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Introduction to N-SPECT - NOAA Coastal Services Center

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Introduction to N-SPECT - NOAA Coastal Services Center Powered By Docstoc
					   An open source version of the
Nonpoint-Source Pollution and Erosion
          Comparison Tool

    Dave Eslinger, Shan Burkhalter, Matt Pendleton
                     10 May, 2012
                    Outline
• Background

• Getting started
  – Installation
  – Activation


• Basic analysis

• Advanced analysis
                 Background
•   Why this tool?
•   Why open source?
•   What does OpenNSPECT do?
•   What do you need to run it?
•   What does it produce?
•   Who else has used it?
•   How can you get involved?
     Why this tool?
• Hawai‘i managers needed a
  simple, quick screening tool
   – Usable in a public setting
   – Could run on a laptop
• Initially applied in Wai‘anae
  region in O‘ahu, Hawai‘i
   – Pressure from residential
     development
   – Sensitive coastal habitats


• 2004: Esri ArcGIS 8.x
  extension
   – Updated for 9.0, 9.1, 9.2, 9.3

• 2011: OpenNSPECT
Why Open Source?
                   • N-SPECT Requirements
                     – Esri ArcGIS Desktop
                     – Spatial Analyst Extension
                   • ArcGIS 10 changes
                   • Customer requests
                     – “easy, online and free”
                   • MapWindow
                     – GeoTools 2007
                   • EPA BASINS
    Open Source and ESRI versions
• Strengths
  – Speed
  – “Free”
  – Community support
• Weaknesses
  – Different program
     • learning curve, anxiety, distrust
  – Some features missing
  – Community support
      What does OpenNSPECT do?
• Water quality screening tool
• Spatially distributed (raster-based) pollutant
  and sediment yield model
• Compares the effects of different land cover
  and land use scenarios on total yields
• User friendly graphical interface within a GIS
  environment
                 Processes Simulated
• Topography determines flow
  direction and slope
• Soil characteristics, land
  cover, and precipitation
  determine runoff
• Runoff, land cover, and
  pollutant coefficients
  determine pollutant loads
• Runoff, topography, soil
  characteristics, and land
  cover determine sediment
  loads
            Uses Existing Approaches
• Rainfall runoff
   – Soil Conservation Service (SCS)
     curve number technique

• Nonpoint pollutant
   – Event mean concentration
     technique

• Sediment erosion
   – Universal Soil Loss Equation
     (USLE)
       • Modified (MUSLE)
       • Revised (RUSLE)
                    Assumptions/Limitations
                                        • Omitted processes
                                           –   Stormwater drainage
                                           –   Stream diversions
                                           –   Snowmelt
                                           –   Landslides

                                        • No time component for
                                           – Runoff dynamics
                                           – Sediment redeposition
                                           – Pollutant dynamics




Source: NASA Earth Science Enterprise
          What do you need to run it?
• National sources*
    –   Land cover data
    –   Topography
    –   Precipitation
    –   Soils data
    –   Pollutant coefficients
    –   Rainfall erosivity

• Local sources
    – Water quality standards
    – Additional pollutant
      coefficients

*Local “tuning” improves accuracy
                        Topography
• Defines flow direction,
  stream networks,
  watersheds

• Default
   – U.S. Geological Survey
     (USGS) 30 m resolution
     digital elevation model

• Resolution impacts
  processing speed and
  file size
                      Land Cover
• Foundation for runoff
  quantity, sediment yield,
  pollutant yield

• Default
   – Coastal Change Analysis
     Program (C-CAP)
   – 30 m resolution

• Flexible
   – Can easily substitute any
     land cover grid
                                         Soils
• Runoff and erosion
  estimates are dependent
  upon soils and land
  cover
• Default
      – SSURGO soils†
      – County level resolution

• Infiltration rate
      – Hydrologic group

• Soil erodibility
      – K-factor

 †   Soil Survey Geographic Database
     provided by the Natural Resources
     Conservation Service
                      Precipitation
• Derived from point
  estimates or modeled
   – OSU PRISM data

• Annual average

• Single event rainfall
                           Pollutants
• Pollutant coefficients
   – Event mean concentrations
   – Land cover specific

• Defaults
   –   Nitrogen
   –   Phosphorus
   –   Lead
   –   Zinc

• User–definable
   – New pollutants
   – New coefficients
   – Different criteria
            What does it produce?
• Runoff volume
• Accumulated runoff
• Sediment yield
• Accumulated sediment
  load
• Pollutant yield
• Accumulated pollutant
  load
• Pollutant concentration
                  Baseline Runoff
• Flow directions derived
  from topography
• Precipitation grid
  provides amount of
  rainfall




                                             n
• Uses soils and land cover




                                           io
                                           ct
                                          re
  data to estimate volume




