67

					                 МІНІСТЕРСТВО ОСВІТИ УКРАЇНИ
       ПРИАЗОВСКЬКИЙ ДЕРЖАВНИЙ ТЕХНІЧНИЙ УНІВЕРСИТЕТ




                        МЕТОДИЧНА РОЗРОБКА

до курсу « Практичний курс аспектного перекладу / Металургія »

для самостійної роботи студентів 4 курсу спеціальності « Переклад »




                        м. Маріуполь 2005
УДК 811.111′24 (076.5)

  Навчально-методична розробка з розвитку вмінь та навичок усного та письмового
мовлення за темою “Металургія” (для самостійної роботи студентів 4 курсу
спеціальності «Переклад») / Уклад.: Аріхбаєва І.Г.; ПДТУ – Маріуполь,2005. - 17 с.




       Навчально-методична розробка призначена для самостійної роботи студентів 4
курсу спеціальності «Переклад» та ставить своєю метою вдосконалення навичок
читання, мовлення, письма та перекладу. Розробка містить лексичний матеріал, тексти
науково-технічного характеру та комплекс вправ . Текстовий матеріал відповідає
вимогам програми 4 курсу. Пропоновані вправи та завдання спрямовані на поглиблення
знань та розвито мовних та перекладацьких навичок у студентів гуманітарних
спеціальностей.
Навчально-методична розробка містить великий обсяг матеріалів для поширення
лексичного багажу студентів.



Рецензент:               Л.М.Лазаренко, доц..




Укладач:                 І.Г.Аріхбаєва, викл.




Відповідальний за випуск:
Зав.кафедрою Лазаренко Л.М., доц..




Затверджено на засіданні кафедри іноземних мов та перекладу
   Протокол № ___1___ від 31.08.2005 р.
                              TEXT 1.

                              SINTERING
    1. Almost all iron ores require concentration. The ore concentrate is a powdery material,
unsuitable for blast-furnace smelting. Before charging into the blast furnace it must be
agglomerated into lumps. Two agglomeration methods are generally used: sintering and
pelletizing.
    Sintering is presently the predominant process while pelletizing is a developing method.
Sintering may be defined as a process in which iron-bearing materials of a fine particle size
are converted into coarse agglomerates by partial fusion. The product has a porous structure,
resembling a «clinker» in physical appearance, and its mineralogy may be substantially dif-
ferent from that of the original iron-bearing fines.
   2. The principle of agglomerating by partial fusion has been known for centuries. But
sintering, as we know it today, originated at the beginning of the 20 th century after the
invention in 1906 by Dewght-Lloyd, of the first continuous sintering machine, a chain grate
design. In sintering, a shallow bed of the fine particles is agglomerated by heat exchange and
partial fusion of the quiescent mass. Heat is generated by combustion of a solid fuel admixed
with the bed of fines being agglomerated. The combustion is initiated by igniting the fuel
exposed at the surface of the bed, after which a narrow, high temperature zone is caused to
move through the bed by an induced draft applied at the bottom of the bed. Within this
narrow zone, the surfaces of adjacent particles reach fusion temperature, and gangue con-
stituents form a semi-liquid slag. The bonding is effected by a combination of fusion and
grain growth. The incoming air quenches and solidifies the rear edge of the advancing fusion
zone.
    3. In the ferrous industry, the essential materials for sintering consist of a mixture of iron-
bearing fines, fluxes and a solid particulated fuel. The iron-bearing constituents are princi-
pally iron ore fines, recycled sinter fines, and flue dust, but may also include mill scale, open
hearth precipitator dust, and similar iron-bearing materials. Coke breeze is the most common
solid fuel, but other carbonaceous materials are also used. It has become common practice to
incorporate the sinter mix limestone fines, dolomite fines and lime as a flux. This composite
of fine material is well mixed and placed on the sinter strand in a shallow bed, seldom less
than six inches or more than twenty inches depth.
    4. Upon ignition, within a furnace which straddles the bed, the surface of the bed is heated
to about 2500° F, combustion of the fuel is initiated, and the fine particles at the surface are
fused together. As air is drawn through the bed, the high temperature zone of combustion and
fusion moves downwardly through the bed and produces the bonded, cellular structure of the
sinter. During the process, the induced air is preheated by the hot sinter overlying the
combustion and fusion zones, and the sensible heat, contained in the combustion products and
the excess air is transferred to the bed below the fusion zone. Thus, a temperature distribution
exists through the bed such that a series of physically and chemically separate zones are
formed.
    5. Five commonly observed zones are characterized as follows:

   1. Zone of Sinter represents the product of the process.
   2. Zone of Combustion and Fusion. It is within this zone that oxidation of carbon to
carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide provides the large quantity of heat for slag formation
and the fusion of the ore particles.
   3. Zone of Calcination. At this level in the bed, the gas stream is sufficiently hot as to
calcinate the carbonates.
   4. Dry and Preheat Zone. Within this zone the charge has been heated sufficiently to
volatilize free moisture.
   5. Wet Zone. The moisture level of the upper part of this zone may be raised by the
condensation of moisture removed from the previous zones. Excess condensation can fill the
pore space with water, cause the collapse of the micropellets, and seriously decrease the bed
permeability.

