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					WATER COOLING SYSTEM
   The water cooling system for a slow speed diesel engine
    consists of two separate circuits: one for cooling the
    cylinder jackets, cylinder heads and turboblowers; the
    other for piston cooling. A separate piston cooling
    system is used to prevent any possibility of
    contamination from piston cooling glands.
   The jacket cooling system is a closed circuit. Water
    passing from the engine returns through a cooler to the
    circulating pump and then to the engine. A header or
    expansion tank is placed at a sufficient height to allow
    the venting and water make-up in the system. This has
    connection from the engine discharge and to the pump
    suction line. A heater is included with by-pass to warm
    the engine prior to starting by circulating hot water.
   The water cooling system for a slow speed diesel engine
    consists of two separate circuits: one for cooling the
    c_______ j________, cylinder _______ and t_____b______;
    the other for p______ cooling. A separate piston cooling
    system is used to prevent any possibility of contamination
    from piston cooling g_____.
   The jacket cooling system is a closed c______. Water
    passing from the engine returns through a c______ to the
    c_________ p_______ and then to the engine. A h_______ or
    expansion tank is placed at a sufficient height to allow the
    v________ and water make-up in the system. This has
    connection from the engine d________ and to the pump
    s________ line. A h_______ is included with by-pass to
    warm the engine p______ to starting by circulating hot
    water.
   The water cooling system for a slow speed diesel engine
    consists of two separate circuits: one for cooling the
    _________, __________ and ___________; the other for piston
    cooling.
   A separate piston cooling system is used to prevent any
    possibility of contamination from __________.
   The jacket cooling system is a __________.
   Water passing from the engine returns through a cooler to
    ________________and then __________.
   A header or ___________ is placed at a sufficient height to
    allow the venting and water ______________.
   This has connection from _____________ and to the pump
    suction line.
   A heater is included with by-pass to ___________prior to
    starting _________________.
   Water enters at the lower end of the jackets, passing up
    to the cylinder covers and then to the exhaust valve
    cages, if these are fitted. Some water is taken from the
    discharge and passed through the turbo-charger
    turbine cooling spaces, before returning to the main
    discharge.
   The piston cooling system pump draws from the supply
    (or drain) tank passing water to the piston cooler and
    then to the engine piston distribution manifold. The
    return from these flows by gravity to the supply tank.
    Arrangements may also be included for the return of
    any leakage from the glands. This must first pass
    through an oil separator and inspection tank. A steam
    coil is fitted in the piston cooling water supply tank for
    preparing the engine for sea.
   Water ________ at the lower end of the jackets, __________
    up to the cylinder covers and then to the exhaust valve
    cages, if these are fitted. Some water is taken from the
    discharge and _________ through the turbo-charger turbine
    cooling spaces, before _________ to the main discharge.

   The piston cooling system pump ________from the supply
    (or drain) tank _________ water to the piston cooler and
    then to the engine piston distribution manifold. The return
    from these _________ by gravity to the supply tank.

