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MSIS-5653_ Advanced Systems Development - GRACO

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									           Midterm Exam Statistics




D. Delen       MSIS 5653 – Advanced Systems Development
                MSIS 5653
      Advanced Systems Development

               Dursun Delen, Ph.D.
            Department of Management
            Oklahoma State University



                CHAPTER 7:
      Determining System Requirements



1.1
1.1
                  Learning Objectives
      ü Learn the classical and modern approaches to
        Requirements Determination
      ü Describe options for designing and conducting
        interviews and develop a plan for conducting an
        interview to determine system requirements
      ü Design, distribute, and analyze questionnaires
        to determine system requirements
      ü Explain advantages and pitfalls of observing
        workers and analyzing business documents to
        determine requirements
7.3
7.3
       D. Delen     MSIS 5653 – Advanced Systems Development
                  Learning Objectives
      ü Explain how computing can provide support for
          requirements determination (GSS)
      ü   Learn about Joint Application Design (JAD)
      ü   Use prototyping during requirements
          determination
      ü   Select the appropriate methods to discover
          system requirements
      ü   Apply requirements determination to Internet
          applications
7.4
7.4
       D. Delen     MSIS 5653 – Advanced Systems Development
            Determining System
           Requirements in SDLC




D. Delen      MSIS 5653 – Advanced Systems Development
             Performing Requirements
                 Determination
         Organizational needs derive the requirements

         Gather information on what system should do
         from many sources
            n    People
            n    Reports
            n    Forms
            n    Procedures


7.6
7.6
      D. Delen        MSIS 5653 – Advanced Systems Development
             Performing Requirements
                 Determination
        Characteristics for gathering requirements
         n       Impertinence
                 w Question everything
         n       Impartiality
                 w Find the best organizational solution
         n       Relaxation of constraints
         n       Attention to detail
         n       Reframing
                 w View the organization in new ways



7.7
7.7
      D. Delen           MSIS 5653 – Advanced Systems Development
          Deliverables and Outcomes
        Types of deliverables:
         n       Information collected from users
         n       Existing documents and files
         n       Computer-based information

         n       Understanding of organizational components
                  w Business objective
                  w Information needs
                  w Rules of data processing
                  w Key events with respect to changes on the data values


7.8
7.8
      D. Delen           MSIS 5653 – Advanced Systems Development
            Traditional Methods for
           Determining Requirements
        Interviewing and Listening
         n       Gather facts, opinions and speculations
         n       Observe body language and emotions
         n       Guidelines
                 w Plan
                    n   Checklist
                    n   Appointment
                 w Be neutral
                 w Listen
                 w Seek a diverse view


7.9
7.9
      D. Delen              MSIS 5653 – Advanced Systems Development
             Traditional Methods for
            Determining Requirements
           Interviewing (Continued)
            n     Interview Questions
                   w   Open-Ended
                        n   No pre-specified answers
                   w   Close-Ended
                        n   Respondent is asked to choose from a set of specified responses
                        n   T/F, M/C, Rating, and Ranking
            n     Additional Guidelines
                   w   Do not phrase questions in ways that imply a wrong or right
                       answer
                   w   Listen very carefully to what is being said
                   w   Type up notes within 48 hours
                   w   Do not set expectations about the new system
                   w   Seek a variety of perspectives
7.10
7.10
       D. Delen              MSIS 5653 – Advanced Systems Development
             Traditional Methods for
            Determining Requirements
          Administering Questionnaires
             n    More cost-effective than interviews
             n    Choosing respondents
                   w Should be representative of all users
                   w Types of sampling methods
                       n     Convenient
                       n     Random sample
                       n     Purposeful sample
                       n     Stratified sample
             n    Design
                   w Mostly closed-ended questions
                   w Can be administered over the phone or in person
7.11
7.11
       D. Delen            MSIS 5653 – Advanced Systems Development
             Traditional Methods for
            Determining Requirements
         Questionnaires vs. Interviews




7.12
7.12
       D. Delen   MSIS 5653 – Advanced Systems Development
             Traditional Methods for
            Determining Requirements
         Interviewing Groups
          n   Advantages
                  w More effective use of time
                  w Enables people to hear opinions of others and to agree or
                    disagree
          n   Disadvantages
                  w Difficulty in scheduling


          n   Nominal Group Technique
                  w Facilitated process to support idea generation by groups
                  w Individuals work alone to generate ideas which are pooled
                    under guidance of a trained facilitator
7.13
7.13
       D. Delen            MSIS 5653 – Advanced Systems Development
             Traditional Methods for
            Determining Requirements
          Directly Observing Users
             n    Serves as a good method to supplement interviews
             n    Often difficult to obtain unbiased data
                   w People often work differently when being observed


                   w Time and motion study?




