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Introduction to Nondestructive Testing

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Introduction to Nondestructive Testing Powered By Docstoc
					Metric System, Terminology,
   and Welding Symbols
Metric Practices for
Welding Inspection
Metric System

    Le System
  Internationale
     d’Unites
        or :


       SI
ANSI/AWS
 A1.1 - 98
     SI Welding Units - Table 7.3

•   Deposition rate    kg/hr
•   Flow rate          L/min
•   Tensile strength   MPa
•   Travel speed       mm/s
•   Wire feed speed    mm/s
•   Pressure           kPa
         Conversion Factors


“To aid in converting values from one system to
     another, conversion tables have been
                   prepared.”
        ANSI/AWS A3.0 - 94


Standard Welding
   Terms and
   Definitions
              Introduction

• The geometry of joints and welds must be
  clearly stated and understood by all parties
  involved with fabrication
• Terminology used per A3.0 and A2.4
• Don’t use slang terms
• Welding symbols are a shorthand method for
  clearly stating exactly what welding is to be
  done and where
              5 Basic Joint Types


•   Butt
•   Corner
•   T-Joint
•   Lap
•   Edge
                       Butt Joint
A Joint between 2
members aligned
approximately in the
same plane
    Butt Joint - Applicable Welds

•   Bevel-groove         •   U-groove
•   Flare-bevel-groove   •   V-groove
•   Flare-v-groove       •   Edge-flange
•   J-groove             •   Braze
•   Square-groove
                   Corner Joint
A Joint between 2
members located
approximately at right
angles to each other in the
form of an L
Corner Joint - Applicable Welds

•   Fillet               •   V-groove
•   Bevel-groove         •   Plug
•   Flare-bevel-groove   •   Slot
•   Flare-v-groove       •   Spot
•   J-groove             •   Seam
•   Square-groove        •   Projection
•   U-groove             •   Braze
                      T-Joint
A Joint between 2
members located at
approximately right
angles to each other in
the form of a T
      T Joint - Applicable Welds

•   Fillet               •   Slot
•   Bevel-groove         •   Spot
•   Flare-bevel-groove   •   Seam
•   J-groove             •   Projection
•   Square-groove        •   Braze
•   Plug
                  Lap Joint
A Joint between 2
overlapping members in
parallel planes
    Lap Joint - Applicable Welds

•   Fillet               •   Slot
•   Bevel-groove         •   Spot
•   Flare-bevel-groove   •   Seam
•   J-groove             •   Projection
•   Plug                 •   Braze
               Edge Joint

A Joint between the
edges of 2 or more
parallel, or nearly
parallel, members
    Edge Joint - Applicable Welds

•   Bevel-groove         •   U-groove
•   Flare-bevel-groove   •   V-groove
•   Flare-v-groove       •   Edge
•   J-groove             •   Seam
•   Square-groove
           Joint Nomenclature

•   Joint root       • Groove radius
•   Groove face      • Root opening
•   Root edge        • Edge shapes
                       –   square
•   Root face
                       –   single or double bevel
•   Bevel angle        –   single or double J
                       –   round
•   Depth of bevel
•   Groove angle
l   Joint Root
l   Groove Face
l   Root Edge
l   Root Face
l   Bevel Angle
l   Bevel Depth
l   Groove Angle
l   Groove Radius
l   Root Opening
     Edge Shapes
• Square
• Single Bevel
• Double Bevel
• Single J
• Double J
• Flange
• Round
Single Groove Welds

  •   Single Square
  •   Single Bevel
  •   Single V
  •   Single J
  •   Single U
  •   Single Flare Bevel
  •   Single Flare V
Double Groove Welds

  •   Double Square
  •   Double Bevel
  •   Double V
  •   Double J
  •   Double U
  •   Double Flare Bevel
  •   Double Flare V
Seam, Spot Welds

 •   Arc Seam Weld
 •   EB Seam Weld
 •   RSW Seam Weld
 •   RSW Spot Welds
 •   Arc Spot Welds
Various Welds


•   Upset Weld
•   Flash Weld
•   Surfacing Weld
•   Slot Welds
•   Plug Welds
•   Fillet Welds
             Parts Of A Weld

•   Toe                  •   Bead
•   Face                 •   Back weld
•   Face reinforcement   •   Backing weld
•   Root reinforcement   •   Spacer
•   Root surface         •   Heat-Affected Zone
•   Weld Root                (HAZ)
Parts of Welds