   Arrangements may also be _________ for the return of any
    leakage from the glands. This must first _________ through
    an oil separator and inspection tank. A steam coil is
    _________ in the piston cooling water supply tank for
    _________ the engine for sea.
   Water enters at the lower end of the jackets, passing up to
    the __________ and then to the exhaust valve ________, if
    these are fitted. Some water is taken from the discharge
    and passed through the turbo-charger turbine __________,
    before returning to the __________ discharge.
   The piston __________ pump draws from the supply (or
    __________) tank passing water to the __________ and then
    to the engine piston distribution __________.
   The return from these flows by __________ to the supply
    tank.
   __________ may also be included for the return of any
    leakage from the __________.
   This must first pass through an oil __________ and
    inspection tank.
   A steam __________ is fitted in the _____ _____ _______
    _________ for preparing the engine for sea.
   Water enters at the lower end of the jackets, passing up to
    the cylinder covers and then __________ , if these are fitted.
   Some water is taken from the discharge and passed
    through ______________, before returning to the main
    discharge.
   The piston cooling system pump draws from the supply (or
    drain) tank passing __________ and then to the engine
    piston __________.
   The return from these flows by gravity ______________.
   Arrangements may also be included for __________ of any
    leakage from __________.
   This must first pass __________ and __________.
   A steam coil is fitted in the piston cooling water supply
    tank for _________________.
   All fresh water coolers are circulated with the salt (or raw)
    water and have by-pass valve fitted. Thermostatic valves
    are provided to regulate the flow of either the fresh water
    or sea water and so control the temperature of water
    passing through the engine. Fresh water pressure should
    always be greater than that of the salt water to prevent any
    possibility of salt water entering the engine system. To
    reduce the corrosive action and inhibit the formation of
    scale deposit in the system it is usual to provide some
    form of water treatment.
   Both jacket and piston cooling systems must have alarms
    fitted to give warning of loss in pressure, high or low tank
    level or, in some cases, excess of temperature.
   On most engines the fresh water and sea water pumps are
    both of the centrifugal type. They may be engine driven or
    they may be separately driven by electricmotors.
   All fresh water c_______are circulated with the salt (or raw) water and
    have b______ fitted. Thermostatic valves are provided to regulate the
    flow of either the fresh water or _________ and so control the
    temperature of water passing through the engine. Fresh water
    p_________ should always be greater than that of the salt water to
    p_________ any possibility of salt water entering the engine system.
    To reduce the corrosive action and i_________ the formation of
    s_______ d_______ in the system it is usual to provide some form of
    water t__________.
   Both jacket and piston cooling systems must have alarms fitted to
    give w_________ of loss in pressure, high or low tank l_________ or, in
    some cases, e__________ of temperature.
   On most engines the fresh water and sea water pumps are both of
    the c__________ t__________.
   They may be engine d__________ or they may be separately driven by
    e____________.
   All fresh water coolers are circulated with the salt (or raw) water
    and have __________.
   Thermostatic valves are provided to _________ either __________
    or __________ and so _______________ of water passing through
    the engine.
   Fresh water pressure should always be greater _______________
    water to prevent any possibility of salt water _______________.
   To _______________ and inhibit the formation of scale deposit in
    the system it is usual to provide _______________.
   Both jacket and _______________ must have alarms fitted to give
    warning of _______________, high or low tank level or, in some
    cases, _______________ temperature.
   __________________ the fresh water and sea water pumps are both
    of the _____________ type.
   They may be engine driven or they may be _______________.
   Which parts of the diesel engine require cooling ?
   Why is cooling necessary ?
   How is cooling for a slow speed diesel engine carried out ?
   When is a cooling system said to be of a closed type ?
   Why is the water cooling system fitted with a header tank ?
   What is the purpose of the heater ?
   Is the water for piston cooling also drawn from the header
    tank ?
   Is the sea water the primary cooling medium in the
    system ?
   What are the thermostatic valves provided for ?
   Why must cooling water be adequately treated ?
   What alarms should the cooling system be supplied with ?
   What are the fresh and sea water pumps driven by ?
II.   Match the statements in column A with the right terms listed at random in
      column B:
                        A
 a.   Acessory that adjust the engine
      cooling water to a constant                             B
      operating temperature.
 b.   Sleeve of soft material used            •   DRAIN TANK
      to secure a tight packing
      on a piston.                            •   HEADER
 c.   A unit that transfers heat from         •   HEATER
      one fluid to another, as from           •   HEAT EXCHANGER
      water or oil to water or air.           •   GLAND
 d.   A container connected to an             •   THERMOMETER
      engine cooling system, generally        •   THERMOSTAT
      at the highest point, partly filled
                                              •   TURBO-BLOWER
      with water for venting and make up.
                                              •   DISTRIBUTION MANIFOLD
 e.   A device used to remove water and
      other impurities from lubricating and   •   OIL SEPARATOR
      fuel oils.
 f.   A turbine driven air compressor
      powered by the exhaust gas.
III.   Study the Fig.14.2. showing a main engine cooling
       system: 
a.     Make a list of the main components:
1.     ___________________________
2.     ___________________________
3.     ___________________________
4.     ___________________________
5.     ___________________________
6.     ___________________________
7.     ___________________________
8.     ___________________________
9.     ___________________________
b.     Describe the function of each of the components.
c.     Explain the method of cooling shown in the diagram.
PROVIDE - Glagol “provide” jedan je od najčešćih glagola u tehničkim
tekstovima:
 