  EXERCISES

   I. Memorize the words.

    1. ore concentrate — железорудный концентрат
    2. sintering — агломерация
    3. pelletizing — окомкование
    4. predominant process — доминирующий процесс
       5. coarse agglomerate — крупный агломерат
       6. in physical appearance — по внешнему виду
       7. at the surface of the bed — над поверхностью слоя (горна)
       8. the surface of adjacent particles — поверхность смежных частичек
       9. fusion temperature — температура плавления
      10. gangue constituents — шлакообразующие составляющие
      I1. bonding — упрочнение
      12. rear edge — верхняя кромка
      13. fusion zone — зона плавления
      14. mixture of iron-bearing fines — смесь железосодержащей мелочи
      15. particulated fuel — измельченное топливо
      16. recycled sinter fines — возврат
      17. flue dust — колошниковая пыль
      18. mill scale — прокатная окалина
      19. open hearth precipitator dust — мартеновская пыль
      20. coke breeze — коксин
      21. carbonaceous materials — углеродсодержащие мате
           риалы
      22. sinter mix limestone fines — агломерационная шихта
           известняка
      23. to place on the sinter strand — загружать на аглоленту
      24. to straddle the bed — располагаться над шихтой
      25. to be drawn through — просасываться через
      26. to produce the bonded, cellular structure — образовать связанную, пористую структуру
      27. sensible heat — аккумулированное тепло
      28. quiescent — неподвижный (статический)
      29. clinker — спекшийся материал, шлак
      30. zone of sinter — зона агломерата
      31. calcination zone — зона обжига
       32. dry and preheat zone — зона сушки и подогрева
      33. to volatilize — удалять
      34. physical breakdown — физическое разрушение
      35. wet zone — зона сырой шихты
      36. sensible heat — аккумулированное тепло
II.       Guess the meaning of the words and word combinations in italics from the context.
    1. In the ferrous industry, the essential materials for sintering consist of a mixture of iron-bearing
fines, fluxes and a solid, particulated fuel.
    2. A temperature distribution exists through the bed such that a series of physically and chemically
separate zones are formed.
    3. The surface of the bed is heated to about 2500 °F, combustion of the fuel is initiated.

III. Taking into account the inflexions and form-words prove that the words and word combinations
given below are predicates in the active or passive voice:

          1. required; 2. is a material; 3. must be agglomerated; 4. are used; 5. is developing; 6. may be
             defined; 7. are converted; 8. has; 9. will resemble; 10. has been known; 11. exposed; 12.
             applied; 13. can effect; 14. may include.


IV. Read sentences and determine which of the words in italics are nouns, adjectives, verbs or
adverbs.
   1. Almost all iron ores required concentration. 2. The ore concentrate is a powdery material,
unsuitable for blast furnace smelting. 3. The product has a porous structure, resembling a «clinker» in
physical appearance, and its mineralogy may be substantially different from that of the original iron-
bearing fines.
                                 Text 2
          BLAST FURNACE DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION AND EQUIPMENT
    1. The blast furnace has been the principal unit for the production of hot metal from iron
ore for over 600 years. Since that time the furnace has not been changed in the main. It is still
a vertical shaft, with iron ore and carbon entering at the top, air blown in below, and molten
iron emerging periodically from the bottom.
    2. The main dimensions of the furnace lines are: hearth diameter, bosh diameter, top
diameter, height of hearth; height of bosh, height of vertical section; height of sloped inwall;
hearth bottom to iron notch and iron notch to cinder notch, working height (centerline of
tuyeres to stockline), working volume.
    The typical construction is for the subhearth to rest directly on a steel-reinforced concrete
foundation. Resting on this same concrete pad are columns that support the mantle of the fur-
nace which in turn supports the shell of the stack and the entire super structure.
    The crucible at the bottom of the furnace consists of a subhearth usually from 10—15 feet
thick made up of several layers of ceramic bottom block. The sidewalls above the floor of the
hearth are 2—3 ft thick. Hearth sidewalls are now generally carbon. These may be of block
and / or brick construction. Because of the high thermal conductivity of carbon, water cooling
is very effective in extending the life of the carbon hearth. Clay brick is seldom used in the
hearth sidewalls today because of their high solution rate in the slag.
   The entire crucible is encased in a steel hearth jacket about 1—1/2" thick. Just inside this
jacket are cast iron water cooled staves. In the area of the iron notch specially shaped castings
are used that leave an opening large enough for the tap hole.
   In a few instances in America as well as in Europe, the entire hearth is made of carbon, and
undercooling is used to keep the carbon from reacting with the hot metal.
    3. The slag notch is sometimes at a level above the top of the hearth cooling staves. If not,
a special short stave is used in the slag notch location. The opening through the hearth wall is
protected by a large conical cooler. A smaller intermediate cooler fits into this and holds a
small water cooled casting through which the slag is withdrawn from the furnace. This small
water-cooled casting that extends into the furnace is called the «monkey».
    4. Above the heath jacket is the tuyere jacket, housing the portion of the hearth penetrated
by the tuyere openings. Many furnaces use carbon brick to the top of the tuyere breast and
ceramic brick above that level, however, in some furnaces the carbon brick extends to the top
of the bosh.
     The openings for the tuyeres are protected by large annular coolers and these coolers are
often surrounded with arches of fireclay brick. When the lining of the bosh is made of
ceramic, copper cooling plates are used that extend through the entire thickness of the lining.
In some blast furnaces the bosh and the lower portion of stock is cooled with water-cooled
cast iron staves.
    In most of the modern furnaces water-cooled plates are placed in the lining of the stack for
at least 3/4 of the height to decrease erosion of the brick and to help to maintain the original
furnace lines. The furnace lining above the bosh is called the inwall. The inwall is sloped to
reduce the friction between the burden and the inwall and thus to enhance the downward
movement of the burden. The materials to be charged are dumped into the furnace by
lowering a conical bell.
    The gas is removed from the furnace by offtake mains through openings in the conical
section adjacent to the hopper. To ensure that the gas goes out through these offtakes when
the large bell is opened, a second smaller bell is provided which remains closed when the
large bell is opened. Some furnaces are provided with two small bells so that the large bell
hopper can be pressurized at all times.
    To distribute the materials uniformly around the periphery of the furnace, the small bell
hopper is rotated before it is discharged into the large bell hopper.
    For this purpose most furnaces use a McKee revolving distributor.

