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A Back-End Design Flow for Single Chip Radios - Princeton University

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									                                                                            Efficient Mapping and Management of
                                                                           Applications onto Cyber-Physical Systems
                                                    Prof. Margaret Martonosi, Princeton University and Prof. Pei Zhang, Carnegie Mellon University

Motivation                                                                        Testbed: Minimalistic Controlled Mobile Sensor                                                           Region-Scale Mobility Modeling
                                                                                                                                                                                           §       Model Human Mobility based on cellphone Call Detail 
§        Cyber-Physical Systems:  richly heterogeneous devices                    • Unreliable nodes: 
                                                                                    expected to fail, 
                                                                                                                                                                                                   Records (CDRs) or similar aggregate info:
         (mobile devices, home electronics, taxis, robotic drones,                                                                                                                             §      Sparse in time: Only when phone call in/out




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                                                                                    can crash or get 
         etc.) that together gather sensor data, analyze it, and 




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                                                                                                                                                                                               §      Coarse in space: Only to granularity of cell tower spacing. (Not 




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                                                                                    stuck
         coordinate large-scale actions in response to it.                                                                                                                                            GPS)
                                                                                  • Low weight,




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         Challenge: How to program CP Systems?                                    Low-cost prototype 




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§




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                                                                                  • Adapt to changing 




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                                                                                  environment, reassign 
                                                                                  task based on node 
                                                                                  capabilities and localized 
Prior Approaches                                                                  failures 

                                                                                  • Dynamic coverage estimation:                                                                               §      Our Approach offers accuracy sufficient for detailed regional 
§        Simplifications to reduce complexity.                                    by obtaining in-network relative                                                                                    studies of human and vehicular movements.
     §      Assume homogeneous systems                                            path signatures, then assign task to    PLUGIN SENSOR MODULE:
     §      Program for one particular deployment                                 multiple nodes to compute               3-Axis Accelerometer
                                                                                                                          3-Axis Gyroscope
                                                                                                                                                                MAIN BOARD:

§        Current approach leads to “brittle” systems.                             signature paths                         3-Axis Magnetometer
                                                                                                                                                                16 MHz AVR AtMega128RFA1
                                                                                                                                                                16Kb SRAM
                                                                                                                                                                128Kb Flash Memory
                                                                                                                                                                                           Mobile Offloading: An Initial Example
     §      Deployments with multi-generation devices                                                                                                           2.4GHz 802.15.4 Radio

     §      Multiple scenarios with different mobility capabilities                                                                                                                        §       Select when to use 3G and when to use WiFi based on:
                                                                                  Collaborative Coverage Without Location                                                                      §      Availability and bandwidth of 3G and WiFi
1.       How to meet performance and accuracy goals while managing power                                                                                                                       §      Delay tolerance of application
         and other scarce resources?                                                                                                 • Sensing coverage for mobile                             §      Cost of data transfers on each network
2.       How to select which devices to use?  From a static or dynamic pool of                                                         nodes in many                                           §      Mobility prediction of device
         resources.                                                                                                                    environments is hard to                             §       Optimal MILP Scheduler Formulation
3.       How to support dynamic adaptivity within a single deployment? How                                                             determine due to lack of 
         to support portable operation across different deployments?                                                                   known infrastructure or 
                                                                                                                                       references for locations.
                                                                                                                                      
                                                                                                                                     • Sensing coverage estimation 
                                                                                                                                       by obtaining relative motion 
Our Project                                                                                                                            path signatures. Dynamic 
                                                                                                                                       task allocation allow nodes 
1.       Abstraction layer to allow CPS applications to express                                                                        to more efficiently 
                                                                                                                                       coordinate and predict the 
         application needs
                                                                                                                                       current sensing coverage of                         §       8-10X cost reduction due to optimization and delay tolerance
     §      Coverage and sensing requirements
                                                                                                                                       an area.
2.       Device attribute catalog to summarize local nodes and their                                                                                                                       Publications
         capabilities                                                             Project Future Work                                                                                      §       Sibren Isaacman et al. Human Mobility Modeling via Synthetic Call
     §      Sensing capabilities, probability of success, accuracy, etc.                                                                                                                           Detail Records." 10th Intl. Conf. on Mobile System, Applications, and
                                                                                  § Integrate WiFi offloading with mobility prediction
                                                                                                                                                                                                   Services (MobiSys 2012)
3.       Model, Prediction and Control mobility of nodes                          § Broaden mapping problems from two-node offload to multi-node                                           §       Ozlem Bilgir Yetim and Margaret Martonosi. "Adaptive Usage of
     §      Different types of motion (people, fixed sensors, robot, etc.)          offload                                                                                                        Cellular and WiFi Bandwidth: An Optimal Scheduling Formulation
                                                                                  § Explore use of virtualization for mobile migration                                                             (Short Paper).” 7th ACM Intl. Workshop on Challenged Networks
                                                                                  § Apply programming flow and dynamic adaptation to real-word                                                     (CHANTS 2012)
Acknowledgments                                                                     applications:                                                                                          §       Frank Mokaya, Aveek Purohit, Pei Zhang, “Invited Paper: SensorFly:
                                                                                   § First responder support                                                                                       Flying Sensor Network for Indoor Situational Awareness in a Disaster”,
     This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under                                                                                                                              The Wireless Personal Multimedia Communications Symposium
               collaborative grants CPS-1135874 and CPS-1135953. 
                                                                                   § Regional automotive traffic management
                                                                                                                                                                                                   (WPMC’12) Sep. 2012

								
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