•   Weld Face
•   Weld Toe
•   Face Reinforcement
•   Root Reinforcement
•   Weld Root
•   Back Weld
•   Backing Weld
Parts of Welds


•   Weld Root
•   Leg, Face, Toe
•   Spacer
•   Weld Metal
•   Heat Affected Zone
Parts of Welds


• Weld Root
• Weld Bead
• Dilution Percent
            Weld Sizes & Terms

                         Concave Fillet
Convex Fillet
                         •   Leg
•   Leg, size equal
                         •   Size (less than leg length)
•   Convexity
                         •   Concavity
•   Actual throat
                         •   Actual, Effective throats equal
•   Effective throat
                         •   Theoretical throat
•   Theoretical throat
Convex Fillet Weld
Concave Fillet Weld
   Welding Beads, Sequences


• Stringer bead       • Block sequence
• Weave bead          • Cascade sequence
• Backstep sequence   • Layers vs beads
     Joint & Root Penetration




Note Incomplete Joint Penetration dimension
    Incomplete Joint Penetration

• Term used only in reference to groove welds
• If only Partial Penetration is intended, it is incorrect
  to refer to the weld as Incomplete Joint Penetration
  Incomplete Joint Penetration




(Or Partial Joint Penetration if intended)
E total can never be > base metal thickness
Fusion Weld Terms
       ANSI/AWS A2.4-98


Standard Symbols
for Welding,
Brazing, and
Nondestructive
Examination
    Welding Symbols - Introduction

•   A shorthand method of conveying welding information
•   AWS system used all over the world
•   Modified as necessary to reflect needs of industries
•   Very simple, but a very powerful system for conveying
    information
 Weld Symbol vs Welding Symbol

• A Weld Symbol indicates the type of Weld, and
  may be a part of the:
• Welding Symbol - the complete information needed
  to convey the necessary welding information to all
  parties, including the welder. It contains several
  elements, including the Weld Symbol.
Weld Symbols
              Groove Weld Types

 •   Square            •   U
 •   Scarf             •   J
 •   V                 •   Flare-V
 •   Bevel             •   Flare-bevel




The above welds may be applied to one
side or both sides of the joint, or in
combination.
              Other Weld Types

 •   Fillet               •   Seam
 •   Plug or Slot         •   Back or Backing
 •   Stud *               •   Surfacing *
 •   Spot or Projection   •   Edge




* Stud and surfacing symbols are always
  placed below reference line.
       Weld Symbols - Rules

• Symbols with a perpendicular leg shall have
  the perpendicular leg drawn on the left side
  of the symbol. (fillet, bevel-groove, J-groove,
  and flare-bevel-groove)
• The symbols for Stud and Surfacing welds
  shall always be drawn below the reference
  line.
Welding Symbol
 Elements of Welding Symbols

Required Elements         Optional Elements
• Reference Line - always • Multiple reference lines
  horizontal              • Tail
• Arrow                   • Weld Symbol
                          • Dimensions
                          • Supplementary Symbols
                          • Finish
                          • Specification, Process
               Arrow Notation

• Information applicable to
  the arrow side of the joint
  is placed below the
  reference line

• Information applicable to
  the other side of a joint is
  placed above the reference
  line
Arrow Side Weld Symbols
Other Side Weld Symbols
               Side Significance

The Weld Symbol
straddles the reference
line when there is no side
Significance

• Resistance Spot Weld

• Resistance Seam Weld

• Flash Weld
          Break in Arrow Line

A break in the arrow line
signifies that the member
the arrow points to is the
member receiving the edge
preparation.
     Combined Weld Symbols

For joints requiring
more than one weld
type, a weld symbol
shall be used to specify
each weld
             Multiple Arrows

Two or more arrows
may be used for a single
reference line to denote
locations where
identical welds are
specified.
      Multiple Reference Lines

• Two or more reference
  lines may be used to
  indicate a sequence of
  operations.
• The first operation is
  always on the
  reference line nearest
  the arrow.
                         Tail

