THE FACTORS WHICH DETERMINE AN ORGANISM’S PHENOTYPE PROKARYOTES PROTOCTISTS FUNGI PLANTS ANIMALS Cell Biology Biochemistry Physiology Genes & Genetics Ecology Gas Exchange & Nutrition Homeostasis & Coordination & Reproduction & Transport Excretion Movement Growth Cell Biochemistry Physiology Genes & Ecology Biology Genetics Enzymes coded for by genes determined by genes inherited Environment determine chemical genes& adapted by from parents via affects phenotype reactions which affect how natural selection -this meiosis e.g. size of limpets an organism looks e.g. affects phenotype genes contribute pigments exchange surface to 'genotype' & limits size so affect transport of gases phenotype limits size + shape Intro: phenotype=characteristics of organism we see or detect =affected by (1) genotype (2) environment, & their interactions with one another. =e.g. height, eye colour, ABO blood group, presence or absence of cystic fibrosis. Para 1: Enzymes coded for by genes determine chemical reactions which affect how an organism looks or works e.g. pigments. Lung protein in cystic fibrosis. Para 2: genes inherited from parents via meiosis, contribute to genotype & so affect phenotype. Para 3: Interaction of genes e.g. blood groups Para4: Environmental effects: as organism adapts to suit environment better, via natural selection, phenotype (size & shape) changes. E.g. limpets Hence effect of environment. Para 5: food source available in environment affects phenotype, e.g. protein needed for tissue & cell growth, so more protein available, more probably taken up by organism, greater growth. Link this to digestive enzymes organism has (dependent on genes), this limits ability to use nutrients & so affects efficiency & growth. Conc: summary of environmental factors & genotype effect on phenotype. Importance of lots combinations of genes as expressed in phenotype-variation-population more likely to survive disease etc..
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