TWAS and the role of STI for sustainable development_ Role of TWAS

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TWAS: Building STI Capacity in Africa
Romain Murenzi, Executive Director, TWAS

                                           Africa Forum on STI, Nairobi, 1-3 April 2012
+ Let us first listen to some leaders on the continent                                  2

  n President Jacob ZUMA (February 2010, 14th African Union Head of States

  n “We need to expand our science and technology capacity. Further than that, 
    we need to improve cooperation in technological development. 

  n An excellent example of this is South Africa’s bid to host the Square 
    Kilometer Array (SKA) radio telescope. This is a truly African initiative. While 
    the central location would be in the Northern Cape in South Africa, remote 
    stations will be hosted in Namibia, Botswana, Mozambique, Mauritius, 
    Madagascar, Kenya, Ghana and Zambia. 

  n Hosting the Square Kilometer Array will underscore Africa’s capability in 
    science and innovation. Because this high-tech facility is about 50 to 100 
    times more sensitive than any other radio telescope on Earth, the Square 
    Kilometer Array will be able to probe the edges of our Universe. It will help us 
    to answer fundamental questions in the fields of astronomy, physics and 
    cosmology, and may even detect intelligent life elsewhere in the universe.”
+ Let us first listen to some leaders on the continent         3

  nHE President Paul Kagame (February 2010, 14th African
   Union Head of States Summit):

   “The undersea cables that now land on our shores in West, 
   South, North and East Africa bring a world of information 
   and opportunity. But it is we, the leaders in this room, who 
   have to carry these networks over mountains and across 
   deserts; to Africa’s greatest cities and smallest villages; 
   and bring a world of knowledge and prosperity to our 
+ Let us first listen to some leaders on the continent                                   4

  n Africa Development Bank, Dr. Donald Kaberuka (February 2010, 14th African Union
    Head of States Summit):

  n          “Africa has far too often been painted with a pessimistic brush, but the 
      manner in which we have demonstrated resilience during the financial 
      turbulences, the exponential growth of ICTs in Africa truly provides evidence 
      of a continent on the move, and an opportunity for leapfrogging in many 
      domains which will change, and is already changing, many facets of our 
      societies and economies - from commerce, services, education and even 
      n The African Development Bank will continue to be your partner, be it in: 
      rolling out more broadband infrastructure. 
      n strengthening institutions responsible for reform and regulatory policies or 
      closing the infrastructure funding gap by crowding in additional foreign 
+ Bill Gates                                                                       5

  n “For  centuries  people  assumed  that  economic  growth  resulted  from 
   the  interplay  between  capital  and  labour.  Today  we  know  that  these 
   elements are outweighed by a single critical factor, Innovation.

  n Innovation  is  the  source  of  US  economic  leadership  and  the 
    foundation for our competitiveness in the global economy.

  n Government investment in research, strong intellectual property laws 
    and efficient capital markets are among the reasons that America has 
    for decades been transforming new ideas into successful businesses
+ TWAS                                                                        6

 n1032 Members in 91 countries
  n 889 Fellows in 74 countries in the South
  n 144 Associate Fellows in 17 countries in the North
  n 15 Nobel Laureates

  In Africa
  n 96 African Fellows, including
    n the Minister of Science for Zimbabwe
    n the African Union Commissioner for Science and Technology
    n a Member from Senegal on the high-level panel of scientists appointed
      by the Director General of UNESCO
+ TWAS                                                                                                  7

 HQ and Regional Offices

                                         ICTP                                               Beijing
                                                                          Chinese Academy of Sciences
                                    Bibliotheca Alexandrina
                                                                J.N. Centre for Advanced
                                            Nairobi                   Scientific Research
                                            African Academy of Sciences

    Rio de Janeiro
    Brazilian Academy of Sciences
+ TWAS                                                   8


 nPromote excellence in scientific research

 nStrengthen South-South and South-North collaboration

 nRespond to needs of young scientists

 nEngage in dissemination of scientific information
+                                               9

    Programmes and activities

         - PhD training
        - Human capital
                                capacity and
           - Research           excellence in
                                  the South
          - Honouring
+                                                       10

    South-South Fellowships
    One of the largest South-South
    fellowship programmes in the world

    Fellowships available per year

    • PhD fellowships                    161 per year
    • Postdoctoral fellowships           115 per year
    • Visiting scientists                 26 per year
    • Research and advanced training      20 per year
                                         322 per year
    South-South Partnerships
    12 programme partners for TWAS Fellowships in
    8 developing countries