   EXERCISES:
   Words and word combinations:
    1. iron ore and carbon entering at the top — подача железной руды и кокса в
верхнюю часть
   2. to emerge — появляться
   3. calculation of furnace lines — расчет профиля печи
   4. improvement — усовершенствование
   5. main dimensions — основные элементы
   6. hearth diameter — диаметр горна
    7. bosh — заплечики
   8. top — колошник
   9. height of hearth — высота горна
   10. vertical section — распар
   11. sloped inwall — наклонная шахта
   10. working height (centerline of tuyeres to stockline) — рабочая высота (расстояние от
оси фурмы до уровня засыпи)
   12. volume — объем
   13. subhearth — лещадь
   14. to rest directly on a steel-reinforced foundation — опираться непосредственно на
железобетонный фундамент
   15. pad — бетонная подушка
   16. mantle of the furnace — мараторное кольцо печи
   17. shell of the stack — кожух шахты
   18. super structure — колошниковое устройство
   19.crucible — металлоприемник
   20.water cooling — водяное охлаждение
   21.clay brick — огнеупорный кирпич
   22.to incase in a steel hearth jacket — заключать в стальной кожух
   23.cast iron water-cooled staves — литые чугунные водоохлаждаемые холодильники
   24.iron notch — чугунная летка
   25.the hearth cooling stave — водоохлаждаемый холодильник горна
   26.to fit and hold — плотно входить и удерживать
   27.water-cooled casting (the «monkey» ) — водоохлаждаемая отливка
   28. hearth jacket — кожух горна
   29. tuyere jacket — кожух фурменной зоны
   30.tuyere openings — амбразуры воздушных фурм
   31.fireclay brick — огнеупорный кирпич
   32.erosion of the brick — разрушение огнеупорного кирпича
   33. friction — трение
   34. to enhance the dawnward movement of the burden — облегчить опускание шихты
   35. impact — разрушение
   36. hopper — воронка
   37. conical bell — конус
   38. offtake main — газоотвод
  39. adjacent to the hopper — примыкающий к засыпному аппарату
  40. elevated top pressure — повышенное давление на колошнике



           LEXICAL EXERCISES


    I. Insert words and word combinations from the text.
    I. The blast furnace (является основным агрегатом) for the production of hot metal from
iron ore for over 600 years.
2. Since that time the furnace (не изменялась в главном).
    3. It is still (вертикальная шахта) with (подачей железной руды и кокса в верхнюю
часть) air blown in below, and (жидкий чугун) emerging periodically from the bottom.
    4. All (расчеты профиля печи) are not -well-grounded theoretically.
     5. The crucible at the bottom of the furnace consists of (лещади) usually from 10 to 15
feet thick (выложенной из нескольких рядов керамических блоков).