7.14
7.14
       D. Delen          MSIS 5653 – Advanced Systems Development
             Traditional Methods for
            Determining Requirements
         Analyzing Procedures and Other Documents
           n      Types of information to be discovered:
                  w Problems with existing system
                  w Opportunity to meet new need
                  w Organizational direction
                  w Names of key individuals
                  w Values of organization
                  w Special information processing circumstances
                  w Reasons for current system design
                  w Rules for processing data



7.15
7.15
       D. Delen           MSIS 5653 – Advanced Systems Development
             Traditional Methods for
            Determining Requirements
         Analyzing Procedures and Other Documents
          n       Four types of useful documents
                  w Written work procedures
                     n   Describes how a job is performed
                     n   Includes data and information used and created in the process
                         of performing the job or task
                  w Business form
                     n   Explicitly indicate data flow in or out of a system
                  w Report
                     n   Enables the analyst to work backwards from the report to the
                         data that generated it
                  w Description of current information system

7.16
7.16
       D. Delen              MSIS 5653 – Advanced Systems Development
           Example:
  Business Forms and Reports




D. Delen   MSIS 5653 – Advanced Systems Development
       Modern Methods for Determining
               Requirements
        Joint Application Design (JAD)
          n   Brings together key users, managers and systems analysts
          n   Purpose: collect system requirements simultaneously from key
              people
          n   Conducted off-site


        Prototyping
          n   Repetitive process
          n   Rudimentary version of system is built
          n   Replaces or augments SDLC
          n   Goal: to develop concrete specifications for ultimate system


4.18
4.18
        D. Delen         MSIS 5653 – Advanced Systems Development
       Joint Application Design (JAD)
         Participants
          n   Session Leader
          n   Users
          n   Managers
          n   Sponsor
          n   Systems Analysts
          n   Scribe
          n   IS Staff



4.19
4.19
       D. Delen      MSIS 5653 – Advanced Systems Development
       Joint Application Design (JAD)
         End Result
          n       Documentation detailing existing system
          n       Features of proposed system


         CASE Tools During JAD
          n       Upper CASE tools are used
          n       Enables analysts to enter system models directly
                  into CASE during the JAD session
          n       Screen designs and prototyping can be done during
                  JAD and shown to users
4.20
4.20
       D. Delen          MSIS 5653 – Advanced Systems Development
       Joint Application Design (JAD)
          Supporting JAD with GSS
             n    Group support systems (GSS) can be used to
                  enable more participation by group members in
                  JAD
             n    Members type their answers into the computer
             n    All members of the group see what other members
                  have been typing




7.21
7.21
       D. Delen         MSIS 5653 – Advanced Systems Development
                            Prototyping
         Quickly converts requirements to working version of
         system
         Once the user sees requirements converted to
         system, will ask for modifications or will generate
         additional requests
         Most useful when:
          n   User requests are not clear
          n   Few users are involved in the system
          n   Designs are complex and require concrete form
          n   History of communication problems between analysts and
              users
          n   Tools are readily available to build prototype
7.22
7.22
       D. Delen        MSIS 5653 – Advanced Systems Development
                             Prototyping
          Drawbacks
             n    Tendency to avoid formal documentation
             n    Difficult to adapt to more general user audience
             n    Sharing data with other systems is often not
                  considered
             n    Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) checks
                  are often bypassed