   Thermostatic valves are provided to     U sistemu hlađenja su postavljeni
    regulate the flow of either the fresh   (ugrađeni, instalirani, nalaze se)
    water or the sea water.                 termostatski ventili radi reguliranja
   To reduce the corrosive action and      protoka slatke ili morske vode.
    inhibit the formation of scale          Da bi se smanjilo djelovanje
    deposits in the system it is usual to   korozije i spriječilo stvaranje
    provide some form of water              kamenca u sistemu, obično postoji
    treatment.                              (se vrši) neka vrsta obrade vode.
   In order to compensate for air          Da bi se nadomjestio zrak koji
    which may become dissolved in the       može biti otopljen u vodi i ispušten
    water and released when heated, an      kada se zagrije, na visini iznad
    open tank is provided at the height     najviše točke sistema (hlađenja)
    above the highest point of the          nalazi se (ugrađen je, montiran je,
    system.                                 instaliran je) otvoreni tank.
Glagol “provide” može se zamijeniti sa there is …, to fit, to
mount, to build in, to install, to supply, npr:

1.   a) There are thermostatic valves to regulate the flow of either the sea or the fresh water.
        b) Thermostatic valves are fitted (supplied, mounted, placed, installed, built in) to
        regulate the flow of either the fresh or the sea water.
2.   a) … in the systems, there is some form of water treatment.
     b) … it is usual to install (fit) some form of water treatment.
3.   a) … and released when heated, there is an open tank at the height above …
        b) … and released when heated, an open tank is fitted (mounted, installed, built in,
         placed) at the height above... 

    Te zamjene (there is, fit, mount, install, build in, supply) odgovaraju našim glagolima
     “nalazi(e) se”, “postoji(e)”, “ugraditi”, “montirati”, “instalirati”, “postaviti”.

    Glagol “provide” najčešće je u pasivnom obliku i označava postojanje ili položaj nečeg.
     Osim toga glagol “provide” često znači i “dati”, “pružiti”, “osigurati”, (give, offer,
     ensure):
 
1.   Automatic sprinkler system provides the highest level of safety on board.
2.   Automatski sprinkler-sistem pruža (daje) najveću sigurnost na brodu.
    Slično je i sa imenicom “provision”:


   The provision of a        Bilo je hitno ugraditi
    water treatment           (montirati, postaviti)
    system was urgent.        sistem obrade vode.

   Provision must be          Mora se postaviti
    made for a new             (osigurati) novi sistem
    water treatment            obrade vode.
    system. (kolokacija
    “make provision
    for”).
I.   Rearrange these sentences using the verb “provide”. Make also necessary changes.

    Ex. There are doors on the cylinder casing, through which the water spaces may be
     cleaned and inspected when overhauling the engine.
         Doors are provided on the cylinder casing, through which the water spaces may be
     cleaned and inspected when overhauling the engine.

1.   These manufacturers supply the piston rings which can be run in quickly.
2.   Modern medium-speed engines are turbocharged.
3.   There is a control bore in the cylinder cover to enable possible gas leakage to be
     detected between the two parts of the cover.
4.   The new maintenance system ensures higher reliability and lower costs.
5.   On most engines sea water and fresh water pumps are fitted.
6.   This design is termed the “coctailshaker”, the motion of the oil offering extremely
     good heat transfer.
7.   In the cylinder head there is an indicator for measuring the cylinder pressure.
8.   The cylinder cover-insert is fitted with the necessary bore holes to accommodate the
     valves.
II.   Translate into English using the verb “provide”:

1.    Na ulasku u cirkulacionu pumpu nalazi se filter
      goriva.
2.    Ovaj brod pruža najbolje uvjete života posadi.
3.    Na jednom kraju klackalice nalazi se vijak za
      podešavanje zračnosti ventila.
4.    Ugradnjom manometra pritisak se može stalno
      kontrolirati.
5.    Većina srednjehodnih dizel motora izvedena je s
      direktnim prekretanjem.
6.    Na glavi cilindra montiran je i ventil uputnog
      zraka.
7.    Da bi se ležaj zaštitio od korozije oni imaju tanki
      sloj indija ili olova.
•   HEAT SOURCES
•   HEAT SOURCES
    Ø Burning of fuel
•   HEAT SOURCES
    Ø Burning of fuel
    Ø Heat developed by compression of air
•   HEAT SOURCES
    Ø Burning of fuel
    Ø Heat developed by compression of air
    Ø Frictional heat
•   HEAT SOURCES
    Ø Burning of fuel
    Ø Heat developed by compression of air
    Ø Frictional heat

2. HEAT DISTRIBUTION
•   HEAT SOURCES
    Ø Burning of fuel
    Ø Heat developed by compression of air
    Ø Frictional heat

2. HEAT DISTRIBUTION
    Ø 1/3 = converted into useful work ( transferred into mechanical energy /
    BHP.
•   HEAT SOURCES
    Ø Burning of fuel
    Ø Heat developed by compression of air
    Ø Frictional heat

2. HEAT DISTRIBUTION
    Ø 1/3 = converted into useful work ( transferred into mechanical energy /
    BHP.
    Ø 1/3 = lost as exhaust gases
•   HEAT SOURCES
    Ø Burning of fuel
    Ø Heat developed by compression of air
    Ø Frictional heat

2. HEAT DISTRIBUTION
    Ø 1/3 = converted into useful work ( transferred into mechanical energy /
    BHP.
    Ø 1/3 = lost as exhaust gases
    Ø 1/3 = lost for cooling / absorbed by metallic walls of the combustion
    chamber.
•   HEAT SOURCES
    Ø Burning of fuel
    Ø Heat developed by compression of air
    Ø Frictional heat

2. HEAT DISTRIBUTION
    Ø 1/3 = converted into useful work ( transferred into mechanical energy /
    BHP.
    Ø 1/3 = lost as exhaust gases
    Ø 1/3 = lost for cooling / absorbed by metallic walls of the combustion
    chamber.

3. OVERHEATING
•   HEAT SOURCES
    Ø Burning of fuel
    Ø Heat developed by compression of air
    Ø Frictional heat

2. HEAT DISTRIBUTION
    Ø 1/3 = converted into useful work ( transferred into mechanical energy /
    BHP.
    Ø 1/3 = lost as exhaust gases
    Ø 1/3 = lost for cooling / absorbed by metallic walls of the combustion
    chamber.

3. OVERHEATING
    Ø Breakdown of L.O. film
•   HEAT SOURCES
    Ø Burning of fuel
    Ø Heat developed by compression of air
    Ø Frictional heat

2. HEAT DISTRIBUTION
    Ø 1/3 = converted into useful work ( transferred into mechanical energy /
    BHP.
    Ø 1/3 = lost as exhaust gases
    Ø 1/3 = lost for cooling / absorbed by metallic walls of the combustion
    chamber.

3. OVERHEATING
    Ø Breakdown of L.O. film
    Ø Loss in material strenght
•   HEAT SOURCES
    Ø Burning of fuel
    Ø Heat developed by compression of air
    Ø Frictional heat

2. HEAT DISTRIBUTION
    Ø 1/3 = converted into useful work ( transferred into mechanical energy /
    BHP.
    Ø 1/3 = lost as exhaust gases
    Ø 1/3 = lost for cooling / absorbed by metallic walls of the combustion
    chamber.

