# ch09

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```					CHAPTER 9
The Cost of Capital

n   Sources of capital
n   Component costs
n   WACC
9-1
What sources of long-term
capital do firms use?

Long-Term Capital
Long-Term Capital

Long-Term Debt
Long-Term Debt   Preferred Stock
Preferred Stock   Common Stock
Common Stock

Retained Earnings
Retained Earnings     New Common Stock
New Common Stock

9-2
Calculating the weighted
average cost of capital

WACC = wdkd(1-T) + wpkp + wcks

n   The w’s refer to the firm’s capital
structure weights.
n   The k’s refer to the cost of each
component.

9-3
Should our analysis focus on before
-tax or after-tax capital costs?

n   Stockholders focus on A-T CFs.
Therefore, we should focus on A-T
capital costs, i.e. use A-T costs of
capital in WACC. Only kd needs
deductible.

9-4
Should our analysis focus on
historical (embedded) costs or new
(marginal) costs?

n   The cost of capital is used primarily to
make decisions that involve raising new
capital. So, focus on today’s marginal
costs (for WACC).

9-5
How are the weights determined?

WACC = wdkd(1-T) + wpkp + wcks

n   Use accounting numbers or market
value (book vs. market weights)?
n   Use actual numbers or target capital
structure?

9-6
Component cost of debt
WACC = wdkd(1-T) + wpkp + wcks

n   kd is the marginal cost of debt capital.
n   The yield to maturity on outstanding L
-T debt is often used as a measure of
kd .
n   Why tax-adjust, i.e. why kd(1-T)?
9-7
A 15-year, 12% semiannual coupon
bond sells for \$1,153.72. What is
the cost of debt (kd)?
n   Remember, the bond pays a semiannual
coupon, so kd = 5.0% x 2 = 10%.

INPUTS     30           -1153.72   60    1000
N    I/YR     PV       PMT   FV
OUTPUT            5

9-8
Component cost of debt
n   Interest is tax deductible, so
A-T kd = B-T kd (1-T)
= 10% (1 - 0.40) = 6%
n   Use nominal rate.
n   Flotation costs are small, so ignore
them.

9-9
Component cost of preferred
stock
WACC = wdkd(1-T) + wpkp + wcks

n   kp is the marginal cost of preferred
stock.
n   The rate of return investors require on
the firm’s preferred stock.

9-10
What is the cost of preferred
stock?
n   The cost of preferred stock can be
solved by using this formula:

kp = D p / P p
= \$10 / \$111.10
= 9%

9-11
Component cost of preferred
stock
n   Preferred dividends are not tax-
necessary. Just use kp.
n   Nominal kp is used.
n   Our calculation ignores possible
flotation costs.

9-12
Is preferred stock more or less
risky to investors than debt?
n   More risky; company not required to
pay preferred dividend.
n   However, firms try to pay preferred
dividend. Otherwise, (1) cannot pay
common dividend, (2) difficult to raise
stockholders may gain control of firm.

9-13
Why is the yield on preferred
stock lower than debt?
n   Corporations own most preferred stock,
because 70% of preferred dividends are
nontaxable to corporations.
n   Therefore, preferred stock often has a lower
B-T yield than the B-T yield on debt.
n   The A-T yield to an investor, and the A-T cost
to the issuer, are higher on preferred stock
than on debt. Consistent with higher risk of
preferred stock.
9-14
Illustrating the differences between A
-T costs of debt and preferred stock
Recall, that the firm’s tax rate is 40%, and its
before-tax costs of debt and preferred stock
are kd = 10% and kp = 9%, respectively.

A-T kp = kp – kp (1 – 0.7)(T)
= 9% - 9% (0.3)(0.4)         = 7.92%
A-T kd = 10% - 10% (0.4)            = 6.00%

A-T Risk Premium on Preferred       = 1.92%
9-15
Component cost of equity
WACC = wdkd(1-T) + wpkp + wcks

n   ks is the marginal cost of common
equity using retained earnings.
n   The rate of return investors require on
the firm’s common equity using new
equity is ke.

9-16
Why is there a cost for
retained earnings?
n   Earnings can be reinvested or paid out as
dividends.
n   Investors could buy other securities, earn a
return.
n   If earnings are retained, there is an
opportunity cost (the return that
stockholders could earn on alternative
investments of equal risk).
n   Investors could buy similar stocks and earn ks.
n   Firm could repurchase its own stock and earn ks.
n   Therefore, ks is the cost of retained earnings.
9-17
Three ways to determine the
cost of common equity, ks
n   CAPM: ks = kRF + (kM – kRF) β

n   DCF:   ks = D 1 / P 0 + g

ks = kd + RP

9-18
If the kRF = 7%, RPM = 6%, and the
firm’s beta is 1.2, what’s the cost of
common equity based upon the CAPM?

ks = kRF + (kM – kRF) β
= 7.0% + (6.0%)1.2 = 14.2%

9-19
If D0 = \$4.19, P0 = \$50, and g = 5%,
what’s the cost of common equity based
upon the DCF approach?