   II. Find in the text English equivalents of the following Russian sentences.
   1. Более 600 лет доменная печь является основным агрегатом для производства
расплавленного металла из железной руды.
   2. Отверстие в стенке горна защищается большим коническим холодильником.
   3. Эта небольшая водоохлаждаемая отливка, которая выдвинута в печь, называется
шлаковой фурмой (в американском производственном жаргоне называется
«обезьянкой»).
    4. Выше кожуха горна располагается кожух фурменной зоны, представляющей собой
часть горна, сквозь которую проникают амбразуры воздушных фурм.
   5. Когда кладка заплечиков изготавливается из керамических огнеупоров, применяют
медные водоохлаждаемые плитовые (ребристые) холодильники, которые проникают на
всю толщину кладки.
                  Text 3
               ACID BESSEMER PROCESS
   Up to the middle of the 19th century, methods for producing liquid steel in large amounts
were nonexistent. At that time, steel was only made by the crucible process, in which
wrought iron was smelted together with some carburizing and alloying additives in small
refractory crucibles or pots. The process required much time and consumed a large amount of
fuel.
    In 1855, Henry Bessemer of Great Britain proposed a method of making steel in a very
short time (10—15 minutes) by blowing air through liquid iron without expenditure of fuel.
The invention was called into being by the necessity of producing large tonnages of metal for
casting of artillery guns and construction of railways.
    The discovery of the process was announced by the inventor to the British association for
the advancement of science in 1856.
    The production of Bessemer steel commenced in Sheffield in 1856.
    The Bessemer process became very popular in other countries. Thus, for instance, in
Russia the process was mastered already in 1857 at the Vsevolod-Vilvensky works, and in
1859, at the Verkhne-Turinsky and Votkinsky works. The Bessemer process was used there
mainly to make commercial iron, but rail steel was also produced with success. The further
industrial development of the process in Russia (1872—1875) brought about the original
Russian version of the Bessemer process for blowing low-silicon pig irons preheated in a
cupola or reverberatory furnace. The inventors of this version were D. K. Chernov of the
Obukhovsky works in Petersburg and K. P. Polenov of the Nizhne-Saldinsky works.
    Before the Great Patriotic War, old Bessemer shops were still in operation at the Petrovsky
works (the city of Dnepropetrovsk), Dzerzhinsky works, Ordzhonikidze works, and Lenin
works (the city of Donetsk). In the war years, a Bessemer shop was built in the Urals for
conversion of vanadium pig iron by-the duplex process. In 1956, Bessemer converters for
making semiproduct for open-hearth furnaces were put into operation at the Orsko-
Khalilovsky integrated works.
    In 1900, more than a half of the world steel output was produced in Bessemer and Thomas
converter shops. But in the first part of this century, a share of converter practice in the world
steel output 'was steadily decreasing.
    By fifties less than 20 per cent of steel was produced in converters, and there was an
evident tendency towards complete disappearance of Bessemer practice and towards the
development of fading Thomas practice, traditional in West Europe, which was* dependent
on Lorraine depositing of high-phosphorus iron ores.
    The problem of reviving converter process solved favourably by changing over to top
blowing of hot metal by means of a metallic water-cooled lance. This process is termed as LD
process.
                            Text 4
             THE OXYGEN CONVERTER PRACTICE

    1. The use of oxygen has become an effective means of improving modern process of conversion.
Oxygen is especially of a great significance for the converter production. In open-hearth practice
oxygen is chiefly an intensifier whereas in converter production it is the most efficient means of
improving the quality of steel.
    The use of oxygen in the converter steel production has radically changed its technical and
economic indices, possibilities and prospects.
    2. In 1872 D. K. Chernov, Russian metallurgist, and in 1899 D.I. Mendeleyev wrote about the
feasibility of oxygen use in steel production.
    The first semicommercial experiments on the use of technically pure oxygen for blowing hot metal
from top were carried out in the USSR by engineer N. I. Mozgovoi in 1933.
    In the USSR the first heats in small capacity converters with the use of technically pure oxygen
were made in 1944. Only the war did not permit the development of the productive usage of this
process in our country. Mozgovoi's idea found industrial application after the war. New steelmaking
shops were put into operation at Austrian plants in Linz and Donavitz in 1952—1953.
    This method is known now as LD process according to the names of Austrian towns where the
process was performed.
    3. The top-blown method in technical literature in our country is termed as oxygen converter
process. In the USSR extensive experiments in top-blown converters of 8—15 tonne capacity were
carried out in 1954—1955. On the basis of these experiments the first oxygen converter shops in the
USSR were designed and put into operation in 1956 at the Petrovsky plant (the city of
Dnepropetrovsk) and at the end of 1957 in Krivoi Rog.
    4. Nowadays the converter processes are divided into two large groups:
    1. Air-blast converter processes, such as Bessemer and Thomas processes which are practically out
of use at present.
    2. Oxygen converter processes.
    In its turn oxygen converter processes are subdivided into three large groups:
    a) top-blown oxygen converters;
    b) bottom-blown oxygen converters;
    c) converters with combined method of oxygen input.
    Modern converter plants consist of several departments:
a) converter department, b) mixer department, c) charge materials yard, d) teeming department,
e) mould preparation yard, f) stripper .yard.
    The departments are located in separate buildings, so that a specific group of operation sequences
is carried out in each building. The converter department of the typical steelmaking plant is equipped
with two or three converters.
    The mixer department is equipped with two mixers of 1.300— 2.500 t capacity each.
    The typical oxygen converter steelmaking plant also comprises the following production
departments: magnetic materials yard, flux materials stock-yard (or main storehouse of block
materials), mould hydraulic cleaning plant, showering installation for mould cooling, mould coating
yard.
    5. The new oxygen-converter t steelmaking made a great progress in the Soviet Union. At present
converter plants with vessels of 50, 130—150, 250, 300—400 t capacity are available at a number of
works.
    The oxygen converter steelmaking makes it possible to carry out treatment of hot metals including
high-phosphorus and naturally alloyed hot metals of diverse analysis.
    The.heat balance of the process favours steel production and melting a considerable amount of steel
scrap or direct iron ore reduction.
    6. A short tap-to-tap cycle and resultant frequent tapping call for considerable development of
charging and teeming sides. To secure quick charging and eliminate converter delays, the handling and
charging of each kind of materials into the converter are accomplished by a special group of
mechanisms and machines. The converter plants render it possible to produce both killed and
rimming steel teemed for the ingots of any weight and different configurations.
    Depending on the specific conditions at the plant and also on the grades of steel being
 manufactured provision is made for either bottom or top pouring method.
    7. Oxygen-converter processes are steadily perfecting and improving the indices. At
 present advantages of the oxygen-converter practice over open-hearth are considerable and
 undoubted.
    The advantages of the converter process over that of the open-hearth one are as follows:
    a) less capital costs and conversion expenditures;
    b) high productivity (400—500 tonne per hour);
    c) simplicity of operation, etc.
    In view of this the share of oxygen-converter practice in all industrially developed
 countries is steadily and speedily growing, while the open-hearth furnaces and shops are not
 erected any longer.
   The foregoing attests great promises and priority development of the oxygen-converter
practice in the USSR and abroad in the nearest future.


