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INTEGRATED PRODUCT AND PROCESS DEVELOPMENT

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INTEGRATED PRODUCT AND PROCESS DEVELOPMENT Powered By Docstoc
					INTEGRATED PRODUCT AND PROCESS
  DEVELOPMENT IMPLEMENTATION:
      A SYSTEMS APPROACH
                Suren N. Dwivedi, Ph.D., P.E.
                   Chair in Manufacturing
               University of Louisiana,Lafayette
                        LA-70506,USA



                         Presented at:
    International Conference on Responsive Manufacturing,
                    26-28 June, Gaziantep,
                          TURKEY
PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT: A WHOLESOME APPROACH
      What is System Engineering (SE)?


• It partly depends on whom you ask
• SE is the formidable part of the
  engineering art (Igenbergs)
• SE is a course of procedure for a well-directed
  and systematic formation of complex
  systems, based on special models of thinking
  and fundamental principles
       The Rise of Market Quality
• Where we started: a craft-based foundation
• The next step: mass production facilitated
  measurement, inspection and interchangeable
  components
• And the next: statistics allowed for sample,
  process control, and some quality control
• And then: Total quality control affected every
  aspect of manufacturing and nonmanufacturing
• And, finally: The 21st century, which promises to
  meet the 3-way ideal of any manufacturing (1)
  quality, (2) speed, and (3) economy
            SYSTEM LIFE CYCLE

• System definition stage
• Preliminary design stage
• Detailed design stage
• Fabrication, assembly, integration, and test
  (FAIT) stage
• Production and customer support stage
• Termination and disposal stage
SURVIVAL OF THE FITTEST
RAPIDLY CHANGING TECHNOLOGY
DIVERSIFIED CUSTOMER NEEDS
NO “PASS THE BUCK” TEAM APPROACH
           ACHIEVING AFFORDABILITY

• What affordable technology does:
   • Fits customer budgets comfortably.
   • Meets or exceeds customer needs efficiently.
   • Fits manufacturer budgets by incorporating the
     following elements:
      (1) ongoing evaluation of technological development
         activities and related cost drivers
      (2) using prototypes and technological advancement to
         economize
      (3) maintaining close contact with program offices.
                 NEED OF HOUR
• Optimization of resources
• Federal government and corporate America
  making mutual progress
• Change to more secular and user friendly system
• Work together to reduce cost and market time and
  increase quality and productivity
• Avoid negative impact on environment
• Increase safety and acknowledge global
  competition
        WHAT IPPD MEANS

   TRANSFORMS BUSINESS PROCESS



INTEGRATES DEVELOPMENT OF PRODUCTS
      AND ASSOCIATE PROCESSES
       The Force Behind IPPD

•   DISCIPLINE
•   MULTIDISCIPLINE
•   DISCIPLINED PROCESSES
•   MULTIDISCIPLINE TEAMS
WORKING AS A TEAM
TEAM LEADERS: THE CHANGING ROLE
SHARE THE CREDITS
COMMUNICATION
            IPPD TEAM INTERESTS
•   Customers
•   Suppliers
•   Manufacturers
•   Engineering (design, software, hardware,
    components, and process)
•   Tools
•   Services
•   Management
•   Miscellaneous (safety, environment, testing)
      PULLING IT ALL TOGETHER

• Multidiscipline teams use integrated
  ingredients to enable disciplined
  processes within complementary schedule
     Nineteen Parts of Concurrent Engineering:
               Synchronized Wheel Set
• First wheel of integrated product and process
  organization: 4 M’s
   – Define types of information, complexity of tasks,
      degree of incompleteness, timing of decision making,
      order of decision making, communication mechanism
• Second wheel of integrated product development:
• 7C’s -collaboration, commitment, communication,
  compromise, consensus, continuous improvement and
  coordination.
• 3P’s - policies, practice and procedure
• 4M’s - money, machine, manpower, management
                                     Synchronized Set of CE Wheels