                                       di
                                      ow
  of runoff




                                    Fl
• Validated
                 Baseline Erosion
• Estimates total annual
  sediment load delivered to
  coast

• Provides a conservative
  estimate
   – A “worst-case” scenario
                Baseline Nitrogen
• Estimates total annual
  pollutant load delivered
  to coast

• Focuses attention on
  source areas
                Baseline Nitrogen
• Estimates total annual
  pollutant concentration

• Focuses attention on
  source areas
Who else is using it?
           • Pelekane Bay, Hawaii
           • Sediments from
             extreme events.
            Who else is using it?
• Kingston Lake
  Watershed
  Association, near
  Conway, SC
• Nutrient loads
  under different
  growth scenarios
              Getting involved
• OpenNSPECT:
  – Nspect.codeplex.com
  – MapWindow.org
• Esri N-SPECT:
  – www.csc.noaa.gov/nspect
• NSPECT listserver
  – https://csc.noaa.gov/mailman/listinfo/n-spect-
    community
Questions?
     Project Contacts:
     Dave Eslinger, Project lead
      Dave.Eslinger@noaa.gov
      843-740-1270

     Shan Burkhalter
      Shan.Burkhalter@noaa.gov
      843-740-1275

     Matt Pendleton
      Matt.Pendleton@noaa.gov
      843-740-1196
              Example Application
• Makaha Valley, O‘ahu,
  Hawai‘i

• Annual time scale

• “What-if” scenario
   1. Baseline
   2. Land cover change
      • New residential
        development
   3. Comparison
        Land Cover Change Scenario
• Develop a subdivision

• Change scrub/shrub
  vegetation to low
  intensity development
             Nitrogen (Pre-Change)
• Baseline
   – Low nitrogen runoff


• Add scenario
            Nitrogen (Post-Change)
• Compare baseline
  estimate to the new
  estimated load

• Can calculate the
  difference in annual
  nitrogen load
                          Questions?
Download OpenNSPECT:           Project Contacts:

    www.csc.noaa.gov/nspect    Dave Eslinger, Project lead
                                Dave.Eslinger@noaa.gov
                                843-740-1270
Today’s Trainer:
                               Shan Burkhalter
Dave Eslinger                   Shan.Burkhalter@noaa.gov
 Dave.Eslinger@noaa.gov         843-740-1275
 843-740-1270
                               Matt Pendleton
                               Matt.Pendleton@noaa.gov
                                843-740-1196
                       Outline
• Background

• Getting started
   – Installation
   – Activation
   – Import new data


• Basic analysis

• Advanced analysis
MapWindow GIS
• Free
• Open-source
• Desktop GIS
• Developer driven applications (plugins)
  – OpenNSPECT
  – BASINS
  – 3D Viewer
Installation
                               Folder             Subfolder   File

                               Bin                            FixPath.dll
                                                              NSPECT.dll
                                                              vbalFlBr6.dll

                               Help                           Advanced Applications of

 • Two-part installation
                                                              OpenNSPECT
                                                              NSPECT.chm
                                                              TechnicalGuide.pdf
                                                              UsersManual.pdf
    1. MapWindowGIS                                           Tutorial.pdf


    2. OpenNSPECT              Metadata

                               Projects
                                                              Several .met files

                                                              Waianae.xml

                               Waianaedata1                   Agriculture.shp
                                                              annual_prec


 • Contents of C:\NSPECT
                                                              dem_30
                                                              Development.shp
                                                              event_prec_1
                                                              event_prec_2

 • TODAY adding
                                                              event_prec_3
                                                              Golf_Course.shp
                                                              landcover
                                                              landcover.lyr
   –   HI_Sample_Data                                         rfactor
                                                              soils.shp

   –   Unzip into C:\NSPECT\                                  soils1
                                                              soilsk1

                               workspace

                               wsdelin        Waianae_151     basinpoly.shp
                                                              dem2b
                                                              demfill
                                                              flowacc
                                                              flowdir
                                                              lsgrid
                                                              nibble
                                                              wshed

                                                              nspect.mdb
                   Activation
• Open MapWindowGIS

• MapWindow Pull-Down
  Menu, select Plug-ins >
  OpenNSPECT
Import
Landcover
• OpenNSPECT/
  Advanced
  Settings/Land
  Cover Types
• Options/Import
• Browse to
  coefficient file
• Import with new
  LC name
Import
Pollutants
• OpenNSPECT/
  Advanced
  Pollutants
• Pick Pollutant
• Coefficients
  /Import
• Pick LC type
• Browse to
  coefficient file
• Import with new
  Coefficient Set
  name
         Text change in Tutorial
• Change both
  “NitSet” to
  “NitSet05”
  – Page 4
  – Page 13
                              Outline
• Background

• Getting started

• Basic analysis
   – Baseline
      • Exercise 1 - Accumulated effects
      • Exercise 2 - Local effects
   – Conclusion


• Advanced analysis
                          Basic Analysis
• Baseline analyses
   – Objective
       • Run a basic analysis with OpenNSPECT and produce baseline runoff,
         erosion, and pollutant load data sets for an annual time scale.