D1 = D0 (1+g)
D1 = \$4.19 (1 + .05)
D1 = \$4.3995

ks = D1 / P 0 + g
= \$4.3995 / \$50 + 0.05
= 13.8%
9-20
What is the expected future growth rate?
n   The firm has been earning 15% on equity
(ROE = 15%) and retaining 35% of its
earnings (dividend payout = 65%). This
situation is expected to continue.

g = ( 1 – Payout ) (ROE)
= (0.35) (15%)
= 5.25%

n   Very close to the g that was given before.
9-21
Can DCF methodology be applied if
growth is not constant?

n   Yes, nonconstant growth stocks are
expected to attain constant growth at
some point, generally in 5 to 10 years.
n   May be complicated to compute.

9-22
If kd = 10% and RP = 4%, what is ks
using the own-bond-yield-plus-risk-
n   This RP is not the same as the CAPM
RPM.
n   This method produces a ballpark
estimate of ks, and can serve as a
useful check.

ks = kd + RP
ks = 10.0% + 4.0% = 14.0%
9-23
What is a reasonable final
estimate of ks?
Method      Estimate
CAPM         14.2%
DCF          13.8%
kd + RP      14.0%
Average    14.0%

9-24
Why is the cost of retained earnings
cheaper than the cost of issuing new
common stock?
n   When a company issues new common
stock they also have to pay flotation costs
to the underwriter.
n   Issuing new common stock may send a
negative signal to the capital markets,
which may depress the stock price.

9-25
If issuing new common stock incurs a
flotation cost of 15% of the proceeds,
what is ke?

9-26
Flotation costs
n   Flotation costs depend on the risk of the firm
and the type of capital being raised.
n   The flotation costs are highest for common
equity. However, since most firms issue
equity infrequently, the per-project cost is
fairly small.
n   We will frequently ignore flotation costs when
calculating the WACC.

9-27
Ignoring floatation costs, what is
the firm’s WACC?

WACC =   wdkd(1-T) + wpkp + wcks
=   0.3(10%)(0.6) + 0.1(9%) + 0.6(14%)
=   1.8% + 0.9% + 8.4%
=   11.1%

9-28
What factors influence a
company’s composite WACC?
n   Market conditions.
n   The firm’s capital structure and
dividend policy.
n   The firm’s investment policy. Firms
with riskier projects generally have a
higher WACC.

9-29
Should the company use the
composite WACC as the hurdle rate
for each of its projects?
n   NO! The composite WACC reflects the risk
of an average project undertaken by the
firm. Therefore, the WACC only represents
the “hurdle rate” for a typical project with
average risk.
n   Different projects have different risks. The
project’s WACC should be adjusted to
reflect the project’s risk.

9-30
Risk and the Cost of Capital

9-31
What are the three types of
project risk?
n   Stand-alone risk
n   Corporate risk
n   Market risk

9-32
How is each type of risk used?
n   Market risk is theoretically best in most
situations.
n   However, creditors, customers,
suppliers, and employees are more
affected by corporate risk.
n   Therefore, corporate risk is also
relevant.

9-33
Problem areas in cost of capital
n   Depreciation-generated funds
n   Privately owned firms
n   Measurement problems
n   Adjusting costs of capital for
different risk
n   Capital structure weights

9-34
capital determined for specific
projects or divisions?
n   Subjective adjustments to the firm’s
composite WACC.
n   Attempt to estimate what the cost of
capital would be if the project/division
were a stand-alone firm. This requires
estimating the project’s beta.

9-35
Finding a divisional cost of capital:
Using similar stand-alone firms to
estimate a project’s cost of capital
n   Comparison firms have the following
characteristics:
n   Target capital structure consists of 40%
debt and 60% equity.
n   kd = 12%
n   kRF = 7%
n   RPM = 6%
n   βDIV = 1.7
n   Tax rate = 40%
9-36
Calculating a divisional cost of capital

n   Division’s required return on equity
n   ks = kRF + (kM – kRF)β
= 7% + (6%)1.7 = 17.2%
n   Division’s weighted average cost of capital
n   WACC = wd kd ( 1 – T ) + wc ks
= 0.4 (12%)(0.6) + 0.6 (17.2%) =13.2%
n   Typical projects in this division are
acceptable if their returns exceed 13.2%.
9-37

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