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The content about IAS exam should be easily searchable at Halfmantr In the realm of business-to-business electronic commerce also, notable structural differences exist between Asia and North America. They include the disproportionate contribution of direct goods to final products relatively inefficient and fragmented supply chains, smaller domestic markets, and less developed infrastructure for electronic commerce. Each of these about IAS exam structural differences has a significant influence on the patterns of B2B e-commerce emerging in Asia. Direct goods often pose greater challenges in product specification and cataloging than indirect materials, and e- marketplace operators necessarily develop capabilities in this domain. The potential benefits e-marketplaces— increased supply chain efficiency through reducing the number of intermediaries or through information the supply chain—are greater in Asia than in the West, where there are already fewer intermediaries and more efficient supply chains. Many Asian e-marketplaces target Asian MNCs and large buyers from the West and seek to link them with smaller Asian suppliers. Finally, the lack of supporting infrastructure in much of Asia means that e-marketplaces have to provide numerous complementary services in the areas of logistics, payments, assurance, and credit checks for a successful launch. These differences are well illustrated by an industry important in both locales—nonferrous metals. In this industry, key structural characteristics plausibly related to e-commerce business models and e-business adoption differ sharply in China and the US—industry consolidation/fragmentation, spot versus systematic sourcing patterns, and e-commerce infrastructure. Industry concentration is an important structural condition likely related to e-commerce activity, because about civil services fragmentation is believed to promote the formation of electronic marketplaces and .In the US, the ten largest companies account for 70% of aluminum extrusion production. In China, the ten largest companies produce only 30%; about 600 small companies account for roughly half of all production. Therefore, one would expect that electronic marketplaces would be more successful in the highly fragmented Chinese nonferrous metals industry than in the US, where the industry is quite concentrated. Industry sourcing patterns—systematic versus spot—are also plausibly related to e- commerce activity, since widespread use of spot purchasing is believed favorable to the use of electronic exchanges. In the US, systematic sourcing of nonferrous metals predominates, whereas spot purchasing is more common in China. Again, one would expect electronic marketplaces to be more successful in China. Just how important it is to look beyond broad characterizations of national culture is amply demonstrated by a study of organizational control practices in Chinese joint ventures: Robins and Zhiang (2000) found significant differences between Sino-American and Sino-Japanese joint ventures, indicating that the multinational parent, not just the local culture, is an important explanatory factor. However, while both industry fragmentation and spot sourcing patterns favor e- marketplace activity, the quality of e-commerce infrastructure does not. The quality of the e-business infrastructure differs greatly between China and the US in a direction that bodes ill for the use of electronic marketplaces in China. For example, China lacks a well- functioning electronic payment system.
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