The Tail is used to
specify welding
process information or
other such information
needed to convey the
necessary welding
details.
          Welding and NDE Symbols
• Welding and NDE symbols can be
  combined on the same reference
  line, or on separate multiple
  reference lines.
• Combining welding and NDE
  symbols on multiple reference lines
  often clarifies the exact sequence of
  operations required.
Supplementary Symbols
     Field Weld & Weld All-Around
• The Field Weld symbol is a
  solid flag, and is always
  located at junction of the
  arrow and reference line.
• The Weld All-Around symbol
  is a circle and is located at
  junction of the arrow and
  reference line.
         Weld Contours & Finishing
• Weld surfaces can be contoured
  to several shapes; convex,
  concave, flush, or flat.
• Finishing methods are
  abbreviated as shown.
• ‘U’ denotes contour method is
  ‘Unspecified’
• Contour symbol w/o finish
  symbol means as-welded
                 Symbol Examples

• Arrow side - V- groove



• Other side - V- groove



• Both sides - V- groove
              Symbol Examples
• Back or Backing, single
  J-groove, fillet



• Single-bevel-groove,
  double fillet
               Symbol Examples
• Weld all-around
  symbol is a very   • Multi-plane weld requirements
  useful symbol        are very simple to sketch using
                       symbol
                  Symbol Examples
• Square-groove butt with
  melt-through

• Edge weld on flanged butt
  with melt-through

• Edge weld on flanged
  corner joint with melt-
  through
          Symbol Dimensions?
• Tolerances, if required, are to be placed in tail
• Welding Symbols are usually drawn without
  dimension units such as inches or millimeters.
• But, Welding Symbols to be used for publications or
  those requiring high precision should be
  dimensioned and have the dimensional tolerances
  noted within the tail.
Groove Weld Dimensions - 1 of 9
• Depth of Bevel, S, and Size of
  Weld, (E) placed to the left of
  the symbol



• 1/4 inch bevel with a 3/8 inch
  weld
  (No dimensions means
  complete penetration)
Groove Weld Dimensions - 2 of 9



•   Examples of Groove Weld Bevel
    & Weld Dimensions



•   No dimensions means
    complete penetration
Groove Weld Dimensions - 3 of 9

• The Root Opening is
  placed within the weld
  symbol or just outside,
  and only on one side of
  the reference line
• Inches or mm per shop
  practice
Groove Weld Dimensions - 4 of 9

• Groove Angle is
  placed just outside
  the weld symbol
     Groove Weld Dimensions - 5 of 9




The length of the weld shall be placed to the right of the
weld symbol.      No dimension required if weld is
continuous for full length of joint.
     Groove Weld Dimensions - 6 of 9




Pitch is the distance between centers of adjacent weld
segments. Pitch length is shown to the right of the weld
length dimension following a hyphen.
   Groove Weld Dimensions - 7 of 9




Chain intermittent weld dimensions are to be placed on
both sides of reference line, and opposite each other
  Groove Weld Dimensions - 8 of 9




Staggered intermittent weld dimensions are to be
placed on both sides of reference line, and offset
from each other.
     Groove Weld Dimensions - 9 of 9


• Flare-Bevel &
  Flare-V welds
     Back and Backing Welds

• The back and backing weld symbols are
  identical. The sequence of welding
  determines which designation applies.
• Back weld made after groove weld
• Backing weld made before groove weld
               Back Weld




The back weld symbol is placed on the
reference line opposite the groove weld using
a single reference line with note in tail. Or,
use multiple reference lines.
               Backing Weld




The backing weld symbol is placed on the
reference line opposite the groove weld using a
single reference line with note in tail. Or, use
multiple reference lines
           Joint With Backing




The backing symbol is placed on the reference
line opposite the weld symbol. The “R’’ refers to
removing the backing after welding is completed.
            Joint With Spacer




The spacer symbol straddles the reference
line within the weld symbol. Material, size in
tail.
    Fillet Weld Dimensions - 1 of 5




The fillet weld size is shown to the left of the
symbol.      For double fillets, each is
dimensioned.
    Fillet Weld Dimensions - 2 of 5




Arrow Side versus Other Side for Fillet welds.
For double fillet welds, each is dimensioned.
  Fillet Weld Dimensions - 3 of 5




The fillet weld size for unequal leg fillets is
shown to the left of the symbol, with
clarifying information in the tail.
  Fillet Weld Dimensions - 4 of 5




The fillet weld length is shown to the right
of the weld symbol. When fillet weld is the
full length of the joint, no dimension is
required.
 Fillet Weld Dimensions - 5 of 5

