea

   6.5. A prokaryotic cell – lacking a true nucleus
   and other membrane-enclosed organelles
6.8.
Animal cell




Eukaryotic
cell
6.8.
A plant cell




 Eukaryotic
 cell
                DNA: Deoxyribonucleic acid
                Chromosomes (DNA + proteins)
                Nucleic Acid
                Nucleotide
                Nucleosome




         2 nm




slinky
               Outline

• What are cell division and eukaryotic
  chromosomes?
• What is the cell cycle?
• What is mitosis?
• What is meiosis (Ch. 13)?
• What are some meiotic errors
  (Ch. 13)?
Functions of cell division:
1. Reproduction (single-celled organism)
2. Growth and development (multi-cellular organisms)
3. Renewal and repair.




                                                            12.2
Cells divide with most components equally shared among the daughter cells;
but the DNA on chromosomes divides with exceptional precision!
 Mitosis




  12.4, 12.5
Chromosome
duplication and
distribution during
cell division
12.6. The cell cycle
12.7a. The mitotic division of an animal cell
12.7b. The mitotic division of an animal cell
12.10. Cytokinesis in animal and plant cells
12.11. Mitosis in a plant cell. Light micrographs
showing mitosis in an onion root cell.
                Example Question
• A cell containing 92 chromatids at the start
  of mitosis would, at its completion, produce
  cells containing how many chromosomes?

  –   A)   12
  –   B)   23
  –   C)   92
  –   D)   16
  –   E)   46
                                           12.19. Density-
                                           dependent inhibition
                                           and anchorage
                                           dependence of cell
                                           division.




Cancer cells do not follow normal signals that regulate the cell
cycle. They lack density-dependent inhibition (crowded cells stop
dividing) and anchorage-dependence (must be attached to substrate
in order to divide) and continue to divide and invade other tissues.
Diving cells near the tip of an onion root. Identify a nucleus in each of the
major stages of mitosis and describe major events occurring at each stage.
Stages in Mitosis
Fig 12.12.
Bacterial cell division
(binary fission)
    Look at Chapter 12 Review
          (book p. 244)
• 12.1 Mitotic cell
  division results in
  genetically identical
  daughter cells
• 12.2. Mitosis
  alternates with
  Interphase in the cell
  cycle
• 12.3. Not for exam

								
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