7.23
7.23
       D. Delen         MSIS 5653 – Advanced Systems Development
   Business Process Reengineering
               (BPR)
          Search for and implementation of radical
          change in business processes to achieve
          breakthrough improvements in products and
          services
          Goals
             n    Reorganize complete flow of data in major
                  sections of an organization
             n    Eliminate unnecessary steps
             n    Combine steps
             n    Become more responsive to future change
7.24
7.24
       D. Delen         MSIS 5653 – Advanced Systems Development
   Business Process Reengineering
               (BPR)
         Identification of processes to reengineer
          n       Key business processes
                  w Set of activities designed to produce specific output for a
                    particular customer or market
                  w Focused on customers and outcome
                  w Same techniques are used as were used for requirements
                    determination
         Disruptive technologies
          n       Technologies that enable the breaking of long-held
                  business rules that inhibit organizations from
                  making radical business changes >>>
7.25
7.25
       D. Delen           MSIS 5653 – Advanced Systems Development
   Business Process Reengineering
               (BPR)




7.26
7.26
       D. Delen   MSIS 5653 – Advanced Systems Development
                                  Summary
         Interviews
           n      Open-ended and close-ended questions
           n      Preparation is key
         Questionnaires
           n      Must be carefully designed
           n      Can contain close-ended as well as open-ended questions
         Other means of gather requirements
           n      Observing workers
           n      Analyzing business documents
         Joint Application Design (JAD)
         Prototyping
         Business Process Reengineering (BPR)
7.27
7.27
       D. Delen            MSIS 5653 – Advanced Systems Development
                   CHAPTER 8:
       Structuring Systems Requirements:
                Process Modeling


2.28
2.28
                  Learning Objectives
      ü Understand the logical modeling of processes
        through studying data flow diagrams
      ü How to draw data flow diagrams using rules
        and guidelines
      ü How to decompose data flow diagrams into
        lower-level diagrams
      ü Balancing of data flow diagrams



8.2
8.2
       D. Delen     MSIS 5653 – Advanced Systems Development
                   Learning Objectives
       ü Explain the differences among four types of
         DFDs: current physical, current logical, new
         physical and new logical
       ü Discuss the use of data flow diagrams as
         analysis tools
       ü Compare and contrast data flow diagrams with
         Oracle’s process modeling tool and with
         functional hierarchy diagrams
       ü Discuss process modeling for Internet
         applications
8.30
8.30
        D. Delen     MSIS 5653 – Advanced Systems Development
             Requirement Structuring:
            Process Modeling in SDLC




8.31
8.31
       D. Delen   MSIS 5653 – Advanced Systems Development
                       Process Modeling
         Graphically represent the processes that
         capture, manipulate, store and distribute data
         between a system and its environment and
         among system components

         Data flow diagrams (DFD)
          n       Graphically illustrate movement of data between
                  external entities and the processes and data stores
                  within a system


8.32
8.32
       D. Delen          MSIS 5653 – Advanced Systems Development
                      Process Modeling
         Modeling a system’s process
             n    Utilize information gathered during requirements
                  determination
             n    Structure of the data is also modeled in addition to
                  the processes


         Deliverables and Outcomes
             n    Set of coherent, interrelated data flow diagrams
                                                                  >>>


8.33
8.33
       D. Delen         MSIS 5653 – Advanced Systems Development
                       Process Modeling
         Deliverables and outcomes (Continued…)
          n       Context data flow diagram (DFD)
                  w Scope of system
          n       DFDs of current system
                  w Enables analysts to understand current system
          n       DFDs of new logical system
                  w Technology independent
                  w Show data flows, structure and functional requirements of
                    new system
          n       Project dictionary and CASE repository

8.34
8.34
       D. Delen           MSIS 5653 – Advanced Systems Development
                  Data Flow Diagramming
                        Mechanics
         Four symbols are used…




8.35
8.35
       D. Delen      MSIS 5653 – Advanced Systems Development
                  Data Flow Diagramming
                        Mechanics
         Data Flow
          n       Depicts data that are in motion and moving as a unit
                  from one place to another in the system.
          n       Drawn as an arrow
          n       Select a meaningful name to represent the data




8.36
8.36
       D. Delen          MSIS 5653 – Advanced Systems Development
                  Data Flow Diagramming
                        Mechanics
         Data Store
           n      Depicts data at rest
           n      May represent data in
                   w File folder
                   w Computer-based file
                   w Notebook
           n      The name of the store as well as the number are
                  recorded in between lines




8.37
8.37
       D. Delen            MSIS 5653 – Advanced Systems Development
                  Data Flow Diagramming
                        Mechanics
         Process
           n      Depicts work or action performed on data so that
                  they are transformed, stored or distributed
           n      Number of process as well as name are recorded
           n      Name is a verb phrase