• Intermittent fillet welds follow the same rules
  as intermittent groove welds regarding pitch
  and placement of dimensions to the right of
  the weld symbol.
• Chain and staggered fillets are used
• Fillet weld finishing symbols same as for
  groove welds
           Plug Welds - 1 of 4




Plug weld size is shown to the left of the plug weld
symbol, and is preceded by the diameter symbol, f.
Plug weld size is the diameter of the hole at the
faying surface
         Plug Welds - 2 of 4




Countersink angle is shown just outside the
weld symbol.
           Plug Welds - 3 of 4




Depth of filling is shown as a linear dimension within
the plug weld symbol when less than complete.
           Plug Welds - 4 of 4




The pitch is shown to the right of the symbol. The
number of plug welds is shown just outside the
weld symbol, in parentheses
                  Slot Welds
• The slot weld symbol is identical to the plug weld
  symbol
• All conventions for slot welds are identical to that
  of plug welds except that the diameter symbol, f, is
  not used for slot welds
• The primary difference between the two types is
  the slot is an elongated hole having a width and
  length rather than a diameter
             Slot Weld Symbol
Slot Welds

Note: No f symbol is
used
Spot or Projection Welds - 1 of 4


• The spot weld symbol may straddle the
  reference line when there is no side
  significance, or be placed on either side if
  significant.
• Spot size or strength to left of symbol
• Projection weld symbols are shown above or
  below the reference line, and require the PW
  designation in the tail of the symbol.
Spot or Projection Welds - 2 of 4




Welding symbol showing spot weld size, number,
and welding method.
Spot or Projection Welds - 3 of 4


 • Spacing is shown to the right of the symbol
 • Number required is shown just outside the
   symbol, in parentheses
Spot or Projection Welds - 4 of 4




          Projection weld symbol
           Seam Welds - 1 of 2
• Symbol may be on either side, or straddling
  reference line
• Dimensioning as before; size to left of symbol,
  length and pitch to right
• May be specified by size or strength
• May be continuous or intermittent
• Number shown in parentheses above or below
  weld symbol
          Seam Welds - 2 of 2




Seam weld welding symbol. Note info in tail
             Edge Welds - 1 of 3
• Used to specify edge welds on edge joints and
  flanged butt or flanged corner joints
• Full thickness of joint members must be fused
• Size to left of symbol, length and pitch to right
• May be continuous or intermittent
Edge Welds - 2 of 3




Edge weld symbol application
       Edge Welds - 3 of 3




Edge weld symbol application with 3 members
          Stud Welds - 1 of 3

• Stud weld symbol always on arrow side
• Size (diameter of stud) to left of symbol, pitch
  to right
• Number in parentheses just outside symbol
Stud Welds - 2 of 3




Stud weld symbol application
            Stud Welds - 3 of 3




Stud weld symbol application, multiple arrows
          Surfacing Welds - 1 of 3
•   Surfacing weld symbol always on arrow side
•   Applies to single or multiple layers
•   Size (thickness) to left of symbol
•   Location, direction of welding in tail or a drawing
    reference
Surfacing Welds - 2 of 3




Surfacing weld symbol application
       Surfacing Welds - 3 of 3




   Two Weld
   Layers

Surfacing weld symbol application, multiple layers
     Brazing Symbols - 1 of 3

• Brazing symbol shows joint geometry,
  clearance, type of braze process, size of
  braze, pitch
• Special cleaning requirements, before or after
  brazing, can be noted in tail or on drawing
 Brazing Symbols - 2 of 3




Brazing symbol application in scarf joint
        Brazing Symbols - 3 of 3




Brazing symbol with dimensions and braze type
        NDE Symbols - 1 of 2

• All conventions used are similar, if not
  identical to Welding Symbols
• Must be familiar with NDE abbreviations for
  test methods
• Supplementary symbols have slightly
  different meaning
• Number of tests, extent of testing must be
  specified
  NDE Symbols - 2 of 2




Note items and position of placement
NDE Abbreviations

•   AET     •   PT
•   ET      •   PRT
•   LT      •   RT
•   MT      •   UT
•   NRT     •   VT
NDE Supplementary Symbols
  NDE Symbol Application - 1 of 2




RT symbol, with angle of radiation incidence
NDE Symbol Application - 2 of 2




  MT symbol, both sides for 6 inch length

				
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