  LEXICAL EXERCISES


   I.      Memorize the following words and word combinations.


   1. oxygen converter process — кислородно-конвертерное производство
   2. intensifier — усилитель
   3. feasibility — возможность
   4. semicommercial experiments — полупромышленные эксперименты
   5. heat — плавка
   6. small capacity converters — конвертеры малой емкости
   7. LD process — ЛД процесс
   8. rotary inclined converters — вращающиеся наклонные конвертеры
   9. converter department — конвертерное отделение
   10. mixer department — миксерное отделение
   11. teeming department — разливочное отделение
   12. charge materials yard — отделение шихтовых материалов
   13. mould preparation yard — отделение подготовки изложниц
   14. stripper yard — отделение раздевания слитков
   15. charge magnetic materials yard — отделение шихтовых магнитных материалов
   16. flux materials stock-yard — отделение шихтовых сыпучих материалов
   17. mould hydraulic cleaning plant — отделение гидравлической чистки изложниц
   18. showering installation for mould cooling — душ для охлаждения изложниц
   19. mould coating yard — отделение смазки изложниц
   20. mould yard — двор изложниц
   21. vessel of... tonne capacity—конвертер емкостью в ..тонн
   22. productivity per unit of aggregate capacity and per capita — производительность на единицу
агрегатной емкости и на душу населения
   23. operating expences — расходы по переделу
   24. erection and commissioning — установка и пуск
   25. priority — приоритет
                                             Text 5
                             STEEL TAPPING AND TEEMING

   1. Upon completion of blowing and removal of the lance, the converter is rotated to the
teeming aisles side for opening the steel tap hole. The tap hole opening is carried out by a steel
worker assistant from a movable platform.
   The movable platform serves to span the floor opening and to draw the steel worker
assistant nearer to the converter during opening and closing the tap hole. The movable
platform is equipped with a shield for protecting the steel worker assistant from heat radiation
and can also be used for-sampling.
   After the tap hole opened the platform moves off and the converter is rotated to the
teeming aisles side.
   2. Tapping the heat is performed through the tap hole into the steel teeming ladle, placed
on the self-propelled teeming ladle car. The car is remote-controlled from a special pulpit. The
power is supplied via lower current collectors from trolleys located in the through tunnel.
During the heat tapping operation the teeming ladle car is moved following the metal stream.
   Upon the completion of tapping, the car with a full ladle is transferred to one of the
teeming aisles, where the ladle is hooked by the crane and transported to a free teeming
platform.
    3. Steel teeming is performed from the crane which moves along the teeming platform to
fill the moulds. In the teeming aisle No. 1, where the teeming platform is shorter than that of
the teeming aisle No. 2 and where a pusher is mounted, teeming is feasible by moving the
mould train by the pusher while the crane is in a fixed position.
     During rimmed steel teeming, provision is made for covering the moulds with caps. This
operation is performed by bracket-swing cranes moving along the teeming platforms.
    4. Upon the completion of teeming the mould train is held in the aisle and thereafter moved
out of the converter department. The holding time is determined depending on the steel grade
and the weight of ingots.
    After holding, the train with ingots is transferred to the stripper yard, where hot tops are
taken off the ingots of killed steel, the ingots are tested, ingots of rimmed steel are subjected
to stripping off.