8.38
8.38
       D. Delen          MSIS 5653 – Advanced Systems Development
                  Data Flow Diagramming
                        Mechanics
         Source/Sink
           n      Depicts the origin and/or destination of the data
           n      Sometimes referred to as an external entity
           n      Drawn as a square symbol
           n      Name states what the external agent is
           n      Because they are external, many characteristics are
                  not of interest to us
                    w Interactions that occur between sources and sinks
                    w What they do with the information internally
                    w How to control or redesign them
                    w How to provide them with direct access to data stores
8.39
8.39
       D. Delen           MSIS 5653 – Advanced Systems Development
                  Data Flow Diagramming
                        Definitions
         Context Diagram
          n       A data flow diagram (DFD) of the scope of an
                  organizational system that shows the system
                  boundaries, external entities that interact with the
                  system and the major information flows between the
                  entities and the system
         Level-0 Diagram
          n       A data flow diagram (DFD) that represents a
                  system’s major processes, data flows and data
                  stores at a high level of detail

8.40
8.40
       D. Delen          MSIS 5653 – Advanced Systems Development
       Developing DFDs: An Example
          Hoosier Burger’s automated food ordering
          system
          Context Diagram (Figure 8-4) contains no data
          stores
          Next step is to expand the context diagram to
          show the breakdown of processes (Figure 8-5)




8.41
8.41
       D. Delen   MSIS 5653 – Advanced Systems Development
                               Figure 8-4
                  Context diagram of Hoosier Burger’s
                         food ordering system




8.42
8.42
       D. Delen         MSIS 5653 – Advanced Systems Development
                            Figure 8-5
                  Level-0 DFD of Hoosier Burger’s
                       food ordering system




8.43
8.43
       D. Delen       MSIS 5653 – Advanced Systems Development
       Data Flow Diagramming Rules
          Basic rules that apply to all DFDs
             n    Inputs to a process are always different than
                  outputs
             n    Objects always have a unique name
                   w In order to keep the diagram uncluttered, you can repeat
                     data stores and sources/sinks on a diagram




8.44
8.44
       D. Delen          MSIS 5653 – Advanced Systems Development
       Data Flow Diagramming Rules
         Process                                  Data Store
           A. No process can have                   D. Data cannot be moved
              only outputs (a miracle)                 directly from one store to
           B. No process can have                      another
              only inputs (black hole)              E. Data cannot move
           C. A process has a verb                     directly from an outside
              phrase label                             source to a data store
                                                    F. Data cannot move
                                                       directly from a data store
                                                       to a data sink
                                                    G. Data store has a noun
                                                       phrase label


8.45
8.45
       D. Delen        MSIS 5653 – Advanced Systems Development
       Data Flow Diagramming Rules
         Source/Sink                               Data Flow
           H. Data cannot move                       J. A data flow has only one
              directly from a source to                 direction of flow between
              a sink                                    symbols
           I. A source/sink has a                    K. A fork means that
              noun phrase label                         exactly the same data
                                                        goes from a common
                                                        location to two or more
                                                        processes, data stores
                                                        or sources/sinks

                                                     Continues >>>


8.46
8.46
       D. Delen        MSIS 5653 – Advanced Systems Development
       Data Flow Diagramming Rules
        Data Flow (Continued…)
           L. A join means that exactly the same data
              comes from any two or more different
              processes, data stores or sources/sinks
              to a common location
           M. A data flow cannot go directly back to the
              same process it leaves
           N. A data flow to a data store means update
           O. A data flow from a data store means
              retrieve or use
           P. A data flow has a noun phrase label



8.47
8.47
       D. Delen        MSIS 5653 – Advanced Systems Development
                  Decomposition of DFDs
         Functional decomposition
           n      Iterative process of breaking the description of a
                  system/process down into finer and finer detail
           n      Repetitive procedure that creates hierarchically
                  related set of diagrams representing the system
           n      Lowest level is called a primitive DFD

         Level-N Diagrams
           n      A DFD that is the result of n nested decompositions
                  of a series of sub-processes from a process on a
                  level-0 diagram

8.48
8.48
       D. Delen          MSIS 5653 – Advanced Systems Development
       Figure 8-7: Level-1 DFD showing the decomposition
       of Process 1.0 from the Level-0 diagram for Hoosier
                  Burger’s food ordering system

