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International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management (IJAIEM) Web Site: www.ijaiem.org Email: editor@ijaiem.org Volume 3, Issue 3, March 2014 ISSN 2319 - 4847

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									 International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management (IJAIEM)
                     Web Site: www.ijaiem.org Email: editor@ijaiem.org
Volume 3, Issue 3, March 2014                                                                                ISSN 2319 - 4847

           Review Of Study Of Different Diseases On
             Betelvine Plant and Control Measure
           Nutankumar S. Jane1, Prof. Mrs. Anupama P.Deshmukh2, Prof. Mrs. Madhavi S. Joshi3
                          1
                              Research Scholar, Dept. of Electronics&Telecommunication, Prof. Ram Meghe
                                     Institute of Technology & Research, Badnera, Amravati, India
                              2
                                  Asst. Professor, Dept. Of Electronics& Telecommunication,Prof. Ram Meghe
                                         Institute of Technology & Research, Badnera, Amravati,India
                                   3
                                       Professor, Dept. OfElectronics & Telecommunication, Prof.Ram Meghe
                                            Institute of Technology & Research Badnera, Amravati, India
                                                                   Abstract
The vast economic potentiality of the crop can be adequately established by the fact that about 20-30 million people consume betel
leaves in India on a regular basis besides those in other countries of the world which may include over 2 billion consumers. Its
cultivation is highly labor intensive and offers employment to about 2.0 million families engaged in cultivation, trading and
commerce in betel leaf throughout India. Betel vine leaf is used as medicine for certain diseases and also used as an antiseptic
.During cultivation betel vine is very much affected by diseases such as Leaf spot , Leaf rot diseases and powdery mildew that
result in great loss for the farmers. It occurs in a very virulent form and if not controlled, causes widespread damage and even
total destruction of the entire betel vine plantations without any early indications of the diseases. The aim of this paper is to study
and identify various diseases in the betel vine plants.

KEYWORDS: - Betel vine, Leaf spot, Leaf rot diseases and powdery mildew.

1. INTRODUCTION
Betel vine(Piper betel L.) having the heart shaped deep green leaves are an important horticultural crop of aesthetic and
commercial values. The perennial climber is grownthroughout the country. There are about 100 varieties of betel leaf
(pan) across the world of which 40 are encountered in India and 30 in west Bengal and Bangladesh (Guha1997;Maity,
1989; Samantha, 1994). The most probable place of origin of Pan is Malaysia (Chattopadhyay and Maity, 1967). Pan
contains some vitamins, enzymes, thiamine, riboflavin, tannin, iodine, iron, calcium, minerals, protein, essential oil and
medicine for liver, brain and heart diseases (Chopra et al.1956; Khanna 1997).The betel leaves are very nutritive and
contain substantial amount of vitamins and minerals and therefore, six leaves with a little bit of slaked lime is said to be
comparable to about 300ml of cow milk particularly for the vitamin and mineral nutrition. Apart from the serological
aspects the leaves are generally offered to the guests as the symbol of hospitality. It is grown in the rainfall about 2250-
4750 mm, relative humidity and temperature ranging from 40-80% and 15-90oC respectively (Guha and Jain, 1997). In
India, betel vine is grown as an important cash crop. Betel leaves has good export potential and India exports betel leaves
to the other countries. The betel farming activitiescan generate employment opportunities for throughout the year.
Further, as far as the national employment generation is concerned, about 20 million people derive their
livelihooddirectly or indirectly from production, processing, handling, transportation and marketing of betel leaves in
India. It is the most important cash crop. This adequately justifies its nomenclature as the “GREEN GOLD OF INDIA”.
A well-coordinated effort by the farmers, traders, scientists, administrators and policy makers is required to be initiated to
boost up thenational economy through proper exploitation of this green gold. This perennial crop is found to be infected
by various diseases of which Powdery mildew, Foot Rot & Leaf Rot caused by pathogens, Phytophthora parasitical and
Colletotrichum capsici are the major constraints for cultivation of the crop across the country (Goswami et al. 2002). Leaf
rot can damage the crop within a week when it attacks the vine (Chaurasia 1994). Leaf rot and foot rot have been reported
to be caused by Phytophthpra palmivora and leaf rot may cause 30-100% leaf yield loss (Maiti and Sen. 1997). The
relative humidity enhances the incidence of the leaf rot disease (Kumar and Kumar, 2004). So, attempts have been made
to study the disease of leaf rot, powdery mildew and leaf spot diseases and try to find out control measure of this plant