EXERCISES:


1. Memorize the words:

   1. removal of the lance — подъем фурмы
   2. teeming aisle — разливочный пролет
   3. steel tap hole — сталевыпускное отверстие
   4. closing — заделка
   5. heat radiation — тепловое излучение
   6. tapping the heat — выпуск плавки
   7. self-propelled teeming ladle car — самоходная сталевозная тележка
   8. current collector — токоприемник
   9. through tunnel — проходной тоннель
   10. to feel the moulds — заполнять изложницы
   11. to mount a pusher — устанавливать толкатель
   12. rimmed steel — кипящая сталь
   13. bracket-swing cranes — консольные поворотные краны
   14. to hold in the aisle — выдерживать в пролете
   15. steel grade — марка стали
   16. weight of ingots — развес слитков
   17. hot top — прибыльная надставка
   18. killed steel — спокойная сталь
                                   EXERCISES IN WRITING:

      I. Read the text and find answers to the questions listed below.

      1. What side is the converter rotated upon completion of blowing and removal of the lance
to?
   2. For what purpose is it rotated to the teeming aisles side?
    3. Whom is the tap hole opening carried out by?
   4. What is the movable platform equipped with?
   5. Through what is tapping the heat performed?
   6. Into what is tapping the heat performed?
   7. What does the teeming ladle car follow while moving during the heat tapping operation?
8. Where is the car with a full ladle transferred to upon the completion of tapping?
    9. What is steel teeming performed from?            10. How does it move?
   11. Where is the mould train held upon the completion of teeming?

      II. Read paragraphs 1, 2. Find English equivalents of the following Russian sentences.
   1. После окончания продувки и подъема фурмы конвертер поворачивается в сторону
разливочных пролетов для открытия сталевыпускного отверстия.
   2. Открытие сталевыпускного отверстия производится подручным сталевара,
находящимся на передвижной площадке.
                           Text 6
       OPEN-HEARTH FURNACE DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION


    1. The open-hearth furnace consists of the reaction chamber formed by the hearth below,
the roof at the top, and side walls; all made of refractory materials. The hearth is sloped to
the back wall which has an opening (taphole) closed with refractory mass during melting
and opened when the metal in the furnace is ready for tapping. The front wall has doors
through which charge materials are charged into the reaction chamber, samples of steel are
taken and the process of melting is inspected. Ports are conduits for supplying the gaseous
fuel and air that form the flame in the furnace, and for removing the combustion products.
Ports are connected with the slag pocket; then regenerators, follow which are brick-lined
chambers filled with a checkerwork of refractory brick (fireclay, high-alumina, or
forsterite).
    The regenerators serve to utilize the waste heat of the combustion products leaving the
 furnace. This makes it possible to raise the temperature in the open-hearth furnace up to
 1,800° — 1,900 °C.
   2. Reversing valves are used to reverse periodically, every 10 or 15 minutes, the direction
of the air and gas flow from one end of the furnace to the other. The valves are connected to
a flue for directing combustion products to the stack after they have given up most of their
heat to the checkers. During the furnace operation, the waste gases from the reaction
chamber are conveyed through the downtake into the slag pocket and then into the
regenerator; after heating the checkers, the gases are taken by the flue to the stack. At the
same time air passes through the flue, the regenerator, the slag pocket, the uptake, and enters
the reaction chamber at a temperature of 1,000—1,200 °C, since on their way into the
reaction chamber the air has passed through the hot checkers of the regenerators. When one
of the regenerators is substantially cooled and the other heated, the direction of gas and air
flow is reversed, so that the temperature in the reaction chamber is always nearly stable.
    3. The use of natural gas and fuel oil for open-hearth furnaces opens a possibility for
modernizing the furnace design and increasing the area of the hearth. Owing to the removal
of the partitions in the slag chamber and regenerators and the replacement of arch roof with
flat suspended roofs, the volume of the slag chambers was increased. These improvements
made it possible to increase the thermal loads owing to firing of natural gas and fuel oil and
to intensify fuel combustion with oxygen during charging.
    The use of new kinds of high-calorific fuel and the application of oxygen for intensified
burning of fuel and for bath blowing are inconceivable without automatic control of thermal
conditions. Automatic control of furnace operation reduces both the tap-to-tap time and fuel
consumption approximately by 5-7 per cent.
   4. Extensive research is now under way into the problem of the replacement of open-
hearth shops with oxygen converters in existing shops.

  LEXICAL EXERCISES:
  1. Memorize the following words and word combinations.

  1. open-hearth steelmaking — мартеновское производство
  2. reaction chamber of the furnace — плавильное (рабочее) пространство печи
  3. refractory material — огнеупорный материал
  4. brick-lined chamber — камера, выложенная кирпичом
  5. checkerwork — насадка
  6. fireclay — шамотный кирпич
  7. port — головка
  8. roof — свод
  9. slope — наклон
  10. taphole — отверстие (для выпуска стали)
  11. close (v) — заделывать (во время плавки)
  12. open (v) — разделывать (во время выпуска стали)
  13. reversing valve — перекидной клапан
  14. to reverse the direction — изменять направление
  15. hearth — подина
  16. stack — дымовая труба
       17. to tap the metal — выпускать металл
       18. to charge scrap — загружать скрап
       19. slag pocket — шлаковик
       20. sample — проба
       21. flue — канал
       22. convey (v) — направлять
       23.fuel oil — мазут
       24. combustion products — продукты сгорания
       25. fuel nozzle — форсунка
       26. single-channel port — одноканальная головка
       27. high-calorific fuel — высококалорийное топливо