             Product
                             Manufacturing
            Realization
                             Competitiveness
            Taxonomy
                    Cooperative
   The Whole        Work-groups         Life-cycle
   System                              Management
               Virtual       Personnel
               Team Models Team
                       Methods,
                      Metrics, and
                       Measures
Information Logical                       Process
             Team           Technology                               Intelligent   Concurrent
Modelling                              Reengineering
                              Team                                  Information    Function
                                                                      System       Deployment
                                                         Decision          Life-cycle       CE Metrics
            System              CE
                                                         Support          Mechanization    and Measures
          Engineering        Techniques
                                                         Systems
                                                                            Models,
                                                                            Methods,
                                                                           Metrics and
        Integrated Product and Process
                                                                            Measures
          Organization (PPO) Wheel                     Capturing
                                                       Life-cycle                           Total Value
                                                        Intent          IPD Deployment
                                                                                            Management
                                                                          Methodology

                                                                                   Product
                                                               Frameworks and      Development
                                                               Architectures       Methodology


                                                              Integrated Product Development
                                                                        (IPD) Wheel
             WHAT IS A PDT ?
 • Cradle-to-grave approach of working
   together on every aspect
 • Cost, performance, support system, and
   customer relationship
• Optimal scheduling to streamline design,
   manufacturing, and distribution of the
   product
 • Early influences on product design goes to
   early maturity of design, manufacturing,
   and procurement processes
Typical Composition of Each Team                               network
                                                            Agents-based concept
                                       decomposition
                                                            functional inference network
                                                               receiving agents
                                   systematization
                                                               requesting agents
                           interface development                        affecting agents
                                                                           services on the network
                           unification           Logical       Virtual           brokerage agents
                                                  Team          Team
                    common systems                                                client/server mode
                                                       Product
                       standards                                                  computer-based tools
                                                     Development
                                                     Team (PDT)
                    R&D                               Manager                          marketing
                                                                  Personnel          concept
                  strategic team             Technology             Team          quality assurance
                    software                 Team                                 engineering
                                                                                  design
                     hardware                                         Manufacturing/assembly
                       engineering                           production engineering and
                                                             planning
                           materials
                                                               prototyping
                               process quality                 management control
                                   communication               delivery support
                                           fabrication       sales and service




                                                         Logical Virtual
                                                         Team     Team
                                                       Technology
                                                       Team Personnel
                                                              Team
    WHAT EXACTLY DO IPPD TEAMS DO?

• Seek participation from all disciplines
• Produce and implement an integrated
       management plan (IMP)
• Apply IPPD techniques to new production
  contracts
• Take responsibility for the cost and cycle of
  product development
• Make a concerted effort to do the job right the
  first time
            IPPD DEPLOYMENT

IPD development methodology employs
fundamental CE characteristic like:
* Re-engineering
* System engineering
* Product realization
* Integrated product development
* Total value management
       THE TEN COMMANDMENTS OF IPPD

I. Define problems          VI. Define products and
II. Organize teams             processes
III. Establish              VII. Perform value
    requirements               analysis/engineering
IV. Create product system      (VA/VE)
    alternatives            VIII. Develop products
V. Refine the best design      and processes
    alternative             IX. Production
                            X. Continuous process
                                    improvements
                               (CPI)
                                       A-plan 1


            A-plan 10                                            A-plan 2
                                           Define
                                           Problems
                        Continuous
                        Process                          Organize
                        Improvements                     Teams
                        (CPI)
A-plan 9
                                                                            A-plan 3
              Production                                       Establish
                                         CE
                                                               Requirements
                                       7Ts,4Ms,
             Develop Products          3Ps, etc.             Create Product
             & Processes                                     System
                                                             Alternatives   A-plan 4
A-plan 8
                    Perform Value
                    Analysis/                         Refine the Best
                    Engineering                       Design
                     (VA/VE)      Define Products     Alternative
           A-plan 7               and Processes                                 LEGEND
                                                              A-plan 5
                                                                                    Starting of an
                                                                                    activity plan
                                                                                    Ending of an
                                       A-plan 6                                     activity plan


               Ten Commandments of IPD Implementation
1. Define Problems

• Understand market need and opportunities
• Define objectives, milestone, measurement
  criteria, and success factor
• Receive specific customer needs and
  expectations
• Obtain marketing and technology plans
• Develop project plans.
                                            Objects




                                  Flow-chart or
                                 Block Diagram
                                                  Parametric
                                                  or
                      Context Diagram,            Solid Models
                      Fishbone Diagram