2. LITERATURE REVIEW
Pan (Piper betel) is a cash crop of India. Farmers face heavy loss due to leaf rot of pan caused by var. Three fungicides i.e.
Thiram, Bavistin, Fytalon were selected for study against test pathogen. Of these Fytalon was most effective against
Phytophthora because it is only fungicides which control the disease completely both in vivo and in vitro. Chaurasia
(2001) reported fungicidal activity ofThiram, against some soil borne pathogen such as Phytophthora, Rhizoctonia and
Fusarium. The resultso obtained from presents study revealed that Thiram is causing complete inhibition of test pathogen
almost 90% and 100% under in vitro and vivo condition respectively. These results are in accordance with the earlier

Volume 3, Issue 3, March 2014                                                                                           Page 560
 International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management (IJAIEM)
                     Web Site: www.ijaiem.org Email: editor@ijaiem.org
Volume 3, Issue 3, March 2014                                                                       ISSN 2319 - 4847

findings (Shrivastava and Tripathi,; 1998, Shivanna et al., 1992, Chaurasia 2001). Dubey et al. (1995) reported that
Bavistin (carbendazim) was effective against leaf spot and rust diseases of groundnut. Chandel and Katoch (2001)
reported the fungi toxic effect of Fytalon (Copper Ox chloride) against Fusariumoxysporum. Shivpuri and Gupta (2001)
showed the inhibitory action of Fytalon against Sclerotinia. Naqvi (1994) reported the control of Phytophthora disease of
Nagpur mandarin in central India using copper ox chloride (Fytalon). Similarly results of the present study revealed that
Fytalon inhibit the growth as well as reduce the sporulation of pathogen under in vivo and in vitro conditions.
Considering the above facts, it may be concluded here that Fytalon is the best fungicide which may be used against test
pathogen because it is the only fungicide which not only control the disease but also kills the pathogen completely both
under in vivo and in vitro conditions. Whereas Thiram was effects under in conditions and Bavistin under in vivo. [1]
The perennial crop is found to be infected by various diseases of which leaf rot and leaf spot caused by pathogens,
Phytophthora parasitic and Colletotrichum capsici are the major constraints for cultivation of the crop across the country
(Goswami et al. 2002). Leaf rot can damage the crop within a week when it attacks the vine (Chaurasia 1994). Leaf rot
and foot rot have been reported to be caused by Phytophthpra palmivora and leaf rot may cause 30-100% leaf yield loss
(Maiti and Sen. 1997). The relative humidity enhances the incidence of the leaf rot disease (Kumar and Kumar, 2004).
Although some information about the control measure of the above mentioned diseases are available but influence of
environmental factors on disease development are not much known and comprehensive attempts on epidemiology of the
diseases have not been made so far. So, attempts have been made to study the epidemiology of leaf rot and leaf spot
diseases of betel leaf of economic importance.
Leaf rot disease of betel leaf (Pan) was influenced by high atmospheric humidity and rainfall from June to August
annually. On the other hand, incidence of leaf spot increased with less humidity gradient during the months of November
to March. [2]
In November 2008, betel vines (Piper betel L., Piperaceae) exhibiting leaf blight symptoms were observed in central
Taiwan. Infections resulted in a 30 to 70% loss of leaf yield in the investigated betel leaf-producing facilities. Symptoms
began with small, necrotic, water-soaked spots that progressed to circular to irregularly shaped brown lesions, 5 to 10 mm
in diameter, with chlorites halos on leaves; some lesions started from the edge of leaves and later fused to form dried,
necrotic margins. Bacteria-like streaming fluid was visible from the edges of freshly cut lesions at the junctions of
chlorites and necrotic leaf tissues when observed with a light microscope at ×100. When the streaming fluid was streaked
onto King's medium B (3), a slow-growing, gram-negative, non-fluorescent bacterium was identified from the whitish
colonies that consistently developed on the medium. Five bacterial isolates from three lesions were characterized with
fatty acid methyl ester analysis (Agilent Technologies, Santa Clara, CA) and Sherlock Microbial Identification System
(Microbial Identification Inc., Newark, DE), and for each isolate, the bacterium was confirmed as Acidovoraxavenue
subsp. citrulli with a similarity index >0.70. In addition, the Biology system (Biology, Hayward, CA) and 16S ribosomal
RNA sequence identity comparison were performed to confirm that the five betel vine-isolated bacteria were A. avenue
subsp. citrulli based on a similarity of 0.54 with biology and 99% sequence identity for 16SrRNA gene. Koch's postulates
were fulfilled by infiltrating a bacterial suspension of 3 × 105 CFU/ml into 40 leaves of four greenhouse-grown, disease-
free, mature betel vine plants. After inoculation, plants were kept in a humidified greenhouse at 28°C to favor symptom
development and symptoms similar to those observed in the greenhouse were evident at 7 days post inoculation (dpi) on
all bacterium-infiltrated leaves. Control leaves infiltrated with distilled water remained symptomless. Bacteria showing
morphological and biochemical similarities (2) to the ones used for inoculation were isolated from all of the inoculated
betel vine leaves. In addition, a bacterial suspension at 3 × 108 CFU/ml was sprayed at the amount of 5 ml per plant onto
6 to 10 plants each of 4-week-old disease-free seedlings of watermelon (CatulluslunatesMatson& Nakai, cv. Empire
No.2), oriental sweet melon (Cucumis melo L. var. saccharin’s Naudin, cv. Silver Beam), and wax gourd (Beniciahispid
Cogn.) for bioassays, and the inoculated seedlings were enclosed in plastic bags for 36 h at 28°C. Water-soaked lesions
were observed on leaves of watermelon and waxgourd at 2 dpi and on sweet melon at 4 dpi on all inoculated plants but
not on distilled water-sprayed control plants, indicating that A. avenue subsp. citrulli strains from betel vine could also
infect melon plants. A. avenue subsp. citrulli was previously identified as the causal agent of bacterial fruit blotch on
melon and bitter gourd in Taiwan (1). To our knowledge, this is the first report that A. avenue subsp. citrulli can
naturally infect betel vine, a no cucurbit crop, to elicit bacterial leaf blight disease.[3]
The fresh leaves of betel vine are generally known as pan in India. Betel vine plants are infected variety of diseases in the
entire plantation without any early indications of the diseases. The aim of this paper is to recognize powdery mildew
disease in the betel vine plants using digital image analysis techniques. The digital images of the betel vine leaves at
various stages of the powdery mildew disease are collected from different plants using a high resolution digital camera
and it is stored with JPEG format. The digital image analyses of the leaves are done using the image processing toolbox
in MATLAB which provides the standard patterns of the digital images. Using RGB encoding technique the red, green
and blue components of the preprocessed image were separated, which forms the pattern to be compared. These patterns
and images of various healthy betel vine leaves at different stages in various days are collected and stored in the system.
The standard deviation for all sample leaves is computed and calculated values are stored in the system. The standard
deviation of test leaves are computed and compared with the stored values. As the result of this comparison, it is


