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Welcome “back” to Bio120 Housekeeping • New Students? • Questions – Course Expectations – Syllabus Chapter 1 Biology Sixth Edition Neil A. Campbell (c) Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Co. How to Define Life A. Living Things Are Organized B. Living Things Acquire Materials and Energy C. Living Things Respond D. Living Things Reproduce and Develop E. Living Things Have Adaptations Living Things Are Organized 1. Molecule 2. Organelle 3. CELLS (Organelles) Living Things Are Organized 4. Tissue (e.g., nervous tissue) 5. Organs (e.g., the brain) 6. Organ systems (e.g., the brain, spinal cord, etc.) Living Things Are Organized 7. Multicellular organisms may have many organ systems. 8. A species in a particular area constitutes a population (e.g., gray squirrels in a forest). Living Things Are Organized 9. Different populations inhabiting an area at the same time make up a community. 10. A community and its physical environment constitutes an ecosystem. Levels of Organization Biosphere Organ System Ecosystem Organ Community Tissue Species Cell Populations Organelle Individuals Molecules, atoms B. Living Things Acquire Materials and Energy • 1. Maintaining organization and carrying on life requires outside source of energy. B. Living Things Acquire Materials and Energy • 2. Food provides nutrient molecules used as building blocks. • 3. Energy is capacity to do work; it takes work to maintain organization of the cell and organism. B. Living Things Acquire Materials and Energy • 4. Metabolism is all chemical reactions that occur in a cell. • 5. Ultimate source of energy for life on earth is the sun through photosynthesis. B. Living Things Acquire Materials and Energy • 6. Organisms must remain homeostatic or keep themselves stable in temperature, moisture level, acidity, and other physiological factors. C. Living Things Respond • 1. Response often results in movements of plant or animal. • 2. Ability to respond helps organism survive. • 3. Responses to environment altogether constitute behavior of organism. D. Living Things Reproduce and Develop • 1. Reproduction is the ability of an organism to make a copy of itself. • 2. Bacteria, protozoa, etc. simply split into two. • 3. Multicellular organisms may pair sperm with egg; resulting in an immature individual, which develops to become the adult. D. Living Things Reproduce and Develop • 4. Organisms develop as result of blueprint of instructions encoded in their genes. • 5. Genes are made of long molecules of DNA that specify how the organism is ordered. E. Living Things Have Adaptations • 1. Adaptations are modifications that make an organism suited to its way of life. • 2. Natural selection is process by which species becomes modified over time. E. Living Things Have Adaptations • a. Species is a group of interbreeding individuals. • b. In natural selection, members may inherit a genetic change that makes them better suited to a particular environment. • c. Consequently, these members are more likely to produce more surviving offspring. • d. Descent with modification Living Things A. Are Organized B. Acquire Materials and Energy C. Respond D. Reproduce and Develop E. Adapt 1.2. Ecosystems Contain Populations A. Populations • 1. Populations within a community interact among themselves and with the physical and chemical environment, forming an ecosystem. Ecosystems A. Populations • 2. All ecosystems together make up the biosphere, the thin layer of life that encircles the earth. • 3. Interactions between populations in an ecosystem tend to keep the system relatively stable. A. Populations • 4. Food relationships form a major part of interaction between populations. A. Populations • 5. Large ecosystem keeps cycling its raw materials (e.g., water and nitrogen). • 6. A constant supply of solar energy is required for an ecosystem and for life to exist. Closed Ecosystems ECLSS Environmental Control and Life Support Coral Reef Marine Ecosystem • 1. Found in clear, shallow tropical waters; has highest abundance of living things. • 2. Reef base is non-living stony coral where crevices provide shelter; outer layers are living tissues. C. Tropical Rain Forest, a Terrestrial Ecosystem • 1. Most complex ecosystems in the world; found at low altitudes near equator. • 2. Require plentiful sun and rainfall all year long. C. Tropical Rain Forest, a Terrestrial Ecosystem • 3. Broadleaf evergreen canopy intercepts most sunlight; understory layer consists of shrubs, ferns, etc. • 4. Most organisms live in canopy; includes tree sloths, monkeys, birds, butterflies, bats, etc. D. The Human Population • 1. Human populations tend to modify existing ecosystems for own purposes. Environment Carson D. The Human Population • 2. Fewer ecosystems are able to function adequately to sustain human populations. • 3. Preservation of biodiversity is extremely important. How Living Things Are Classified • Taxonomy • Scientific Name • Classification Taxonomy • the biological discipline of identifying and classifying organisms. B. Scientific Name A Scientific name is a binomial. B. Scientific Name • 2. System was started by Swedish naturalist Carolus Linnaeus. • 3. Scientific name of a species--- underlined or in italics---contains two parts: • first name is genus • second name is species. History Lineaus C. Classification • 1. Classification uses groups: species, genus, family, order, class, phylum/division, and kingdom. Linnean Hierarchical Classification • Kingdom Animalia • Phylum (Division for plants) Chordata • Class Mammalia • Order Primates • Family Hominidae • Genus Homo • species sapiens D. Five Kingdom System • 1. Living things on this planet are categorized into five kingdoms: Five Kingdom System • Monera---prokaryotic, unicellular organisms • Protista---eukaryotic, unicellular, colonial and simple multicellular organisms • Fungi---eukaryotic, mostly multicellular, filamentous organisms that absorb their nutrients; • Plantae---eukaryotic, multicellular, and photosynthetic organisms (plants); • Animalia---eukaryotic, multicellular organisms (animals) that ingest their nutrients. Bacteria Monera Archaebacteria • The large spring, near Great Fountain Geyser, was the source of the culture of Thermus aquaticus that is used to make Taq polymerase, a key constituent of the polymerase chain reaction. At the time of the discovery, this spring was hotter than it is today, and its outflow was 70 C. D. Five Kingdom System • 2. Monera---prokaryotic, unicellular organisms (archaebacteria and eubacteria); • 3. Protista---eukaryotic, unicellular, colonial and simple multicellular organisms (protozoa, etc.); D. Five Kingdom System • 4. Fungi---eukaryotic, mostly multicellular, filamentous organisms that absorb their nutrients; D. Five Kingdom System • 5. Plantae---eukaryotic, multicellular, and photosynthetic organisms (plants); • 6. Animalia---eukaryotic, multicellular organisms (animals) that ingest their nutrients.
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