II.       Find in the text English equivalents of the following Russian sentences.
   1. Мартеновская печь состоит из рабочего пространства, образованного подиной
снизу, сводом — сверху и стенками—передней и задней.
   2. Подина (печь) имеет уклон в сторону задней стенки, имеющей отверстие для
выпуска стали, заделываемое огнеупорной массой во время плавки и разделываемое, когда
металл в печи подготовлен к выпуску.
    3. Передняя стенка имеет завалочные окна, через которые производится загрузка
скрапа в рабочее пространство, берутся пробы металла и осуществляется контроль за
процессом.
III.       Translate the following English sentences into Russian.
       1. The regenerators serve to utilize the waste heat of the combustion products leaving the
       furnace.
       2. The ports are conduits for supplying the gaseous fuel and air that form the flame in the
       furnace and for removing the combustion products.
                     TEXT 7

                CONTINUOUS CASTING OF STEEL


    1. The continuous casting of steel is a principally new and advanced process of casting
developed by a group of Soviet scientists headed by Academician I. P. Bardin. The machines
for continuous casting (MNLZ) used in the USSR employ ladles of 50—350 ton capacity.

    2. Continuous casting machines are as follows: the vertical caster, the curved caster, the
horizontal caster. Nowadays provision is made for priority development of curved machines
for continuous casting because their height is much lower (10—17 metres) as compared to the
vertical ones. Their height is up to 35—40 metres. The former caster produces 150—200 tons
of ingot steel per hour. The machines for continuous casting function as follows.
Molten steel is poured from the ladle via the tundish into the water-cooled bottomless copper
mould where the continuous casting undergoes successive solidification. Rollers draw the
ingot from the mould while it is additionally cooled by water ejected through holes from a
system of pipes. The continuous casting is then cut into suitable lengths by the gas cutter. The
ready castings are conveyed by the pendulum manipulator to the inclined conveyer which
moves them to the table. Prior to casting, a movable bottom (dummy bar) is introduced into
the mould, the cross section of the bottom corresponding to that of the mould. As the steel is
poured into the mould, it solidifies at the walls and bottoms, taking the shape of an ingot.
After a certain time, the dummy bar is drawn by the rolls downward, and the crust of the ingot
is carried with it. The plant is installed in a pit, and the mould is mounted on a special
platform in the casting bay.

3.     The process of continuous casting obviates the need for standard moulds, runner bricks,
bottom plates, and mould carriages. The machine features a highest level of mechanization
and automation, which improves the working conditions for the personnel. Other advantages
are: a more uniform structure of the ingots, a sharp reduction of losses of metal in runners and
shrinkage cavities, since the cavity is formed only in the last section of the continuous casting.
In modern continuous casting machines use is made of closed-circuit television to enable the
operators to control the critical phases of the process, such as the level of steel in the mould,
the process of cutting the casting into sections removal of the cut sections, etc.


EXERCISES:

   1. Read the text to yourself making use of the following expressions.
   1. steel casting — разливка стали
   2. continuous casting machine — машина непрерывного литья заготовок
   3 vertical caster — машина вертикального типа
   4. curved caster — машина криволинейного типа
   5. horizontal caster — машина горизонтального типа
   6. bottomless copper mould — сквозной медный кристаллизатор
    7. roller — валок
    8. to eject — выбрасывать, распылять
    9. suitable lengths — мерные длины
   10. gas cutter — газовый резак
   11. casting — заготовка
   12. to convey — перемещать
   13. pendulum manipulator — маятниковый манипулятор
   14. movable bottom (dummy bar) — подвижное дно (затравка)
   15. cross section — форма (затравки)
   16. table — стеллаж
   17. crust — корка
   18. casting bay — разливочный пролет
   II. Read the text and find answers to the questions listed below.


   1. Whom was the continuous casting of steel developed by?
   2. What ladles do the machines for continuous casting used in the USSR employ?
   3. By what cutter is the continuous casting cut into suitable lengths?
   4. Into what is a movable bottom (dummy bar) introduced prior to casting?
   5. What level of mechanization and automation does the machine feature?
   6. In what section of the continuous casting is the cavity formed?
  III. Read paragraphs 1, 2. Find English equivalents of the following Russian sentences.
   1. Непрерывная разливка стали — прогрессивный способ разливки; он разработан
группой советских ученых под руководством академика И. П. Бардина.
   2. Машины непрерывной разливки литья заготовок, используемые в СССР,
рассчитаны на ковши емкостью 50—350 тонн.
   3. Сталь при заливке в кристаллизатор затвердевает на стенках и дне, образуя
оболочку заготовки с жидкой сердцевиной.
    4. В настоящее время преимущественное развитие получают машины
криволинейного типа.
                            TEXT     8
                        THE ARC-FURNACE STEELMAKING