Volume 3, Issue 3, March 2014                                                                                  Page 561
 International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management (IJAIEM)
                     Web Site: www.ijaiem.org Email: editor@ijaiem.org
Volume 3, Issue 3, March 2014                                                                         ISSN 2319 - 4847

identified whether test leaves are affected by powdery mildew disease or not. Finally this analysis helps to recognize the
powdery mildew disease can be identified before it spreads to entire crop. [4]
Betel vine plants are infected variety of diseases in the complete plantation without any premature warning of the
diseases. The aim of this paper is to detection of foot rot disease in the vellaikodi variety of betel vine plants using digital
image processing techniques. The digital images of the uninfected or normal betel vine leaves and the digital images of
the infected in foot rot diseased betel vine leaves at different stages are collected from different Betel vine plants using a
high resolution digital camera and collected betel vine images are stored with JPEG format. The digital images of the
betel vine leaves analyses are done using the image processing toolbox in MATLAB which gives the normal patterns of
the digital images. Using RGB encoding process, the RGB components of the betel vine leaves are separated. The mean
and median values for all sample leaves are computed and calculated values are stored in the system. The mean and
median values of test leaves are computed and compared with the stored values. As the result of this comparison, it is
identified whether test leaves are affected by foot rot disease or not [5]
The fresh leaves of betel vine are generally known as pan in India, which are inspired by about 20 – 30 million people in
the country. It is cultivated in India about 75,000 hectares with an annual production worth about Rs. 1000 millions.
Betel vine plants may have various disease infected in the entire plantation without any early indications of the diseases.
The aim of this paper is to recognize powdery mildew disease in the betel vine plants using digital image processing and
pattern recognition techniques. The digital images of the betel vine leaves at various stages of the disease are collected
from different plants using a high resolution digital camera and it is stored with JPEG format. The image analyses of the
leaves are done using the image processing toolbox in MATLAB which provides the standard patterns of the digital
images. Using RGB encoding technique the red, green and blue components of the preprocessed image were separated,
which forms the pattern to be compared. These patterns and images of various healthy betel vine leaves at different stages
in various days are collected and stored in the system. The mean and median values for all sample leaves are computed
and calculated values are stored in the system. The mean and median values of test leaves are computed and compared
with the stored values. As the result of this comparison, it is identified whether test leaves are affected by powdery mildew
disease or not. [6]




                                                                              `

            Fig.1.Healthy farm                       Fig.2. Infected farm                  Fig.3.Likely to be infected farm

3. PROBLEM DEFINITION
The efficiency of the system can be increased by taking the camera parameters, as the camera parameters are considered
constant in the above literature.

4. CONCLUSION
The above proposed results convey that the foot rot disease can be identified at an early stage and thus preventive action
can be taken well in advance such that the entire plantation can be saved before the disease starts to spread. This can also
be extended to detect diseases of all kind to initiate early preventive action.

