Moral Development_1_ by hcj


									Moral Development

   AP Psychology
Lawrence Kohlberg
Kohlberg’s stages
• “Law? What do I care about law? Ain’t I got
  the power?”
•   [19th C. entrepreneur Cornelius Vanderbilt]

• “I never really gave it any thought that it was
  illegal. I was part of the club and everybody
  was doing it. I have nothing to hide on this
  thing. I think it was wrong and I’m glad
  something is being done about it, I just hope it
  doesn’t hurt me. I am an innocent party.”
•   [20th C. bank president accused of making illegal campaign
        Kohlberg Exercise

• “There will never be a really free and
  enlightened state until the state comes
  to recognize the individual as a higher
  and independent power from which all
  its power and authority are derived and
  treats him accordingly.”
•   [19th C. writer/philosopher Henry David Thoreau]
More Kohlberg Exercises

• “Our country! In her intercourse with foreign
  nations may she always be right; but our
  country right or wrong.”
•   [19th C. American Naval Commander, Stephen Decatur]

• “…No man has a moral right to transact
  business unless the man he deals with has
  an opportunity also to make something.
  Unless he lives and let live, he is not an
  honest man in business. There are not
  exceptions to this great rule.” [19th C. Preacher]
 Evaluation of Kohlberg
• Beginning studies only included white, privileged
  young men & boys
• Later studies involved women but they scored lower
  on his scale (Carol Gilligan will address this)
• Reflects intrapersonal not interpersonal behaviors
• Justice perspective – individual stands alone to
• Scoring method very complex and lacked inter-rater
• Cultural differences?
• Moral reasoning not always = to moral behavior
   • Talk vs Action
Carol Gilligan
Gilligan’s book
In a Different Voice
Carol Gilligan

The “Caring” Perspective on moral development

       views people in terms of interpersonal
       communication, relationships, concern
       for others
Carol Gilligan

Girls Dilemna in adolescence:
Be independent – appear selfish
Remain caring – selfless

Become less confident and more tentative - silent
Gilligan’s stages
• Individual rights and rules were considered a
  higher stage in Kohlberg’s theory than
  women’s perspective on caring about the
  effect on human relationships
• Women have different moral and
  psychological tendencies
• Women see the complexities and sometimes
  disregard the rules to do the caring thing
• Based on ego development not cognitive
  development like Kohlberg’s
   Additional criticism

• She has been popularly acclaimed, but
  Christina Hoff Sommers, in her book
  The War Against Boys
• In a Different Voice studies did not
  follow standard research protocol.
  Gilligan used small samples, her
  findings were not peer reviewed,
       More criticism

• Latest studies: moral reasoning has
  limited practical value
  • Studies – no close connection between
    people’s moral reasoning and their
  • Most moral reasoning comes after people
    have intuitively decided how to act
  • Is moral reasoning just a rational
    justification for an emotional decision?

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