   1. The electric furnace steelmaking together with the converter and open-hearth steel
production is one of the major methods of steel production, in general, and the main method
of high-grade alloy and special steel production.
    The rapid progress of the electric furnace steelmaking was obligated to a number of
technological advantages inherent in the electric arc furnaces, the principal ones being as
follows:
   1) They make it possible carrying out any metallurgical processes of steel production
owing to the easiness of getting oxidizing, reducting or neutral atmospheres in the electric
furnace and at the same time owing to the simplicity of the process temperature control.
   2) They permit smelting any amount of special additions, which ensures the production of
steel of practically any chemical composition.
   3) There is a possibility of making steel containing extra low amounts of detrimental
impurities in particular such as oxygen, sulphur, phosphorus, which cannot be achieved in any
other steelmaking units.
   4) A considerable amount of alloy scrap can be utilized, which makes it possible the saving
of high-priced ferroalloys.
   5) There is a low loss of iron and alloy elements.
   6) A high output accompanied by a relatively low expenditure of labour, energy resources,
refractories and addition agents is attained.
   Owing to these advantages it is advisable to carry out the production of high-alloy grades
of steels in electric furnaces.
   Electric arc furnaces of 12, 25 and 50 ton holding capacity are installed in the shops of low
output, but electric arc furnaces of 100 and 200 ton holding capacity are installed in the shops
of high output.
    In the Soviet Union vacuum furnaces of different designs as well as electroslag remelting
furnaces are used for melting steel of special significance.
   2. Modern electric steel melting shops consist of several departments: raw materials
stockyard, furnace department, teeming department, mould preparation yard. In the modern
shops of high output the production departments are located in separate buildings or single
bays, a definite series of technological operations being carried out in each of them. The
electric steel melting shops -arc designed providing for both alloy steel and carbon steel
production in them.
   To secure quick charging of the electric arc furnaces, trouble-free teeming of metals and
diminution of the electric arc furnace delays, the technological flows of main materials are
accomplished independently of each other in the shop. To achieve it the handling and
charging of each kind of materials into the electric arc furnace are accomplished by a special
group of mechanisms and machines.
   3. The electric steel melting shop, rated at the production of about 800,000 t of high-
quality steel per annum, consists of the following production departments: 1) main building
with 6 electric arc furnaces of 100 ton holding capacity, 2) stripper yard, 3) showering
installation for mould cooling, 4) mould cleaning plant, 5) bulk materials yard, 6) mould
coating yard, 7) mould yard.
   The main building is a roofed metallic building consisting of three bays: stockyard,
furnace and teeming bays.
   The principal purpose of the furnace bay consists of housing the electric arc furnaces, the
electric furnace substations and the auxiliary equipment. The principal purpose of the teeming
bay consists of teeming melted steel and carrying out the operations of preparing the teeming
ladles for a heat as well as of the removal of slag and debris.
   Steel is tapped from the electric arc furnaces into the teeming ladles of 100 ton capacity
suspended on the traverse of the steel teeming crane. Steel teeming is carried out with the use
of direct or uphill teeming into the big-end up ingot moulds with hot tops. After holding
beside the teeming platform the transfercar trains with the poured ingot moulds are transferred
by the locomotive to the stripper yard.
   4. Flushing the slag from the electric furnace is carried out into the slag pots of 11 m3
capacity set on the slag pot car under the furnace. Bulk materials, except lime, are prepared
and delivered to the stockyard bay of the electric steel melting shop from the bulk materials
yard.
   Between the railway tracks two pits are constructed for repairing the stripper crane
pushing device and two floor-type machines with a pushing force of 600 t are also installed
for extracting stuck ingots.
   Cleaning the ingots is usually performed by water sprays ejected by a special sprayer.


  LEXICAL EXERCISES



   I. Memorize the following words and word combinations.

   1. electric steelmaking — электросталеплавильное производство
   2. arc furnace steelmaking — выплавка стали в электродуговой печи
   3. high quality steel grades — высококачественные марки стали
   4. open-hearth steel grades — марки стали мартеновского сортамента
   5. detrimental impurities — вредные примеси
   6. ferroalloy — ферросплав
   7. loss of iron — угар железа
   8. induction furnace — индукционная печь
   9. foundry practice — литейное производство
  10. electroslag remelting furnace — электрошлаковый переплав
  II. raw materials stockyard — шихтовое отделение
  12. teeming department — разливочное отделение
  13. mould preparation yard — отделение подготовки изложниц
  14. bay — пролет
  15. technological flows — грузопотоки
  16. trouble free-teeming of metals — бесперебойная разливка металла
  17. delay — простой
  18. bulk materials — сыпучие материалы
  19. teeming ladle — сталеразливочный ковш
  20. removal of slag — уборка шлака
  21. per annum — в год
  22. electric arc furnaces of 100 ton holding capacity — электропечь емкостью 100 тонн
  23. stripper yard — отделение раздевания слитков
  24. showering installation for mould cooling — душ для охлаждения изложниц
  25. mould cleaning plant — отделение чистки изложниц
  26. mould coating yard — отделение смазки изложниц
  27. mould yard — двор изложниц
  28. stockyard bay — шихтовый пролет
  29. self-discharging — саморазгружающийся
  30. vacuum- treatment — вакуумирование стали
  31. flushing — скачивание
  32. stripper crane pushing device — выталкивающий механизм
  33. for extracting stuck ingots — для выталкивания застрявших в изложницах слитков
  34. refractory nozzles — огнеупорные стаканчики

				
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