REFERENCES
[1] R. K. Yadav Effect Of Fungicides On The Leaf Rot Of Pan Caused By var. Phytophthora parasitica piperina Indian
    J.L.Sci.3(1) : 37-39, 2013 ISSN : 2277-1743
[2] Goswami B. K., Zahid M. I. and Haq, M. O. (1993). Screening of Colocasia esculenta germplasm to Phytophthora
    leaf blight. Bangladesh J. Plant Pathol.

Volume 3, Issue 3, March 2014                                                                                    Page 562
 International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management (IJAIEM)
                     Web Site: www.ijaiem.org Email: editor@ijaiem.org
Volume 3, Issue 3, March 2014                                                                 ISSN 2319 - 4847

[3] W.-L.Deng, T.-C. Huang, and Y.-C. Tsai “First Report of Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli as the Causal Agent of
     Bacterial Leaf Blight of Betelvine in Taiwan” Department of Plant Pathology, National Chung Hsing University,
     Taichung 402, Taiwan
[4] Mr.J.Vijayakumar & Dr.S.Arumugam “ Early Detection of Powdery Mildew Disease for Betelvine Plants Using
     Digital Image Analysis” International Journal of Modern Engineering Research Vol.2, Issue.4, July-Aug 2012 pp-
     2581-2583 ISSN: 2249-6645
[5] Mr.J.Vijayakumar & Dr.S.Arumugam “Foot Rot Disease Identification For Vellaikodi Variety Of Betelvine Plants
     Using Digital Image Processing” Ictact Journal On Image And Video Processing, November 2012, Volume: 03,
     Issue: 02 Issn: 0976-9102
[6] Mr.J.Vijayakumar & Dr.S.Arumugam “Recognition of Powdery Mildew Disease for Betelvine Plants Using Digital
     Image Processing” International Journal of Distributed and Parallel Systems (IJDPS) Vol.3, No.2, March 201
[7] Sathyabrata Maiti and K.S. Shivashankara, “Betelvine Research Highlights”, 1998. J.F. Dastur, “Diseases of pan
     (piper betle) in the general provinces”, 1935
[8] Dasgupta, B. Mohanty, P.K. Dutta and Satyabrata Maiti, “Phytophthora Diseases of Betelvine (piper betle l.)- A
     Menace to Betelvine Crop”, SAARC Journal of Agriculture, Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 1-19, 2008.
[9] Nikhil Kumar, “Betelvine (piper betle l.) Cultivation: A Unique Case of Planstablishment Under nthroprgenically
     Regulated Microclimatic Conditions”, Indian Journal of History of Science, pp. 19-32, 1999.
[10] Bibekananda Mohanty, Partha Datta, B. Dasgupta and Dalim Kumar Sengupta “Integrated Management of Foot and
     Leaf Rot of Betelvine”, SAARC Journal of Agriculture, Vol. 9, No. 2, pp. 83-91, 2011.
[11] M.H. Shete, G.N. Dake, A.P. Gaikwad and N.B. Pawar, “Chemical Management of Powdery Mildew of Mustard”,
     Journal of Plant Disease Sciences, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 46-48, 2008.
[12] P. Guha, “Betel Leaf: The Neglected Green Gold of India”, Journal of Human Ecology, Vol. 19, No. 2, pp. 87-93,
     2006.
[13] Seetha Lakshmi and K.C. Naidu “Comparative Morphoanatomy of Piper betel L. Cultivars in India”, Annals of
     Biological Research, Vo. 1, No. 2, pp. 128-134, 2010.
[14] Annual Report of All India Coordinated Research Project on Betelvine ICAR (Indian Council of Agricultural
     Research, New Delhi) India, 1997.
[15] Chaurasia J. P. (1994). Studies on the management of Betelvine-Phytophthora disease in Sagar division. Ph.D.
     Thesis, Dr. H. S. Gour University. Sagar. 110pp
[16] Chattapdayay S. P. and Maity S. (1967). Diseases of Betelvine and species.ICAR New Delhi


AUTHOR
         Nutankumar S. Jane received B.E. degree in Electronics Engineering from Bapurao Deshmukh Of Engineering,
         Sewagram, Wardha doing M.E.in Digital Electronics from Prof. Ram Meghe Institute Of Technology And
         Research, Badnera,Amravati .Carringout research work in Digital Image Processing.

         Prof. Mrs Anupama P. Deshmukh received in Electronics Engineering from Bapurao Deshmukh Of
         Engineering,Sewagram,Wardha and received M.E. in Digital Electronics Electronics from Prof. Ram Meghe
         Institute Of Technology And Research, Badnera,Amravati and currently working as Assistant Professor in Prof.
Ram Meghe Institute Of Technology And Research, Badnera,Amravati. Carring out research work in Digital Image
Processing.




Volume 3, Issue 3, March 2014                                                                           Page 563

								
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