     PARTNERS cover
     • stipend                     Brazil      Malaysia
     • accommodation               China       Mexico
     TWAS covers                   India (4)   Pakistan
     • travel and visa costs       Kenya       Thailand
     • administrative costs
+ Training:                                                                  12

  Postgraduate PhD Fellowships 2007-2010

  Brazil          103
  China            62
  India            51
  Malaysia         30
  Mexico            1
  Pakistan         27
          Total   274   124 out of 274 PhD fellowship holders are Africans
+                                  Postgraduate PhD Fellowship                     13

                                   at Chinese Academy of Sciences 
•   Obtained PhD in 2007
•   Thesis on the kinetics and
    thermodynamics of the
    absorption of some heavy
    metal ions on modified
    kaolinite clay
•   25 publications (2005-2011)
•   Member, Global Young
    Academy (GYA) President,
    Nigerian Young Academy
                                   Emmanuel Unuabonah (Nigeria) with
•   Currently Senior Lecturer in   supervisor and colleagues at the Institute of
    materials chemistry at         Soil Science, CAS, Nanjing, China
    Redeemer’s University,
    Nigeria                        2011 prize winner of 
                                   AU-TWAS Award for Young Scientists
+ OWSD                                                                      14

 Organization for Women in Science for the Developing World

                                    OWSD in Africa
                                    n 1,500 members from Africa
 n First international forum to
                                    n 80% of PhD Fellowships go to
   unite eminent women scientists     women in African countries
   from developing and developed
                                    n National chapters / focal points in
   worlds                             Nigeria, South Africa, Sudan and
 n Objective: strengthen women’s    n Recently launched South Africa
   role in development process        National Chapter
   and promote representation in    n Collaboration with ASSAf on Gender
   S&T leadership.                    and Science Education
                                    n Founding President from Swaziland,
                                      Prof. Lydia Makhubu, Swaziland
+                                OWSD Postgraduate PhD                             15

                                 Fellowship at CIMAP, India
•   OWSD fellowship at
    Central Institute of
    Medicinal and Aromatic
    Plants (CIMAP), India
•   Research: Application of
    techniques to medicinal
    plants and conservation
    (DNA sequencing and
    tissue culturing)
•   Results: 5 publications as
                                 Joy Odimegwu, (Nigeria) with supervisor (left)
    a result of her fellowship
                                 studying tissue culture plantlets in the growth
•   Currently: Lecturer,         chamber
    College of Medicine,
    University of Lagos,
+ Human Capital Mobility                         16

   n Postdoctoral fellowships (South-South)
   n Visits from Sub-Saharan Africa to Germany
   n Associateships to centres of excellence
   n TWAS Research Professors
   n Visiting Scientists Programmes
   n Support for scientific meetings
+ Human Capital Mobility:                                                         17

  Postdoctoral Fellowships 2007-2010

                                                             Brazil              34
                                                             China               56
                                                             India               42
                                                             Kenya                1
                                                             Malaysia            25
                                                             Mexico               6
                                                             Pakistan            13
                                                             Thailand             1
  103 out of 178 postdoc fellowships holders are Africans.              Total   178
+ Human Capital Mobility:                                          18


   2010-2011: 30 visits
  Benin              1    n Joint programme with DFG (German
  Burkina Faso       1      Research Foundation)
  Cameroon           6
                          n Post-doctoral researchers from sub-
  Ethiopia           1      Saharan Africa (not South Africa) to
  Kenya              2      Germany for up to 3 months to
  Malawi             1      collaborate with German scientists
  Nigeria           11
                          n TWAS covers visa, heath insurance,
  Sudan              3      travel
  Tanzania           1
  Uganda             2    n DFG covers subsistence costs
  Zimbabwe           1

   Human Capital Mobility

 DFG Cooperation Visit
 Dr Maxwell Barson, from the Department of
 Biological Sciences, University of Zimbabwe,
 visited the Department of Ecology and
 Parasitology, Karlsruher Institut für
 Technologie (KIT)

 September–October 2011
+ Human Capital Mobility:                                                       20

  Joint Associateship Scheme
  2007–2011: 49 out of 126
  awarded to Africans
                             n Collaboration with UNESCO, Italian
  Algeria                1     government and centres of excellence in the
  Benin                  1     South
  Botswana               1   n Associate appointed for 3 years, visits centre
  Cameroon               9     twice
  Côte d’Ivoire          1   n Over 100 centres selected
  Egypt                  3   n TWAS provides travel support and
  Eritrea                1     subsistence contribution (up to USD300 per
  Ethiopia               1
  Kenya                  1   n Host centre provides living expenses
  Nigeria               22   n Currently, only three participating host
                               centres in Africa (Botswana, Ethiopia, South
  Sudan                  5
  Tanzania               2
  Tunisia                1