                      Bond                         Analytical    Conventional
                                  Conceptual
                      Graph                         Model         CAD/CAM
                                    Model
                                                                   Models
             Schematic
              Diagram
                                                                                Equations or
Freehand                                  Physical Model
                                                                                Spreadsheet
Sketch or
Drafting
            Paper or Cardboard         Stereolithography              Experimental
                  Model               (Rapid Prototyping)              Prototyping




            Various Methods of Representing Objects
Knowledge-based Computer System
      2. Organize Work Groups in PDT

•   Start the 1-track, 2-track, and 3-track
•   rack concurrent loops
•   Needed expertise of work groups in PDT
•   Reasonable work schedule
•   Set of common check points
•   Other tasks
Organize Work Groups in PDT (cont.)
• OTHER TASKS
   – Review resource requirements
   – Identify leveraging opportunities
   – Select and prioritize key projects
   – Designate a system manager
   – Form a core group
   – Identify a champion
   – Involve suppliers: original equipment
      manufacturers (OEM) and key suppliers
   – Confirm or redirect business strategies
   – Compute return on investments (ROI)
Planning               Team           Involve
     Launch the
                     Formation        Supplier
      Project
                                                        Establish
   FEASIBILITY                                          Customer
                                      Establish
       Team                            Overall         Requirement
      Selection                      Time-table
                       Economic                         Establish
                       Feasibility                     Verification     Conduct
                                                          Plan
    DESIGN                            Technical                        Competitive
                                                                        Analysis        Establish
                                      Feasibility                                                        Establish
                                                                                       Functional
      Team Selection                                                                  Requirement        Concept
                                                           Evaluate                                      Selection
                            Customer                       Present         Quantify                       Matrix        Select
    PROCESS                 Requests                      Capability                                                   Baseline         Approve
                                                                           Critical
                                                                                       Develop a                       System            Project
       Draw Process                                                        Success
                                                                                      Business Plan                                    Implementa
        Flow Chart                          Technology                     Factors
                                                                                                                                          -tion
                                             Selection
                 Establish                                     Finalize
   MANUFACTURING Process                                       Critical
    and ASSEMBLY Capability                                    Success      Develop the
                                           Finalize                         Action Plan Establish Bill
                                                               Factors
                                           Supplier                                     of Materials
        Prototype                                                                                                                            Product
                                           Selection                                                                      Design           Engineering
        Production                                             Process                                       Conduct    Assessments
                                                             Engineering       Select                        System
                       Manufacturing                                         Candidate                       FMEA                              Release
                                                                                                                       Specification
                        Ramp-up                                               Process                                      and
                                                                                                                                               Design
                                             Production                                   Pilot test                      Design
                                            Reengineering                                                    Conduct
                                                                                                             System                          Select
                                                                                                             DFMA                           Baseline
                                                               Begin Mass                                                                   System
                                                              Manufacturing

           Activities and Metrics Associated with Each Loop of the IPPD Process
                                             Program Timing Schedule



             Concept/Directional
Inception        Approval                           Program
                                                    Approval
 Mission

                            Fea-
 Planning                   sibili                                    Design                   Operation and
                             -ty            De-                       Freeze                   Control
                                           sign
              Design                       Loop                                Piloting
   Mission
   Requirements                                                Pro-                       Process
                                                                                                                      Product
                                                               cess                       Freeze
                 Process                                                                                              Support
                                                               Loop                                      Production
                                                                                   Pro-                   Release
              Concept                                                              duction
              Development              Production                                  Loop
                                                                                                        Mfg..              Finish
                       Engineering          Manufacturing                                               Loop
                                             Assembly

                                                                        Delivery and Service




                                     Concurrent Function Deployment (CFD)

                       Overall Product Design and Development (PDD) Process
                                           Tds


                                     Design Synthesis
  Product
                                          Loop
Specification
                Tfs                                                 Tpp
                        Feasibility
                                    Product Management   Process
                        Synthesis
                                         Half-cycle      Planning
                                                           Loop
                                         CE
                                       TEAMS


                  Manufacturing Process Management Process
                  Synthesis Loop     Half-cycle    Execution
                Tms                                  Loop            Tpe
Artifact
                                       Production
                                     Synthesis Loop




