INTRODUCTION TO GEOSYNTHETICS

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					STANDARDS ON GEOSYNTHETICS

             M.S.Verma
  Vice President – Technical Textiles
   M/s Reliance Industries Limited
        GEOSYNTHETICS – GLOBAL OVERVIEW
• Worldwide demand for geosynthetics is projected to rise 5.3 percent
  annually to 4.7 billion square meters in 2013.
• China, India, Russia and other countries with large-scale
  infrastructure developments planned, and evolving environmental
  protection regulations and building construction codes are
  expected to register the strongest advances.
• Geo-synthetics are especially useful in an environment of
  increasing land scarcity, increased awareness of seismic hazards,
  and need more stringent environmental regulations especially in the
  context of India.
• Strong growth in China is demonstrated by use of geosynthetics in
  almost all government sponsored/controlled projects in various
  areas while such is not the case in India.
        GEOSYNTHETICS – GLOBAL OVERVIEW

Global Scenario
• USA dominates the consumption
• China Fast Catching up
• India consumes less than 1.5%
  Geosynthetics, produced globally
• Tremendous Potential Exists in India
• Global Manufacturers like Terram, Du-
  pont, Naue focussing on Indian Market



                     India consumption ~ 1.5 % at 9 KTA
  Awareness Creation – First Step Towards Enhanced Consumption
INDIAN ROAD NETWORK




  But condition of the road?
     INDIAN ROAD NETWORK




Quality road …..means huge potential for Geo textile
    INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT
Infrastructure Scenario
• Total Investment to double in 2011-12
   vis-à-vis 2007-08, Projected to cross
   500,000Cr
• 2009-10 Govt. to spend Rs. 60000Cr
   only for up-gradation of Roads
• Private Sector Investment in Roads to
   cross 35% by 2011-12
• The Eleventh Five Year Plan has a
   special focus on Rural Infrastructure
   Development

                    Opportunities for Geosynthetics
GEOSYNTHETICS – REGULATION NEED IN INDIA
• In view of large potential for cost savings, environmental protection,
  safety, economic and social importance of geo-synthetics in the
  infrastructural development in India and the environmental
  protection by their use, it is essential that their use is made
  mandatory in India just like mandatory regulation of fly ash or
  iodized salt, specially in the following areas:
   – All highways, expressways and coastal roads, reinforcement with
     geosynthetics must be mandatory when the CBR ratio is ≤ 3.5.
   – In rural road construction as these are repaired / reconstructed after a
     prolonged period.
   – All coastal roads embankments which are on soft soil foundation, use of
     geosynthetics must be mandatory.
• The BOT system, needs be modified to DBOT to give emphasis on
  the initial design of the project and the latest technology like
  geosynthetics.
       What are Geo-synthetics ?
• Geo-synthetics are synthetic products, where at
  least one of the components is made from a
  synthetic or natural polymer, in the form of a sheet,
  a strip or a three dimensional structure, non-woven,
  knitted, or woven which is used in contact with
  soil/rock and/or other materials in geotechnical and
  civil engineering applications .
• These include:
   – Planar structures (geomembranes, geotextiles,
     geosynthetic barriers, geonets, geogrids, geostrips,
     geospacers and geomats, etc.) and
   – Three-dimensional structures (geocells, geofoams,
     gabions and concrete filled mattresses).
     POLYMERS USED IN GEOSYNTHETICS