                                                       Process Numbering
                                                       0
                                                         1.0, 2.0, …
                                                           1.1, 1.2, …
                                                              1.1.1, 1.1.2, …




8.49
8.49
        D. Delen   MSIS 5653 – Advanced Systems Development
                          Balancing DFDs
         When decomposing a DFD, you must conserve inputs
         to and outputs from a process at the next level of
         decomposition
         This is called balancing
         Example: Hoosier Burgers
          n       In Figure 8-4, notice that there is one input to the system, the
                  customer order
          n       Three outputs:
                   w Customer receipt
                   w Food order
                   w Management reports




8.50
8.50
       D. Delen            MSIS 5653 – Advanced Systems Development
                        Balancing DFDs
          Example (Continued)
             n    Notice Figure 8-5.
                  We have the same
                  inputs and outputs
             n    No new inputs or
                  outputs have been
                  introduced
             n    We can say that the
                  context diagram and
                  level-0 DFD are
                  balanced



8.51
8.51
       D. Delen          MSIS 5653 – Advanced Systems Development
                        Balancing DFDs
         An unbalanced example
            n     Figure 8-10
            n     In context diagram, we have one input to the
                  system, A and one output, B
            n     Level-0 diagram has one additional data flow, C
            n     These DFDs are not balanced




8.52
8.52
       D. Delen          MSIS 5653 – Advanced Systems Development
                            Figure 8-10
             An unbalanced set of data flow diagrams
             (a) Context diagram, (b) Level-0 diagram



          (a)




          (b)




8.53
8.53
       D. Delen      MSIS 5653 – Advanced Systems Development
                   Balancing DFDs
          We can split a data flow into separate data flows on a
          lower level diagram

             (a)




             (b)


8.54
8.54
       D. Delen     MSIS 5653 – Advanced Systems Development
                   Balancing DFDs
          Balancing leads to four additional advanced rules




8.55
8.55
       D. Delen     MSIS 5653 – Advanced Systems Development
        Four Different Types of DFDs
         Current Physical
           n      Process label includes an identification of the
                  technology (people or systems) used to process the
                  data
           n      Data flows and data stores are labeled with the
                  actual name of the physical media on which data
                  flow or in which data are stored
         Current Logical
           n      Physical aspects of system are removed as much
                  as possible
           n      Current system is reduced to data and processes
                  that transform them
8.56
8.56
       D. Delen          MSIS 5653 – Advanced Systems Development
     Current Physical DFD
  HB Inventory Control System




D. Delen   MSIS 5653 – Advanced Systems Development
      Current Logical DFD
  HB Inventory Control System




D. Delen   MSIS 5653 – Advanced Systems Development
        Four Different Types of DFDS
         New Logical
           n      Includes additional functions
           n      Obsolete functions are removed
           n      Inefficient data flows are reorganized


         New Physical
           n      Represents the physical implementation of the new
                  system



8.59
8.59
       D. Delen          MSIS 5653 – Advanced Systems Development
       New Logical DFD
  HB Inventory Control System




D. Delen   MSIS 5653 – Advanced Systems Development
    DFD Development Process
  Main Steps
    n      Determine the processes by making a list of all relevant business
           activities.
    n      Create the context diagram, including all external entities and the major
           data flow to or from them.
    n      Create Level-0 Diagram by analyzing the major activities within the
           context process. Include the external entities and major data stores.
    n      Create a child diagram for each complex process on Level-0 Diagram.
           Include local data stores and detailed processes.


  Detailed data flow diagrams may be developed by
    n      Analyzing what happens to an input data flow from an external entity
           and what is necessary to create an output data flow to an external entity
    n      Examining the data flow to or from a data store

D. Delen             MSIS 5653 – Advanced Systems Development
        Guidelines for Drawing DFDs
         Completeness
           n      DFD must include all components necessary for the system
           n      Each component must be fully described in the project
                  dictionary or CASE repository




8.62
8.62
       D. Delen           MSIS 5653 – Advanced Systems Development
        Guidelines for Drawing DFDs
         Consistency
           n      The extent to which information contained on one level of a
                  set of nested DFDs is also included on other levels
                   w Missing Level-0 diagram, missing and/or mismatched I/O


         Timing
           n      Time is not represented well on DFDs
           n      Best to draw DFDs as if the system has never started and will
                  never stop.