                                          Tps

                      A State of Transformation Through 3-Track Loops
                                      Product Synthesis Loop Management
             Knowledge                                             Requirements


                                               Corrector
             Product Breakdown                                           Performance
                                                                          Performance
             Structure (PtBS)                                            Design, DFX
                                                                          Design, DFX
             Tree
                                                                                             Outputs
                            Inputs

                            Experimental         Trade-off          Product                 Developmental
              Data            Baseline           analysis        Synthesis Loop               Baseline
               Data                               Model
 Internal &External Data
                             Product Process                                              •Design Feedback/
  Product characteristics                                    Constraints
Business Parameters(WBS)     Costing Structure                                                approval
             Process         (PCS) Tree                                User Insight         •Process data
                                                                         Vendor          •Manufacturing Plan
                                                                        capability       •Process Documents
                   Process/Work
                Breakdown Structure        Risk Schedule and quality                         •Tool Cost
                    (PsBS) Tree                                     •Purchase Parts
                                                                  •Process constraints
                                                     Predictor
                                 Process Synthesis Loop Management
      Knowledge                                              Requirements


                                         Corrector
      Product Breakdown
                                                                 Supportability
                                                                  Supportability
      Structure (PtBS)
      Tree
                                                                                   Outputs
                       Inputs

                       Development       Cost/Benefit         Process              Production
      Data               Baseline        Verification      Synthesis Loop           Baseline
       Data                                Model

Data/Work Breakdown     Product Process                 Constraints
 Structure(WBS) Tree    Costing Structure
      Process           (PCS) Tree                               Capital
                                                             Funding Vendor
                                                              Deliverables
            Process/Work
         Breakdown Structure         Risk Schedule and quality
             (PsBS) Tree

                                               Predictor
                Production Synthesis Loop Management
Knowledge                                         Requirements


                              Corrector
Product Breakdown                                       Production
                                                         Production
Structure (PtBS)                                       Requirements
                                                        Requirements
Tree
                                                                       Outputs
            Inputs

            Production        Cost/Benefit        Production           Manufacturing
Data         Baseline          Tracking         Synthesis Loop           Baseline
 Data
                                Model
             Product Process                 Constraints
             Costing Structure
Process      (PCS) Tree
                                                   Production
                                                   Constraints
     Process/Work          (e.g., SPC, Feedback to
  Breakdown Structure    Design, Manufacturing Data,
      (PsBS) Tree          Collection and Control)

                                    Predictor
Transformation Process: A Process Taxonomy
                                                                                  Functional   Ecological
                                                                                  Safety       Aesthetic
                                                                                  Economic     Regulatory
       Scientific          Empirical                                              Ergonomic
       Statutory           Technological
       Social/Cultural     Environmental                                          Identified Requirements,
                                                                                  Needs and Directions
                         Knowledge                                                   Requirements
   C
                            Ki                                                            Ri
   U
   S
                                                Inputs                                                               Outputs
   T                     Data                     Ii                     Transformation
                                                                                                                       Oi
   O                      Di                                                   Ti
   M                                                                                                             Modified State
                           Process
   E                         Pi                                             Constraints
   R                                                                           Ci
   S                                                                Social           Technological
               Business                    Tools
                                                                    Political        Ecological
               Communication               Organization
                                                                    Economic         Legal
               Domain                      Technology
                                                                    Random
               Infrastructure              Teams
                                                                                               {Si} = Union of [{Ii}, {ri}, {Ci}]
                                                                                               {Ii} = F [{Di}, {Ki}, {Pi}]
LEGEND:
                                                                                               [Ti] {Si} = {Oi}
                                                                      Personnel
                                                                                               Teams = U (Tpi, Tli, Tti, Tvi)
Ki = Knowledge description at state i                                   (Tpi)
Ri = Requirements at state i
Ci = Constraints at state i                               Virtual                 Logical
Pi = Process at state i                                    (Tvi)                    (Tli)
Ii = Inputs at state i
Oi = Outputs at state i                                             Technological
Ti = Transformation function at state i                                 (Tti)
Si = Specifications at state i
       3. Establish Requirements
• Review warranty, field cost, and capacity data
• Identify feasible product and process
  technologies
• Steps involved:
   – Background research or investigation
   – Competitive tasks
   – Competitive analysis
Establish Requirements (cont.)
• Benchmark for:
   – Function, feature, cost, weight, investment
• Requirements for technical performance
• Requirements for customer satisfaction
• Create consolidated requirements
• Establish a product verification plan
• Determine performance gaps
• Validate concept requirements
• Establish the concept selection matrix
• Obtain management approval of functional requirements
  and plans
         Functional Design of an Intelligent Modeling System