Chemically linked large molecules of carbon atoms with
  hydrogen or other atoms attached
Polypropylene
Polyethylene
Polyester
Polyamide
Polystyrene
Poly Vinyl Chloride
  PP/Polyester /PE Geosynthetics – Most widely used across the Globe (more than
  95 percent)
    GEOSYNTHETICS AREAS OF Application
• In Roads and Pavements:
   – Subgrade separation and Stabilization,
   – Base Reinforcement,
   – Overlay Stress Absorption and Reinforcement.
• In Subsurface Drainage:
   – Subgrade dewatering,
   – Road base drainage,
   – Structure drainage.
• In Erosion and Sediment Control
   – Hard Armor Systems, Silt Fence.
• In Reinforced Soil Systems:
   – Embankments over soft foundations,
   – Reinforced Steepened slopes,
   – Reinforced soil walls.
• In Seepage control systems
   – Structure water proofing,
   – Environmental Protection.
• In Support Systems:
   – Prefabricated Systems and On-site Fabrication
                   Advantages of Geo-synthetics
•   Cheaper in poduct cost, transport and installation.
•   Can be designed (predictability)
•   Can be installed quickly with flexibility to construct during short period.
•   Consistent over a wide range of soils
•   Space Savings
•   Material Quality Control - More homogeneous than soil and aggregates.
•   Better Construction Quality Control at site
• Easy Material Deployment
• Less Environmentally Sensitive
• Improved performance and extended life
• Increased safety factor
• Compatible with field conditions
• Increased service life of flexible pavement section by a factor of 2.5 to 3.0 for
  weak subgrades (CBR 2%) and by 2.0 to 3.3 for moderate subgrades (CBR 4.2 to
  4.5%)
• Increase in allowable load bearing capacity by 40 to 50% for subgrade CBR>3 and
  well over 50% for subgrade CBR<3
     Economic Importance of Geosynthetics

• Commonly accepted as durable, long lasting and
  environmentally safe solutions to geotechnical engineering
  projects.
• The cost of geo-synthetics applied usually between 3 to 5
  per cent of the total cost of projects.
• For a number of projects, savings of 30 per cent in total
  project costs have been reported.
• Minimizes the regular repair and maintenance costs
  directly.
• Prevent accidents, increase efficiency of structures,
  minimize pollution and leads to efficient use of natural
  resources.
      Environmental Importance of Geosynthetics

• The civil engineering structures need to have long term durability to
  prevent potential ecological disasters (floods, draughts,
  earthquakes, global warming) . Geosynthetics provide such long
  lasting solutions with minimum cost.
• Geo-techs are difficult or impossible to degrade. However, in view of
  their inert nature they can be disposed off without the danger of
  contamination.
• Geosynthetics assist the environment by acting as a containing
  barrier for toxic materials.
• The envisaged functional lifetime of geosynthetics is extremely
  long, in many cases over 100 years.
• Geosynthetics provide sealing and capping of pollution due to
  chemicals released after road and rail accidents into groundwater
  areas.
      Geosynthetics -National / International
                Regulation
• Worldwide, approx. 40 countries have legislation/regulations (GRI Report).
• In Europe, the Construction Products Directive (89/106/EEC ; M/107) has to
  be followed and the use of geo-textiles is mandatory.
•  In Japan, the Government Directive applies to landfill construction sites.
• In the US, many Govt agencies (fedral and state) have mandated the use of
  geo-synthetics in many applications. e.g. the use of silt fence fabrics for
  erosion and sediment control. US Environmental Protection Agency has
  mandated use of geo-synthetics in landfills (under Resource Conservation
  and Recovery Act). Also, in many applications geo-textiles are specified
  by govt agencies as the best product.
• Similarly California State has mandated the use of asphalt overlay over
  existing roadway.
• It is essential that their use is made mandatory in India in order to
  have increased efficiency with potential large cost saving, safety of
  structures and minimum environmental pollution including large saving of
  natural resources .
    MAIN ROADBLOCKS FOR INCREASING USAGES OF
              GEOSYNTHETICS IN INDIA
• Lack of desired legislation
• Lack of required standards on geosynthetic products as well as on
  design, construction and installation guidelines
• Lack of policy / regulatory initiatives by the central and state
  governments
• Lack of awareness of standards and guidelines by the site
  engineers / field staff
• Lack of national certifying and accreditation agencies for
  geosynthetics in the country
• Lack of R&D facilities
• Incompleteness of existing standards and guidelines
                 Geo-synthetics Standards
•   ASTM Standards
•   ISO standards (ISO/TC221)
•   Indian standards (BIS)
•   AASHTO standards
•   FHWA standards
•   NORDIC guidelines
•   British Standards
•   International Geosynthetic Society standards (IGS)
•   Geosynthetic Research Institute (GRI)
•   Geosynthetic Materials Association (GMA)
•   US Provinvcial standards
•   Industrial Fabrics Association International (IFAI)
•   Geo-synthetica
•   International Erosion Control Association (IECA)
•   European Center For Standardization (CEN)
             AIMS OF STANDARDS
•   Interchangeability
•   Variety Control
•    Fitness for Purpose
•   Compatibility
•   Safety
•   MAXIMUM OVERALL ECONOMY IN TERMS OF:
    – COST
    – HUMAN EFFORT
    – CONSERVATION OF RESOURCES
    RESULT:
    – POSSIBLE SOLUTION TO RECURRING PROBLEMS
    – DEFINITION OF THE QUALITY LEVEL OF PRODUCTS
    TECHNICAL COMMITTEE
          STRUCTURE
        (Members From)