   – Important Learning Objectives:
       •   Gain familiarity with the OpenNSPECT user interface.
       •   Learn which data sets are necessary to run the model.
       •   Understand the properties associated with the Pollutants tab.
       •   Understand the properties associated with the Erosion tab.
       •   Understand the function of the Local Effects Only option.
       •   Learn to visually assess the data output.
                               Exercise 1
• Baseline analysis (accumulated effects)
   – Accumulated runoff, nonpoint source pollutants, and eroded sediments are
     estimated.

   – Accumulated effects include:
       • Expected pollutant or sediment concentration at a cell.
       • Contributions from upstream cells.

• Page 3
                              Exercise 2
• Baseline analysis (local effects)
   – Local effects of runoff, nonpoint source pollution, and erosion are estimated.

   – Local effects include expected pollutant or sediment concentration at a cell
     without upslope contributions.


• Page 5
           Exercises 1 and 2 Results
• Baseline runoff, sediment loads, and nitrogen
  concentrations (accumulated and nonaccumulated)
   – Model outputs are representative of the landscape conditions during
     the time at which the input data was collected.


• Visual interpretation
   – Topography was associated with the shape and density of drainage
     networks.
   – Land cover types were associated with various degrees of sediment
     and pollutant loads.
Exercise 1 Results
Exercise 2 Results
                               Outline
• Background

• Getting started

• Basic analysis

• Advanced analysis
   – Management scenario
       • Exercise 3 – Accumulated and Local
         effects
   – Alternative land use
       • Exercise 4 - Accumulated effects
                Advanced Analysis
• Management scenario analyses
  – Objective
      • Run an analysis that incorporates a hypothetical management scenario
        and examines the potential changes to runoff, erosion, and pollution.

  – Important Learning Objectives:
      • Understand the properties associated with the Management Scenarios
        tab.
      • Learn to incorporate a management scenario.
      • Learn to quantitatively evaluate the data output.
      • Understand the relative contributions of different land cover classes to
        nonpoint source pollution.
                             Exercises 3
• Management scenario
   – Integration of a hypothetical land management scenario
       • Grassland and scrub/shrub converted to low intensity developed land.

   – Local effects of runoff, nonpoint-source pollution, and erosion are estimated.

   – Accumulated effects of runoff, nonpoint-source pollution, and erosion are
     estimated.

   – Comparison to baseline results.

• Page 7
                  Exercise 3 Results
                                    Baseline
• Nitrogen yields (mg)
   A. Baseline conditions
   B. Low density residential
      management scenario
   C. Difference between A and B       Management

   – The 0.2 km2 development is
     predicted to yield an
     additional 86.7 kilograms of
     nitrogen under the
     alternative land                          Comparison % Change
     management scenario (a 138
     percent increase).
                 Exercise 3 Results
• Nitrogen yields (mg)
   – This translates to a 0.5
     percent increase in the
     accumulated nitrogen load
     for the entire 14.1 km2
     watershed.
                  Advanced Analysis
• Alternative land use scenario analysis

   – Objective
       • Run an analysis with a new land use scenario and produce modified runoff,
         erosion, and pollutant load data sets for an annual timescale.


   – Important learning objectives:
       • Understand the properties associated with the Land Use tab.
       • Learn to parameterize a new land use scenario.
       • Learn to quantitatively evaluate the data output.
                                     Exercise 4
• Alternative land use scenario (accumulated effects)
    – Integration of a hypothetical land use scenario
         • New pollutant coefficients defined for a golf course.

    – Accumulated effects of runoff, nonpoint source pollution, and erosion are estimated.

    – Comparison to baseline results.


• Page 11
                       Exercise 4 Results
• Net decrease in accumulated nitrogen load
    – Land cover beneath the golf course polygon was recoded.
    – SCS curve numbers control runoff volume.
    – Runoff volume controls pollutant load.
                          Questions?
Download OpenNSPECT:           Project Contacts:

    www.csc.noaa.gov/nspect    Dave Eslinger, Project lead
                                Dave.Eslinger@noaa.gov
                                843-740-1270
Today’s Trainer:
                               Shan Burkhalter
Dave Eslinger                   Shan.Burkhalter@noaa.gov
 Dave.Eslinger@noaa.gov         843-740-1275
 843-740-1270
                               Matt Pendleton
                               Matt.Pendleton@noaa.gov
                                843-740-1196

				
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