   Human Capital Mobility:
   Joint Associateship Scheme
 Nigeria – Thailand
 Dr. A.O. Obadina, Department of Food Science
 and Technology, University of Agriculture, Nigeria,
 studying food fermentation at the National Center
 for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology in
+ Support for Research                                                   22

  TWAS Grants for research projects (based on merit)

                                                        Basic Science

         Equipment,                                        Applied
        consumables,                                    (COMSTECH)

                                  Units                 Basic Science

 Between 1986 and 2011, TWAS awarded a total of 2,024 research grants.
 Of these, 566 went to African grant holders.
+ Grants to Research Units                                            23

  45 out of 81 grants awarded to
  Research Units in Africa

                                   Virima Mudogo,
                                   Department of Chemistry,
                                   University of Kinshasa, Dem.
                                   Rep. of Congo
                                   Macromolecules extracted
                                   from indigenous medicinal
                                   plants with potential
                                   antimalarial or anti-sickle cell
                                   anaemia effects
+ TWAS: Honouring Excellence                                    24

                         n TWAS prizes given for significant
                           contributions by scientists in the

                         n Prizes for young scientists
                           awarded on behalf of TWAS by
                           organizations in the South
+ PRIZES                                                    25

 nThe Ernesto Illy Trieste Science Prize
 nTWAS Prizes
 nThe Abdus Salam Medal for Science and Technology
 nTWAS Prizes to Young Scientists in Developing Countries
 nAU-TWAS Young Scientists National Awards
 nTWAS Medal Lectures
 nThe TWAS-AAS-Microsoft Award for Young Scientists
 nThe C.N.R. Rao Prize for Scientific Research
 nAtta-ur-Rahman Prize

  African Union–TWAS
  Young Scientists National Awards

   Two prizes of           13 participating 
   USD5,000 each are       countries
   awarded per year        • Benin
                           • Burkina Faso
+  and per participating   • Cameroon
   country in
                           • Egypt
  •    life and earth      • Ghana
       sciences            • Guinea
                           • Lesotho
  •    basic sciences,     • Malawi
       technology and      • Nigeria
       innovation          • Senegal
                           • South Africa
   •   2010: 5 prizes      • Sudan
   •   2011: 12 prizes     • Zimbabwe
+ The TWAS-AAS-Microsoft Award                                 27

  for Young Scientists in Computer Science

                           n This prize recognizes young
                             scientists in Africa whose
                             research in computer science
                             promises to have a positive
                             impact in the developing world

                           n EUR 7,000 to each winner

                           n 3 prizes to 3 African countries
                             each year

                           n 2009-2011: South Africa 3,
                             Algeria 2, Egypt 2, Nigeria 1,
                             Tanzania 1
+ TWAS Objectives for Africa                      28

  nWhat should the African Development Bank and
   assembled officials do if they want to begin
   implementing these programmes or to scale up
   an existing African pilot?
+ TWAS Objectives for Africa                                                            29

    • Expand fellowships to 1,000                        • Increase number of
      per year                                             associateships awarded to
                                                         • Increase number of African
                                                           participant centres of


   • Develop a

     research grant programme                             • Scale up AU-TWAS
     dedicated only to Africa             Recognitio        prizes to all African
     (equipment and consumables)                            countries (13 at
+ In conclusion                                   30

                                TWA ctur
                            in frast ck
                                 e, trard,
                                  reco mme
                               prog s


                                    capacity in

► South Korea did! Brazil did! India did! China did!

► Why not This Region Africa?

► I share the OPTIMISM DR. NGOZI Okonjo-Iweala. On May 14, 2010, 
  Honorable Minister Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala shared a riddle and a “big 
  idea” with fellow Harvard alumni.

   “What trillion dollar economy has grown faster than Brazil  and 
   India between 2000 and 2010 … and is projected by the  IMF to 
   grow faster than Brazil between 2010 and 2015? “The  answer may 
   surprise you: It is sub-Saharan Africa!” The “big idea” the 
   Honorable wanted to impart was that sub-Saharan Africa is on  the 
   verge of joining the ranks of the BRICS – the rising  powers of Brazil, 
   Russia, India and China, whose wealth and  clout have increased 
   dramatically in the last decade
+ In conclusion   32

                                           TWAS gratefully
                                           acknowledges the
                                           financial support of
                                           • Government of Italy
                                           • Swedish
Romain Murenzi, Executive Director, TWAS      International
r m u r e n z i @ t w a s . o r g             Cooperation Agency
                                           • United Nations
                                              Scientific and                                  Cultural

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