       Manufacturer
         Manufacturer
       s s
                               BASIC APPROACH
                                Consensus Principle

   Consumers, Government
 Consumers, Government          Balanced Committee
   Departments
 Departments                         Structure


 Technologists , Regulating
Technologists , Regulating
 Authorities, Testing
Authorities, Testing
 Laboratories, Consultants,
Laboratories, Consultants,
 Universities, Other Experts
Universities, Other Experts
  BIS/IRC/RDSO STANDARDS ON GEOSYNTHETICS
• BIS standards mainly on test methods, jute & coir geotextiles,
  PVC / HDPE geomembrane for waterproof lining (IS 14715:2000;
  IS 14986:2001; IS 15869:2008; IS 15871:2009;IS 15909:2010; and
  IS 15910:2010 Geosynthetics for highways)
• IRC standards mainly on recommended practices/guidelines and
  are being revised to include geosynthetics
• IRC/RDSO standards generally do not refer BIS standards and
  requirements of geosyntheics in both are at large variation.
• Geosynthetic specifications mentioned in IRC/RDSO standards
  are generally incomplete.
• BIS standards are also incomplete w.r.t. guidelines for design,
  construction, installation and storage which are essential to get
  the best results of geosynthetic applications.
• There appears no proper coordination between IRC and BIS
• Standards activity in IRC/RDSO is not universally acceptable and
  needs drastic changes to include all stakeholders
EUROPEAN AND INTERNATIONAL GEOTEXTILE
 STANDARDS - FUNCTIONS AND APPLICATION
EUROPEAN AND INTERNATIONAL
   GEOTEXTILE STANDARDS
          REQUIREMENTS OF GEOSYNTHETICS
• General Properties                Index Properties
   – Material Type & Construction   Strip tensile strength (2% & 5%
                                    strain and ultimate tensile strength)
   –   Polymer(s)                   Grab strength
   –   Mass                         Creep resistance
   –   Thickness                    Flexural strength
   –   Roll dimensions              Cutting - Trapezoidal tear strength
   –   Specific Gravity             Shear modulus
   –   Absorption                   Poisson’s ratio
                                    Burst Strength
                                    Puncture Resistance
                                    Penetration
                                    Flexibility (Flexural Strength)
                »
        REQUIREMENTS OF GEOSYNTHETICS
Endurance Properties                     Hydraulic Properties
–   Abrasion Resistance                  Apparent Opening Size (AOS),
–   UV Stability                         Percent Open Area, Porosity
–   Biological Resistance                Permeability / Permittivity
–   Chemical Resistance                  Soil Retention Ability
–   Wet/Dry Stability                    Clogging Resistance
–   Temperature Stability                In-Plane Flow Capacity
–   Long term durability
Performance – Soil / Fabric Properties
–   Stress - Strain
–   Creep
–   Friction/Adhesion
–   Dynamic and Cycling Loading
–   Soil Retention
–   Filtration
           Parameters for Geo-synthetic Selection


• Geosynthetic Specification should also cover:
   –   Material Selection
   –   Designing of Geosynthetic
   –   Functional Requirements
   –   Application and Performance Requirements
   –   Durability Requirements
   –   Survivability Requirements
   –   Required Geosynthetic Structural and Integrity Properties
   –   Storage, handling and installation requirements
THANK YOU
    FOR
 ATTENTION

				
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posted:4/11/2014
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