                                         Requirements Models


          Parts       Mfg..   Process      Tools’     Production     Mfg.       Assembly Inspection
          Parts     Processes Planning                               Plans        Plans    Plans
                                           Library    Scheduling


                                  Cognitive                           Models                          Outputs
     Knowledge
                                                    Drawings                                   Production Rate
Inputs                                              Geometry                                  Utilization/Machine
                                                Sectional Property                                 Efficiency
    Raw Material            Product                                          Process              Performance
                                                 (vol., CG., etc.)
         Parts              Models                Performance                Models                 Measures
   Work Contents                                   Constraints
       Priorities                                  Perspectives

                                   Cognitive                          Models
        Process

           Waste                                          Material    Temp.                   Load/
                     Reliability Inspection     Pallets                            Stations
           Mgmt.                                          Handling    Storage                 Unload

                                              Enterprise Models
                Taxonomy Based on Value Characteristics (VCs)

                                             Value Characteristics



  Quality               X-ability          Tools and             Costs                Responsiveness      Infrastructure
Functionality         (Performance)       Technology

     System               Simplicity              Workstation            Production          Fast-to-Market Organization
                                                                         -Materials          -Schedule
     Subsystems           Producibility            Tools                 -Manpower                          Management
                                                                                             -Manufacture
                                                   Information                                Transportation
     Components           Reliability                                    Capital
                                                   Modernization         -Machines           -Maintenance      Human
     Parts                Assembly                                       -Equipment          -Disposal
                                                   Integration                                                 Factors
                                                                         -Computers                            -Safety
     Materials,etc.      Recyclability                                                        Methodology
                                                                          Warranty                             -Ergonomics
     Common               Other                    Other Tools                                                 -Aesthetics
                                                                          -Repair
     Representation       X-ability                                       -Maintenance                         -Value System
                                                                                              Concurrency
     and Standards                                                        -Field Support
                                                                          Operating                            Supplier/
                                                                          -In use              Automation      Contractor
                                                                          -Energy
                                                                          Salvage
                                                                                               Flexibility
                                                                          Hidden Costs
                             Product Planning Activities Flowchart
               CE Team

     Select Project            Whats
       and Team

VOC              Develop Customer Requirements
                                                        Whats
               (Basic Performance and Excitement)
Product Data
                            Organize Customer Requirements        Whats Vs.
                             (Critical, Affinity Groups, etc.)     Whats


                                         Correlation between/among
                                          Customer Requirements                Hows
         Results of Surveys
                                      Establish Product Design Requirements
       Warranty and Field Data                                                       Hows
                                        Establish Functional Requirements
                                                                                            Whats Vs. Hows
                   Classify/Prioritize Product Value Characteristics (VCs) w.r.t. Whats

                                                                                                 Hows
                                               Correlation between/among VCs (the Roof)           Vs.
                                                                                                 Hows
                        Product Planning Activities Flowchart (cont.)

Determine Areas for
Further Refinements

Finalize Target Value
                           Hows Vs.
Technical Importance      How-muches
   Ratings (TIRs)

                             Benchmark
   How-muches                                       Whats Vs.
                            Target Values            Whys


                             Correlational Matrix

                                                           Degree of Technical Difficulty
                                              Whys
                                                                Quality/Warranty History


                                             Competitive Evaluation

                                       Customer Importance Ratings (CIRs)
    4. Create Product System Alternatives

• Eliminate negative points of the strongest design
  concept or
• Generate a new design idea that is
  inherently superior to previous design
• Steps involved:
   – Identify small system and component sourcing
     requirements
   – Identify candidate sub-systems
   – Select the best alternative construction
   – Generate preliminary part list
4. Create Product System Alternatives (cont.)