         Iterative Development
           n      Analyst should expect to redraw diagram several times before
                  reaching the closest approximation to the system being
                  modeled
8.63
8.63
       D. Delen            MSIS 5653 – Advanced Systems Development
        Guidelines for Drawing DFDs
         Primitive DFDs
           n      Lowest logical level of decomposition
           n      Decision has to be made when to stop
                  decomposition
           n      Rules for stopping decomposition
                   w When each process has been reduced to a single
                     decision, calculation or database operation
                   w When each data store represents data about a single
                     entity
                   w When the system user does not care to see any more
                     detail
                   w >>>
8.64
8.64
       D. Delen           MSIS 5653 – Advanced Systems Development
        Guidelines for Drawing DFDs
         Rules for stopping decomposition (continued)
           n      When every data flow does not need to be split
                  further to show that data are handled in various
                  ways
           n      When you believe that you have shown each
                  business form or transaction, on-line display and
                  report as a single data flow
           n      When you believe that there is a separate process
                  for each choice on all lowest-level menu options



8.65
8.65
       D. Delen          MSIS 5653 – Advanced Systems Development
       Using DFDs as Analysis Tools
         Gap Analysis
           n      The process of discovering discrepancies between
                  two or more sets of data flow diagrams or
                  discrepancies within a single DFD


         Simulation and/or Activity Based Costing

         Inefficiencies in a system can often be
         identified through DFDs

8.66
8.66
       D. Delen          MSIS 5653 – Advanced Systems Development
       Using DFDs in Business Process
               Reengineering
          Example: IBM Credit




     As-Is
  Avg.: 6 Days




8.67
8.67
        D. Delen   MSIS 5653 – Advanced Systems Development
       Using DFDs in Business Process
               Reengineering
          Example: IBM Credit (Continued…)




     To-Be
   Avg.: 4 Hrs




8.68
8.68
        D. Delen   MSIS 5653 – Advanced Systems Development
       Using DFDs in Business Process
               Reengineering
          Example: IBM Credit (Continued…)
            n      After the reengineering effort
                    w IBM was able to process 100 times the number of
                      transactions in the same amount of time




8.69
8.69
        D. Delen          MSIS 5653 – Advanced Systems Development
          Oracle’s Process Modeler and
          Functional Hierarchy Diagrams
         Process Modeler
           n      Unique to Oracle
           n      Similar to DFDs but outputs and methods differ in several ways.




8.70
8.70
       D. Delen           MSIS 5653 – Advanced Systems Development
                  Oracle’s Process Modeler




8.71
8.71
       D. Delen       MSIS 5653 – Advanced Systems Development
          Oracle’s Process Modeler and
          Functional Hierarchy Diagrams
         Functional Hierarchy Diagrams

                                                              q   Picture of various
                                                                  tasks performed in a
                                                                  business and how
                                                                  they are
                                                                  hierarchically related
                                                              q   Similar to IDEF0
                                                                  Function Diagrams
                                                              q   Does not include
                                                                  data flows




8.72
8.72
       D. Delen    MSIS 5653 – Advanced Systems Development
                                  Summary
         Data flow diagrams (DFD)
           n      Symbols
           n      Rules for creating
           n      Decomposition
           n      Balancing
         Four different kinds of DFDs
           n      Current Physical
           n      Current Logical
           n      New Logical
           n      New Physical
         DFDs for Analysis and BPR
         Oracle’s Process Modeler and Functional Hierarchy
         Diagrams
8.73
8.73
       D. Delen            MSIS 5653 – Advanced Systems Development
           Figure 8.26 – Page 273




D. Delen      MSIS 5653 – Advanced Systems Development
           Figure 8.27 – Page 274



                            D1




D. Delen      MSIS 5653 – Advanced Systems Development
      Problem and Exercises #1
   Scenario: Retail clothing store in a mall

   List all relevant sources/sinks, processes, data stores
   and data flows
   Draw a context diagram
   Draw a level-0 diagram




D. Delen     MSIS 5653 – Advanced Systems Development
Scenario: Retail clothing store in a mall
           Level-0 Diagram




D. Delen   MSIS 5653 – Advanced Systems Development

								
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