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									          Cognition
            Chapter 13

 Cognitive Development
Throughout the Lifespan



     Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin   Chapter 13
                  Introduction

lifespan approach to development




          Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin   Chapter 13
              The Lifespan
         Development of Memory
Memory in Infants
    early research underestimated infants' memory
    abilities

  Attention Patterns
    Methodology - looking time
    own-race bias




              Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin     Chapter 13
                The Lifespan
           Development of Memory
Memory in Infants
  Attention Patterns
    Sangrigoli and de Schonen
       •   photos of White and Asian women's faces shown to White
           babies
       •   present one photo (either White or Asian woman)
           repeatedly until looking time decreases
       •   present pair of photos—familiar/unfamiliar White women
           or familiar/unfamiliar Asian women




                Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin           Chapter 13
                The Lifespan
           Development of Memory
Memory in Infants
  Attention Patterns
    Sangrigoli and de Schonen
       •   looking time for unfamiliar White woman longer than
           familiar White woman
       •   no difference for familiar/unfamiliar Asian women
       •   Further questions?




                 Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin            Chapter 13
              The Lifespan
         Development of Memory
Memory in Infants
  Recognizing Mother
    visual recognition – post-natal
    mother's voice - prenatal




               Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin   Chapter 13
              The Lifespan
         Development of Memory
Memory in Infants
  Conjugate Reinforcement
    Carolyn Rovee-Collier and colleagues
       nonverbal measures of memory
       conjugate reinforcement technique—mobile, ribbon,
       kicking
           • baseline, spontaneous kicking
           • acquisition phase
           • number of kicks produced following delay




               Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin         Chapter 13
Conjugate Reinforcement
      Technique




   Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin   Chapter 13
 Memory in Infants




Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin   Chapter 13
              The Lifespan
         Development of Memory
Memory in Infants
  Conjugate Reinforcement
    Carolyn Rovee-Collier and colleagues (continued)
       older infants—press lever to run train
       steady linear improvement during first 18 months of life

       context effects
       interference
       spacing effect
       levels of processing



                Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin              Chapter 13
              The Lifespan
         Development of Memory
Memory in Children
  Children's Working Memory
    memory span 2y - 2, 9y - 6
    three working memory components
    relationship to school performance




              Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin   Chapter 13
               The Lifespan
          Development of Memory
Memory in Children
  Children's Long-Term Memory
    Good by 20 months
       2 year-olds can recall events a few months old
    excellent recognition but poor recall
       Recall improves after about 9y
    Myers and Perlmutter (1978)
       object recognition and recall




                Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin           Chapter 13
              The Lifespan
         Development of Memory
Memory in Children
  Children's Long-Term Memory
    1. Autobiographical memory and early childhood
        childhood amnesia
        infant memory
        deferred imitation
        lack of well-organized sense of who they are
        difficulty encoding and retrieving
        reminders




                Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin          Chapter 13
              The Lifespan
         Development of Memory
Memory in Children
  Children's Long-Term Memory
    2. Children's source monitoring
        source monitoring
        Foley, Ratner and colleagues
           • performing vs. imagining how it would feel vs.
              visualizing
           • performing vs. watching another person perform a
              task




               Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin           Chapter 13
              The Lifespan
         Development of Memory
Memory in Children
  Children's Memory Strategies
    memory strategies
    utilization deficiency
    1. Rehearsal
       not very effective, but can keep information in working
           memory
       4- and 5-year-olds do not spontaneously use rehearsal
       can benefit from rehearsal if prompted




                Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin             Chapter 13
              The Lifespan
         Development of Memory
Memory in Children
  Children's Memory Strategies
    2. Organizational strategies
       categorizing and grouping
       Moely and colleagues—children study pictures from four
          categories; younger children rarely rearrange into
          categories
    3. Imagery
       even 6-year-olds can be trained to use visual imagery
          effectively



                 Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin           Chapter 13
                The Lifespan
           Development of Memory
Memory in Children
  Children's Eyewitness Testimony
    Leichtman and Ceci—"Sam Stone" study
       •   control, stereotype, suggestion, and stereotype-plus-
           suggestion groups
       •   children interviewed about Sam Stone 10 weeks after visit
       •   control group highly accurate
       •   children can provide valid eyewitness testimony if they do
           not receive misleading information, either before or after
           the target event



                 Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin             Chapter 13
Children's Eyewitness
      Testimony




 Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin   Chapter 13
              The Lifespan
         Development of Memory
Memory in Children
  Children's Eyewitness Testimony
    age, stereotyping, and misleading suggestions all
       influence children's eyewitness testimony
    social factors
    reluctance to say "I don't know"
    change statements under cross-examination




               Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin      Chapter 13
               The Lifespan
          Development of Memory
Individual Differences: Children’s
Intelligence and Eyewitness Testimony
  Henry and Gudjonsson (2007)
    children with mental retardation vs. typically
        developing children
    older and younger children
    misleading questions




               Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin         Chapter 13
Individual Differences: Children’s
   Intelligence and Eyewitness
             Testimony




    Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin   Chapter 13
                The Lifespan
           Development of Memory
In Depth: Memory in Elderly People
    stereotypes
    large individual differences
    complex developmental trends
  Working Memory in Elderly People
    nature of the task
    Stine and coauthors (1989)—recall for spoken English
       •   normal syntax/normal rate vs. random order/fast rate
       •   significant age difference for complicated, non-real-life
           task


                Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin                Chapter 13
              The Lifespan
         Development of Memory
In Depth: Memory in Elderly People
  Long-Term Memory in Elderly People
    perform well on semantic memory tasks and easy,
       automatic tasks
    age differences on more complex tasks




              Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin    Chapter 13
              The Lifespan
         Development of Memory
In Depth: Memory in Elderly People
  Long-Term Memory in Elderly People
    1. Prospective memory
       simulated shopping task
       complete fewer tasks and make more errors
       perform more accurately when they have an environmental
       cue
       can even perform better than younger adults




              Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin           Chapter 13
              The Lifespan
         Development of Memory
In Depth: Memory in Elderly People
  Long-Term Memory in Elderly People
    2. Implicit memory
        Light and colleagues (1995)
           reading familiar letter sequence
           older and younger adults performed similarly
    3. Explicit recognition memory
        long-term recognition memory declines slowly or not at all




                Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin             Chapter 13
              The Lifespan
         Development of Memory
In Depth: Memory in Elderly People
  Long-Term Memory in Elderly People
    4. Explicit recall memory
        performance decreases slowly and age differences are
            more substantial
        Dunlosky and Hertzog (1998)—pairs of unrelated words
        names, historical details, stories
        large individual differences—verbal ability, education
        Hasher and colleagues—time of day



                Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin           Chapter 13
              The Lifespan
         Development of Memory
In Depth: Memory in Elderly People
  Explanations for Age Differences in Memory
    changes in brain structures
    1. Difficulty paying attention
    2. Ineffective use of memory strategies
    3. The contextual-cues hypothesis
    4. Cognitive slowing




               Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin   Chapter 13
      The Lifespan Development
           of Metamemory
metacognition
metamemory
metacomprehension




         Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin   Chapter 13
         The Lifespan Development
              of Metamemory
Metamemory in Children
    Flavell
    theory of mind—people's ideas on how their minds
    work and on their beliefs about other people's
    thoughts




              Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin   Chapter 13
         The Lifespan Development
              of Metamemory
Metamemory in Children
  Children's Understanding of How Memory
  Works
    small vs. large memory sets
    related vs. random words
    effectiveness of memory strategies




               Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin   Chapter 13
          The Lifespan Development
               of Metamemory
Metamemory in Children
  Children's Awareness That Effort Is
  Necessary
    young children do not appreciate the need for effort
    keep studying information they already know
    not accurate in judging what has been committed to
       memory
    don't realize that they need to make an effort to use a
       memory strategy
    naive ideas about the effort required for memorization

               Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin       Chapter 13
          The Lifespan Development
               of Metamemory
Metamemory in Children
  Children's Judgments About Their Memory
  Performance
    younger children unrealistically optimistic
    Roebers and colleagues
        memory for magic show
        confidence ratings
    overconfidence




               Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin      Chapter 13
                 Metamemory in Children




Figure 13.5 Average Level of Confidence for Questions Answered Correctly and Questions
Answered Incorrectly. (1 = Very Unsure; 5=Very Sure)

                         Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin                     Chapter 13
         The Lifespan Development
              of Metamemory
Metamemory in Children
  Children's Metamemory: The Relationship
  Between Metamemory and Memory
  Performance—Summary
      1. Their metamemory is faulty; they do not realize that they
         need to make an effort to memorize, and they also do not
         realize how little they can remember.
      2. They do not spontaneously use helpful memory strategies.
      3. Relative to older children, their memory performance is
         poor.



                Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin            Chapter 13
          The Lifespan Development
               of Metamemory
Metamemory in Children
  Children's Metamemory: The Relationship
  Between Metamemory and Memory
  Performance—Summary
    Is there a causal link?
    Metamemory

    Strategy use

    Memory performance

               Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin   Chapter 13
          The Lifespan Development
               of Metamemory
Metamemory in Children
  Children's Metamemory: The Relationship
  Between Metamemory and Memory
  Performance—Summary
    •   some evidence that metamemory is related to
        strategy use
    •   extensive evidence that strategy use is related to
        memory performance
    •   moderate correlation between metamemory and
        memory performance

                Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin      Chapter 13
          The Lifespan Development
               of Metamemory
Metamemory in Elderly People
  1. Beliefs about memory
    younger and older adults share similar beliefs
  2. Memory monitoring
    equally skilled on some tasks—predicting items
    they will recall, selecting most difficult items for further
    study, judging accuracy on general-knowledge
    questions, deciding whether an item is old or new
    overconfident on some tasks—overall performance
    on a test of memory for specific details about a recent
    event
                Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin          Chapter 13
         The Lifespan Development
              of Metamemory
Metamemory in Elderly People
  3. Awareness of memory problems
    problems with everyday memory
    some elderly people don't try to develop helpful
       memory strategies because they think that
       memory decline is inevitable
    memory self-efficacy—the belief in one's own
       potential to perform well on memory tasks



               Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin       Chapter 13
             The Development of
                  Language
Language in Infants
    rate of acquisition
    vocabulary size
    creative language use




              Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin   Chapter 13
              The Development of
                   Language
Language in Infants
  Speech Perception in Infancy
    phonemes
    speech-sound categories across speakers
    Eimas and coauthors
       habituation studies, sucking response
       dishabituation indicates perceiving difference between
       sounds




                Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin             Chapter 13
             The Development of
                  Language
Language in Infants
  Speech Perception in Infancy
    Werker and Tees—distinguishing sounds in other
        languages
    Kuhl—relearning lost distinctions
    language rhythms
    bilingual homes and language discrimination




              Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin    Chapter 13
             The Development of
                  Language
Language in Infants
  Language Comprehension in Infancy
    1. Recognizing important words
       name, mommy, daddy
    2. Discriminating between grammatical words and
       meaning words




              Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin    Chapter 13
             The Development of
                  Language
Language in Infants
  Language Comprehension in Infancy
    3. Understanding the correspondence between
       sound and sight
       emotional tone of spoken language
       Walker-Andrews
         recordings of either a happy voice or an angry voice
         side-by-side films of happy speaker and angry speaker
         infants watched the face that matched the emotion of the
         voice


               Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin            Chapter 13
             The Development of
                  Language
Language in Infants
  Language Comprehension in Infancy
    4. Appreciating semantic concepts
       Mandler and colleagues—concepts about objects
         distinguishing between visually similar objects
         animate/inanimate objects
         "animal" vs. "vehicle" categories
         concepts become more refined




               Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin               Chapter 13
             The Development of
                  Language
Language in Infants
  Language Production in Infancy
    cooing
    babbling
    intentional communication




              Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin   Chapter 13
             The Development of
                  Language
Language in Infants
  Adults' Language to Infants
    child-directed speech
    motherese
    fathers
    adults typically use a different language style when
        speaking to infants and young children than when
        speaking to older people
    differences across language communities
    mothers who are depressed

               Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin     Chapter 13
             The Development of
                  Language
Language in Children
  Words
    early words and concepts
    word production
    comprehension of words
    interrelationship of memory and language




              Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin    Chapter 13
               The Development of
                    Language
Language in Children
  Words
    fast mapping—using context to make a reasonable
    guess about a word's meaning
       Heibeck and Markman (1987)
           series of paired objects
           familiar and unfamiliar terms
    overextension
    underextension



                Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin   Chapter 13
             The Development of
                  Language
Language in Children
  Morphology
    morphemes
    morphology
      pay greater attention to phrases with appropriate morphology
      create their own regular forms




               Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin            Chapter 13
              The Development of
                   Language
Language in Children
  Morphology
    overregularization—the tendency to add the most
    customary morphemes to create new forms of
    irregular words
       parallel distributed processing explanation—language
       system keeps tally of morpheme patterns; patterns of
       excitation within neural networks account for
       overregularization
       rule-and-memory theory (Marcus)—children learn a general
       rule for past-tense verbs and also store in memory the past
       tenses for many irregular verbs
                Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin           Chapter 13
             The Development of
                  Language
Language in Children
  Syntax
    combining words into sentences
    two-word utterances
    morphology and syntax
    active process
    using syntax cues




              Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin   Chapter 13
             The Development of
                  Language
Language in Children
  Pragmatics
    learning the social rules of language
    what to say, to whom, language styles, coordinating
       conversations




               Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin     Chapter 13
              The Development of
                   Language
Language in Children
  Pragmatics
    adapting language to the listener
       Shatz and Gelman (1973)
          4-year-olds speaking to 2-year-olds, 4-year-olds and
              adults
          2-year olds speaking to infants
    taking turns in conversation
    gestures of interest; listener responses



                Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin            Chapter 13

								
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