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Living Things Are Organized - Harford Community College


									Welcome “back” to Bio120
• New Students?
• Questions
  – Course
  – Syllabus
Chapter 1

             Sixth Edition

        Neil A. Campbell
   (c) Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Co.
       How to Define Life
A. Living Things Are Organized
B. Living Things Acquire Materials
 and Energy
C. Living Things Respond
D. Living Things Reproduce and
E. Living Things Have Adaptations
Living Things Are Organized

1. Molecule
2. Organelle
3. CELLS (Organelles)
 Living Things Are Organized

4. Tissue (e.g., nervous tissue)
5. Organs (e.g., the brain)
6. Organ systems (e.g., the brain, spinal
    cord, etc.)
Living Things Are Organized
7. Multicellular organisms may have
   many organ systems.
8. A species in a particular area
   constitutes a population (e.g., gray
   squirrels in a forest).
 Living Things Are Organized
9. Different populations inhabiting an
   area at the same time make up a
10. A community and its physical
    environment constitutes an
Levels of Organization
Biosphere      Organ System
Ecosystem      Organ
Community      Tissue
Species        Cell
Populations    Organelle
Individuals    Molecules, atoms
B. Living Things Acquire
Materials and Energy

• 1. Maintaining organization and
  carrying on life requires outside
  source of energy.
B. Living Things Acquire
Materials and Energy

• 2. Food provides nutrient molecules
  used as building blocks.
• 3. Energy is capacity to do work; it
  takes work to maintain organization
  of the cell and organism.
B. Living Things Acquire
Materials and Energy
• 4. Metabolism is all
  chemical reactions
  that occur in a cell.
• 5. Ultimate source of
  energy for life on earth
  is the sun through
B. Living Things Acquire
Materials and Energy

• 6. Organisms must remain
  homeostatic or keep themselves
  stable in temperature, moisture
  level, acidity, and other
  physiological factors.
C. Living Things Respond
• 1. Response often results in
  movements of plant or animal.
• 2. Ability to respond helps organism
• 3. Responses to environment
  altogether constitute behavior of
D. Living Things
Reproduce and Develop
• 1. Reproduction is the ability of an
  organism to make a copy of itself.
• 2. Bacteria, protozoa, etc. simply
  split into two.
• 3. Multicellular organisms may pair
  sperm with egg; resulting in an
  immature individual, which develops
  to become the adult.
D. Living Things
Reproduce and Develop
• 4. Organisms develop as result of
  blueprint of instructions encoded in
  their genes.
• 5. Genes are made of long
  molecules of DNA that specify how
  the organism is ordered.
E. Living Things Have
• 1. Adaptations are modifications that
  make an organism suited to its way
  of life.
• 2. Natural selection is process by
  which species becomes modified
  over time.
E. Living Things Have
• a. Species is a group of interbreeding
• b. In natural selection, members may
  inherit a genetic change that makes them
  better suited to a particular environment.
• c. Consequently, these members are
  more likely to produce more surviving
• d. Descent with modification
           Living Things
A. Are Organized
B. Acquire Materials and Energy
C. Respond
D. Reproduce and Develop
E. Adapt
1.2. Ecosystems Contain
A. Populations
• 1. Populations within a community
  interact among themselves and with
  the physical and chemical
  environment, forming an ecosystem.
A. Populations
• 2. All ecosystems together make up
  the biosphere, the thin layer of life
  that encircles the earth.
• 3. Interactions between populations
  in an ecosystem tend to keep the
  system relatively stable.
A. Populations
• 4. Food relationships form a major
  part of interaction between
A. Populations
• 5. Large ecosystem keeps cycling
  its raw materials (e.g., water and
• 6. A constant supply of solar energy
  is required for an ecosystem and for
  life to exist.
Closed Ecosystems
Environmental Control and Life Support
  Coral Reef

• 1. Found in clear, shallow tropical
  waters; has highest abundance of
  living things.
• 2. Reef base is non-living stony
  coral where crevices provide shelter;
  outer layers are living tissues.
C. Tropical Rain Forest, a
Terrestrial Ecosystem
• 1. Most complex ecosystems in the
  world; found at low altitudes near
• 2. Require plentiful sun and rainfall
  all year long.
C. Tropical Rain Forest, a
Terrestrial Ecosystem
• 3. Broadleaf evergreen canopy
  intercepts most sunlight; understory
  layer consists of shrubs, ferns, etc.
• 4. Most organisms live in canopy;
  includes tree sloths, monkeys, birds,
  butterflies, bats, etc.
D. The Human Population
• 1. Human populations tend to
  modify existing ecosystems for own
Environment Carson
D. The Human Population
• 2. Fewer ecosystems are able to
  function adequately to sustain
  human populations.
• 3. Preservation of biodiversity is
  extremely important.
How Living Things Are

• Taxonomy
• Scientific Name
• Classification
• the biological discipline
  of identifying and
  classifying organisms.
B. Scientific Name

A Scientific name is
 a binomial.
B. Scientific Name
• 2. System was started by Swedish
  naturalist Carolus Linnaeus.
• 3. Scientific name of a species---
  underlined or in italics---contains two
• first name is genus
• second name is species.
History Lineaus
C. Classification

• 1. Classification uses
  groups: species, genus,
  family, order, class,
  phylum/division, and
Hierarchical Classification
• Kingdom Animalia
•    Phylum (Division for plants) Chordata
•      Class Mammalia
•         Order Primates
•            Family Hominidae
•               Genus Homo
•                  species sapiens
D. Five Kingdom System

• 1. Living things on this
  planet are categorized
  into five kingdoms:
Five Kingdom System
• Monera---prokaryotic, unicellular organisms
• Protista---eukaryotic, unicellular, colonial and 
  simple multicellular organisms 
• Fungi---eukaryotic, mostly multicellular, 
  filamentous organisms that absorb their 
• Plantae---eukaryotic, multicellular, and 
  photosynthetic organisms (plants);
• Animalia---eukaryotic, multicellular organisms 
  (animals) that ingest their nutrients.
Bacteria Monera
• The large spring, near
  Great Fountain Geyser,
  was the source of the
  culture of Thermus
  aquaticus that is used to
  make Taq polymerase, a
  key constituent of the
  polymerase chain reaction.
  At the time of the
  discovery, this spring was
  hotter than it is today, and
  its outflow was 70 C.
D. Five Kingdom System
• 2. Monera---prokaryotic, unicellular
  organisms (archaebacteria and
• 3. Protista---eukaryotic, unicellular,
  colonial and simple multicellular
  organisms (protozoa, etc.);
D. Five Kingdom System
• 4. Fungi---eukaryotic, mostly
  multicellular, filamentous organisms
  that absorb their nutrients;
D. Five Kingdom System
• 5. Plantae---eukaryotic, multicellular,
  and photosynthetic organisms
• 6. Animalia---eukaryotic, multicellular
  organisms (animals) that ingest their

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