3. OVERHEATING
    Ø Breakdown of L.O. film
    Ø Loss in material strenght
    Ø Excessive stresses due to unequal temperatures
•   HEAT SOURCES
    Ø Burning of fuel
    Ø Heat developed by compression of air
    Ø Frictional heat

2. HEAT DISTRIBUTION
    Ø 1/3 = converted into useful work ( transferred into mechanical energy /
    BHP.
    Ø 1/3 = lost as exhaust gases
    Ø 1/3 = lost for cooling / absorbed by metallic walls of the combustion
    chamber.

3. OVERHEATING
    Ø Breakdown of L.O. film
    Ø Loss in material strenght
    Ø Excessive stresses due to unequal temperatures
    Ø Faliure to maintain proper clearances between running parts.
4. COOLANTS
4. COOLANTS
  Ø Fresh water
4. COOLANTS
  Ø Fresh water
  Ø Luboil
4. COOLANTS
  Ø Fresh water
  Ø Luboil

5. COOLING WATER TEMPERATURE
4. COOLANTS
  Ø Fresh water
  Ø Luboil

5. COOLING WATER TEMPERATURE
     5.1 The temperature should be kept as high as possible.
4. COOLANTS
  Ø Fresh water
  Ø Luboil

5. COOLING WATER TEMPERATURE
     5.1 The temperature should be kept as high as possible.
     5.2 If to high, it will cause boiling of water and formation of scale
     deposits ( incrustration )
4. COOLANTS
  Ø Fresh water
  Ø Luboil

5. COOLING WATER TEMPERATURE
     5.1 The temperature should be kept as high as possible.
     5.2 If to high, it will cause boiling of water and formation of scale
     deposits ( incrustration )
     5.3 If to low, it will lead to condensation of combustion gases on the
     liner surfaces.
4. COOLANTS
  Ø Fresh water
  Ø Luboil

5. COOLING WATER TEMPERATURE
     5.1 The temperature should be kept as high as possible.
     5.2 If to high, it will cause boiling of water and formation of scale
     deposits ( incrustration )
     5.3 If to low, it will lead to condensation of combustion gases on the
     liner surfaces.
              5.3.1 Product of condensation may:
4. COOLANTS
  Ø Fresh water
  Ø Luboil

5. COOLING WATER TEMPERATURE
     5.1 The temperature should be kept as high as possible.
     5.2 If to high, it will cause boiling of water and formation of scale
     deposits ( incrustration )
     5.3 If to low, it will lead to condensation of combustion gases on the
     liner surfaces.
              5.3.1 Product of condensation may:
              Ø contain acids causing corrosion
4. COOLANTS
  Ø Fresh water
  Ø Luboil

5. COOLING WATER TEMPERATURE
     5.1 The temperature should be kept as high as possible.
     5.2 If to high, it will cause boiling of water and formation of scale
     deposits ( incrustration )
     5.3 If to low, it will lead to condensation of combustion gases on the
     liner surfaces.
              5.3.1 Product of condensation may:
              Ø contain acids causing corrosion
              Ø cause so called cold sludge in the L.O. increasing wear in all
              moving parts
6. COOLING WATER TREATMENT & CONSEQUENCES
6. COOLING WATER TREATMENT & CONSEQUENCES
     Ø If the cooling water is not properly treated, the closed cooling
     systems may undergo fouling, formation of deposits ( preventing or
     disturbing the heat transfer ). The deposit consists of loose sludge and
     solid particles.
6. COOLING WATER TREATMENT & CONSEQUENCES
     Ø If the cooling water is not properly treated, the closed cooling
     systems may undergo fouling, formation of deposits ( preventing or
     disturbing the heat transfer ). The deposit consists of loose sludge and
     solid particles.
     Ø Removal: mechanically ( first brushed or rinsed off with water ) or
     chemically.
6. COOLING WATER TREATMENT & CONSEQUENCES
     Ø If the cooling water is not properly treated, the closed cooling
     systems may undergo fouling, formation of deposits ( preventing or
     disturbing the heat transfer ). The deposit consists of loose sludge and
     solid particles.
     Ø Removal: mechanically ( first brushed or rinsed off with water ) or
     chemically.
     Ø Narrow spaces are chemically cleaned.
6. COOLING WATER TREATMENT & CONSEQUENCES
     Ø If the cooling water is not properly treated, the closed cooling
     systems may undergo fouling, formation of deposits ( preventing or
     disturbing the heat transfer ). The deposit consists of loose sludge and
     solid particles.
     Ø Removal: mechanically ( first brushed or rinsed off with water ) or
     chemically.
     Ø Narrow spaces are chemically cleaned.
     Ø Limestone deposits can be cleaned with acid solution.
6. COOLING WATER TREATMENT & CONSEQUENCES
     Ø If the cooling water is not properly treated, the closed cooling
     systems may undergo fouling, formation of deposits ( preventing or
     disturbing the heat transfer ). The deposit consists of loose sludge and
     solid particles.
     Ø Removal: mechanically ( first brushed or rinsed off with water ) or
     chemically.
     Ø Narrow spaces are chemically cleaned.
     Ø Limestone deposits can be cleaned with acid solution.