 • Model a preliminary system concept
 • Establish process capability
 • Perform system analysis
    – Perform FMEA and complete related
      documentation
    – Identify process requirements
    – Develop material to feature specifications
    – Perform sensitivity and trade-off analysis
    – Perform an alternative manufacturing process
      analysis
5. Refine the Best Design Alternative
• The team verifies the feasibility of the best design
  alternative from a technical and economic
  standpoint
• Draw a process flow chart
• Finalize sub-system specifications
• Conduct a sub-system FMEA and DFMA analysis
• Build alternative concept replica (software
  prototype)
• Conduct a program team review
• Concurrent function deployment filtering
• Concept alternative selection
Automated Concurrent Engineering
Concurrent Function Deployment Filtering




 Quality
 Functionality
 X-abilities
                   Concurrent Function Deployment
 Cost
 Responsiveness
 Infrastructure
 Others


                      Filtering the Value Characteristics (VCs)
6. Define Elements of Product and Processes
• Finalize systems specification
• Conduct a system FMEA and DFMA
• Conduct CFD production planning III analysis
• Process concept selection matrix
• Finalize engineering and manufacturing criteria
• Refine the manufacturing process design
  proposal
• Confirm manufacturing capability
• Finalize supplier selection
• Develop a process validation plan
  7. Perform Value Analysis or Engineering

• VALUES DEFINITIONS
  – VALUES ANALYSIS
     • A problem or opportunity involving
       managerial and administrative systems
       analysis as the principle in its resolution
       (people-oriented)
  – VALUES ENGINEERING
     • A problem or opportunity involving the
       physical sciences as the principle
       discipline in its resolution (product-
       oriented)
7. Perform Value Analysis or Engineering (cont.)

• Establish a value for that function or service
   – List sources of variations
   – Identify values-added activities
   – Develop fish-bone diagrams
• Seek creative ideas and evaluate or investigate
   –   Evaluate an improved process
   –   Redesign ideas process
   –   Define an ideal situation
   –   Choose an optimal process
8. Develop Production-Intent Products and Processes


  •   Finalize the best design or process objectives
  •   Select manufacturing sources
  •   Establish process capability for critical items
  •   Complete validation plan:
       – Manufacturing process design
       – Financial
       – Manufacturing facilities
       – Product intent design
The Role of Rapid Prototyping in Product and Process Development
9. Production
• Order production equipment and tooling
• Qualify production equipment and tooling at
  the supplier’s facility
• Order production material and purchase
  charts
• Install production equipment and tooling at
  the manufacturing facilities
• Run a production schedule
• Perform production part verification
10. CONTINUOUS PROCESS IMPROVEMENT

•   Targets for a future row of tasks
•   R&D row of tasks
•   Quality network row of tasks
•   Other rows of tasks
Targets for Future                Competitive                   Customer
(next generation of               Analysis and                 Satisfaction           Field Testing and Evaluation
     products)                     Planning                    Report Card



                       Research and Development (R&D)


 Potential Resources            Candidate 7Ts            Next Generation
                             Feature Combination         Product Design           Pilot Line
    7Ts, Product
                               (Task X, Tool Y,           Development          Characterization
       values
  and Organization            Technology Z,...)           and Delivery
                                                          (PD3) System                                 Next Generation
                                                                                      Pilot 1           of Production
                                                                                    (A,B,C,*,)           Process and
                                                                                                            Product
                                                                                                       Characterization:
                   Quality Network                           Compromise                                    (Task=X
           (In-process Monitoring Methods)                  Next Generation           Pilot 2
                                                                                                        Technology=B
                                                                                    (X,Y,Z,*,)
                                                                                                            Tool=C
                                                                                                              …..
                                                                                                         Technique=*
                             Existing 7Ts Feature                                    Pilot 3
     Current                 Combination (Task A,       Current Production          (A,B,Z,*)
  Production Part                   Tool B              Plan, Facilities and
                              Technology C,…,*)             Directions              Limited
                                                                                   Production
                                                                                                    Remaining
                                                                                                    Phases




                                 Cycle of Continuous Improvement
The steadfast company wins the race along with continuous improvement
An innovative jump to newer technology is needed for faster growth
THANK YOU

				
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