7. WATER COOLING SYSTEMS
6. COOLING WATER TREATMENT & CONSEQUENCES
     Ø If the cooling water is not properly treated, the closed cooling
     systems may undergo fouling, formation of deposits ( preventing or
     disturbing the heat transfer ). The deposit consists of loose sludge and
     solid particles.
     Ø Removal: mechanically ( first brushed or rinsed off with water ) or
     chemically.
     Ø Narrow spaces are chemically cleaned.
     Ø Limestone deposits can be cleaned with acid solution.

7. WATER COOLING SYSTEMS
     Ø Large slow speed, two stroke engines have 2 separate closed
     cooling circuits.
6. COOLING WATER TREATMENT & CONSEQUENCES
     Ø If the cooling water is not properly treated, the closed cooling
     systems may undergo fouling, formation of deposits ( preventing or
     disturbing the heat transfer ). The deposit consists of loose sludge and
     solid particles.
     Ø Removal: mechanically ( first brushed or rinsed off with water ) or
     chemically.
     Ø Narrow spaces are chemically cleaned.
     Ø Limestone deposits can be cleaned with acid solution.

7. WATER COOLING SYSTEMS
     Ø Large slow speed, two stroke engines have 2 separate closed
     cooling circuits.
     Ø A header or expansion tank allows venting of the system. The
     header has connections from engine discharge & pump suction line.
6. COOLING WATER TREATMENT & CONSEQUENCES
     Ø If the cooling water is not properly treated, the closed cooling
     systems may undergo fouling, formation of deposits ( preventing or
     disturbing the heat transfer ). The deposit consists of loose sludge and
     solid particles.
     Ø Removal: mechanically ( first brushed or rinsed off with water ) or
     chemically.
     Ø Narrow spaces are chemically cleaned.
     Ø Limestone deposits can be cleaned with acid solution.

7. WATER COOLING SYSTEMS
     Ø Large slow speed, two stroke engines have 2 separate closed
     cooling circuits.
     Ø A header or expansion tank allows venting of the system. The
     header has connections from engine discharge & pump suction line.
     Ø A heater is fitted with by pass to warm the engine when necessary.
Ø Cylinder jacket system
Ø Cylinder jacket system
    Water → lower end of the jacket → cylinder cover → exhaust valve cages
    → turbocharger → turbine cooling spaces → air separator → main
    discharge.
Ø Cylinder jacket system
    Water → lower end of the jacket → cylinder cover → exhaust valve cages
    → turbocharger → turbine cooling spaces → air separator → main
    discharge.

Ø The piston cooling system
Ø Cylinder jacket system
    Water → lower end of the jacket → cylinder cover → exhaust valve cages
    → turbocharger → turbine cooling spaces → air separator → main
    discharge.

Ø The piston cooling system
        Water → piston cooling tank → piston water cooler → piston cooling
        connections → return by gravity to supply tank

				
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